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See detailSocioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2015), 14(132), 1-12

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. Method. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Results. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Discussion. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such as familial orientation play a considerable role in explaining steepness of the health gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailLe destin des générations. Structure sociale et cohortes en France du XXe siècle aux années 2010
Chauvel, Louis UL

Book published by Presses Universitaires de France - 2e édition (19 août 2014) (2014)

Les hasards de l'année de naissance marquent le destin des générations. Deux guerres entrecoupées d'une crise économique majeure, une reprise de trente ans, un ralentissement depuis trois décennies, tel ... [more ▼]

Les hasards de l'année de naissance marquent le destin des générations. Deux guerres entrecoupées d'une crise économique majeure, une reprise de trente ans, un ralentissement depuis trois décennies, tel est le legs inégalement partagé de l'histoire sociale du XXe siècle français. Les générations nées avant 1920 subirent un sort difficile. Les suivantes, nées jusqu'en 1950, qui connurent les Trente Glorieuses au temps de leur jeunesse, ont rencontré un destin collectif inespéré : multiplication des diplômes sans dévalorisation, forte mobilité sociale ascendante, salaires et revenus rapidement croissants, meilleure protection sociale, etc. Avec la crise, cette dynamique cesse, et souvent se retourne, pour les successeurs, arrivés trop tard dans la vie adulte. Première analyse systématique de la structure sociale à la lumière des clivages générationnels, cet essai devenu un classique souligne l'existence d'une fracture qui s'amplifie au début du XXIe siècle. Cette question est politique, car au croisement de la transformation des classes sociales et de l'avenir de l'État-providence. Pour dépasser ces périls, il faudrait construire une véritable politique des générations engageant la responsabilité de tous. [less ▲]

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See detailGenerational Inequalities and Welfare Regimes
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Social Forces (2014), 92(4), 1259-1283

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such ... [more ▼]

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such inequalities between generations are much stronger in conservative, continental European welfare states, compared to social democratic and liberal welfare states. As we show, this is because conservative welfare states expose some cohorts to high youth unemployment and make lifetime earnings dependent on a favorable entry into the labor market. We thus demonstrate that conservative welfare states have put the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown on birth cohorts that could not get stable jobs before 1975, while similar cohort inequalities are much weaker in liberal and social democratic welfare states. In these latter two welfare regimes, the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown was not put on the shoulders of some cohorts relative to others. Our analysis is the first to show which welfare regimes are more conducive to such inequalities between cohorts and what mechanisms lead to these material cohort inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailMoyennisation ou polarisation ? La dynamique des classes moyennes en France dans un monde globalisé
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Cahiers français (2014), (378), 21-27

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See detailDie Grenzen des Ausbildungsexports. Arbeitsmarktchancen Jugendlicher in Südeuropa sind besonders konjunkturabhängig
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 43(6), 4-5

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von ... [more ▼]

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von 11,9 auf 7,9 Prozent gesunken. In den südeuropäischen Ländern ist sie jedoch um ein Vielfaches gestiegen. Deswegen zu schlussfolgern, dass eine bessere Ausbildung auch die Arbeitsmarktchancen junger Südeuropäer verbessert, ist jedoch zu einfach. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline annex: problems with APC-IE and HAPC
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin UL

in European Sociological Review (2014)

This online annex to the paper http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/19078 "The Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States" is not easily available. It ... [more ▼]

This online annex to the paper http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/19078 "The Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States" is not easily available. It shows the problem of previous APC models (APC-IE and HAPC) implemented on education: they generally show individual's level of education is drastically falling with age. Better APC models exist. [less ▲]

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See detailClasses moyennes : des espèces menacées?
Chauvel, Louis UL

Article for general public (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 142 (7 UL)
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See detailWelfare Regimes, Cohorts and the Middle Classes
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Gornick, Janet C.; Jäntti, Markus (Eds.) Income Inequality : Economic Disparities and the Middle Class in Affluent Countries (2013)

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See detailStratification Sociale : grandes tendances
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Lau, Elisabeth (Ed.) Etat de la France 2013-2014 (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 117 (7 UL)
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See detailLa dynamique de la stratification sociale
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Castel, Robert; Chauvel, Louis (Eds.) Les mutations de la société française : les grandes questions économiques et sociales (2013)

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See detailLes mutations de la société française : les grandes questions économiques et sociales
Castel, Robert; Chauvel, Louis UL; et, al.

