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See detailDynamics of income volatility: Evidence from Germany and the US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana UL

Scientific Conference (2015, July 15)

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See detailSocial epidemiology
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Wright, James D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical ... [more ▼]

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical evidence for the three main research strands: First, social inequalities can explain health differences. Here, we first focus on hierarchic social stratification with regard to socioeconomic and social class differences influencing health, then we extend the view towards non-hierarchic social stratification with regard to ethno-cultural differences, lifestyle, and cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. We shortly mention social relations and social network as determinants of health. Last, we use the concept of social times to distinguish age, period, and cohort effects in population health. After presenting evidence on contextual social determinants of health, we close with methodological challenges, social policy implications, and translation to practice. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of the stratification of health in more and less equal societies: The role of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2015)

Full paper in press at International Journal for Equity in Health: Chauvel, L., & Leist, A. K. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins

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See detailIncome inequality and health: Age-related health gains for those better-off, in more equal societies
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2015), 55(Suppl 2), 459-460

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See detailThe endless baby-boomer generation: Cohort differences in participation in political discussions in nine European countries in the period 1976-2008
Chauvel, Louis UL; Smits, Fransje UL

in European Societies (2015), 17(2), 242-278

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative ... [more ▼]

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative dataset (Eurobarometer 1976-2008) and of recent improvements of the APC methodology to have a better assessment of these cohort-based changes. Thereafter, we search for appropriate explanations for these cohort fluctuations with contextual elements of cohort specific socialization and life conditions. The Easterlin effect (problematic consequences of oversized birth cohort) and the economic scarcity scarring effect explanation (difficulties of socialization of cohorts that faced economic slow down at age 20) are tested. The economic explanation is better than the demographic one. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schroeder, Martin

in European Sociological Review (2015)

Do some birth cohorts monopolize lucrative positions and social transfers, so that they are unduly advantaged over others? In a world without such intercohort-inequalities, a cohort born into an economy ... [more ▼]

Do some birth cohorts monopolize lucrative positions and social transfers, so that they are unduly advantaged over others? In a world without such intercohort-inequalities, a cohort born into an economy that is, say, two percent richer, should have two percent more disposable income over its life-course. In reality however, increasing prosperity could have bypassed some birth cohorts, while others disproportionately reaped the fruits of economic growth, appropriating lucrative positions and social transfers, thereby disadvantaging other birth cohorts. We measure whether this happened for birth cohorts of the 20th century in West Germany, France and the US. We show how much belonging to a certain birth cohort influences incomes in these three countries and whether they advantage some birth cohorts while disadvantaging others. The existing literature has speculated on this question, but not answered it. This is largely due to methodological limitations, as we show below. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreases in well-being after transition to retirement for unemployed. Catching up with formerly employed persons.
Ponomarenko, Valentina UL; Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning from employment to unemployment has been found to cause an increase in depressive symptoms or decline in life satisfaction with more time spent in unemployment, it is not clear to which extent transitioning from unemployment to retirement affects well-being levels compared to retiring after being employed or economically inactive. We use two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe monitoring respondents transitioning to retirement and use life satisfaction as well-being measure. The effect of the transition is captured with a difference-in-difference like approach to test if the change in well-being after retirement is different for persons who were formerly unemployed or inactive, respectively, compared to formerly employed retirees. Results indicate that retiring from unemployment is associated with an increase in life satisfaction, but presents mainly a catching-up effect compared to employed persons transitioning to retirement. Retirement from labour market inactivity, especially sick leave, does not lead to significant changes in well-being. Findings are robust to selection into unemployment and country differences. As well-being of unemployed persons recovers after transitioning to retirement, especially the currently unemployed population should be supported to prevent detrimental consequences of economically unfavourable conditions and lower well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2015), 14(132), 1-12

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. Method. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Results. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Discussion. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such as familial orientation play a considerable role in explaining steepness of the health gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailGenerational Inequalities and Welfare Regimes
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Social Forces (2014), 92(4), 1259-1283

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such ... [more ▼]

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such inequalities between generations are much stronger in conservative, continental European welfare states, compared to social democratic and liberal welfare states. As we show, this is because conservative welfare states expose some cohorts to high youth unemployment and make lifetime earnings dependent on a favorable entry into the labor market. We thus demonstrate that conservative welfare states have put the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown on birth cohorts that could not get stable jobs before 1975, while similar cohort inequalities are much weaker in liberal and social democratic welfare states. In these latter two welfare regimes, the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown was not put on the shoulders of some cohorts relative to others. Our analysis is the first to show which welfare regimes are more conducive to such inequalities between cohorts and what mechanisms lead to these material cohort inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailMoyennisation ou polarisation ? La dynamique des classes moyennes en France dans un monde globalisé
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Cahiers français (2014), (378), 21-27

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See detailDie Grenzen des Ausbildungsexports. Arbeitsmarktchancen Jugendlicher in Südeuropa sind besonders konjunkturabhängig
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 43(6), 4-5

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von ... [more ▼]

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von 11,9 auf 7,9 Prozent gesunken. In den südeuropäischen Ländern ist sie jedoch um ein Vielfaches gestiegen. Deswegen zu schlussfolgern, dass eine bessere Ausbildung auch die Arbeitsmarktchancen junger Südeuropäer verbessert, ist jedoch zu einfach. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline annex: problems with APC-IE and HAPC
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin UL

in European Sociological Review (2014)

This online annex to the paper http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/19078 