Book published by La découverte (2013)

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See detailSpecificity and Consistency of Cohort Effects: The APCD Model Applied to Generational Inequalities, France-United States, 1985-2010
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Revue Française de Sociologie (2013), 54(4), 663-703

By returning to the theoretical sources of the generational question, the importance of two central concepts, specificity and consistency of cohort effects, is emphasized and gives rise to a new APC-D ... [more ▼]

By returning to the theoretical sources of the generational question, the importance of two central concepts, specificity and consistency of cohort effects, is emphasized and gives rise to a new APC-D model and a hysteresis test designed to identify long-term cohort effects: a scarring effect, or cohortal scar. A Franco-American comparison of living standards is developed by using cohort data from 1985 to 2010 from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) and Statistics on Income and Living Conditions–Eurostat (EU-SILC). In France, net generational inequalities (taking account of demographic and educational contexts, in particular) are of the same magnitude as the inequalities linked to immigrant status; the beneficiaries being cohorts born around the year 1950. This phenomenon is not declining in intensity with time. The dynamic within the USA is its antithesis, which can be explained by differences in French and American welfare regimes. France is thus marked by deep intergenerational inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailSpécificité et permanence des effets de cohorte. Le modèle APCD appliqué aux inégalités de générations, France/États-Unis, 1985-2010
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Revue Française de Sociologie (2013), 54(4), 665-705

By returning to the theoretical sources of the generational question, the importance of two central concepts, specificity and consistency of cohort effects, is emphasized and gives rise to a new APCD ... [more ▼]

By returning to the theoretical sources of the generational question, the importance of two central concepts, specificity and consistency of cohort effects, is emphasized and gives rise to a new APCD model and a hysteresis test designed to identify long-term cohort effects : a scarring effect, or cohortal scar. A Franco-American comparison of living standards is developed by using cohort data from 1985 to 2010 from the Luxembourg income study (LIS) and Statistics on income and living conditions – Eurostat (EU-SILC). In France, net generational inequalities (taking account of demographic and educational contexts, in particular) are of the same magnitude as the inequalities linked to immigrant status ; the beneficiaries being cohorts born around the year 1950. This phenomenon is not declining in intensity with time. The dynamic within the USA is its antithesis, which can be explained by differences in French and American welfare regimes. France is thus marked by deep intergenerational inequalities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 411 (10 UL)
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See detailTowards Flexible Evolution of Dynamically Adaptive Systems
Perrouin, Gilles UL; Morin, Brice; Chauvel, Franck et al

in New Ideas & Emerging Results Track of the International Conference of Software Engineering (NIER@ICSE) (2012, June)

Modern software systems need to be continuously available under varying conditions. Their ability adapt to their execution context is thus increasingly seen as a key to their success. Recently, many ... [more ▼]

Modern software systems need to be continuously available under varying conditions. Their ability adapt to their execution context is thus increasingly seen as a key to their success. Recently, many approaches were proposed to design and support the execution of Dynamically Adaptive Systems (DAS). However, the ability of a DAS to evolve is limited to the addition, update or removal of adaptation rules or reconfiguration scripts. These artifacts are very specific to the control loop managing such a DAS and runtime evolution of the DAS requirements may affect other parts of the DAS. In this paper, we argue to evolve all parts of the loop. We suggest leveraging recent advances in model-driven techniques to offer an approach that supports the evolution of both systems and their adaptation capabilities. The basic idea is to consider the control loop itself as an adaptive system. [less ▲]

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See detailLes raisons de la peur: Les classes moyennes sont-elles protégées de la crise ?
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Revue de l'OFCE : Observations et Diagnostics Economiques (2012), 18

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See detailSocial generations and the transformation of consumption
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Ning, Wang; Davis, D.; Herpin, N. (Eds.) An Exploration into the Sociology of Consumption (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (9 UL)
See detailComparing welfare regime changes: Living standards and the unequal life chances different birth cohorts
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Tremmel, J.C. (Ed.) A young generation under pressure ? The financial situation and the "rush hour"of the cohort 1970-1985 in a generational comparison (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (11 UL)
See detailLe destin des générations, structure sociale et cohortes en France du XXe siècle aux années 2010
Chauvel, Louis UL

Book published by PUF - 1ère édition "Quadrige":2010 (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (8 UL)
See detailOvereducation and Social Generations in France: Welfare Regimes and Inter-cohort Inequalities in Returns to Education
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Attewel, P.; Newman, K.S. (Eds.) Growing Gaps: Educational Inequality Around the World (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (19 UL)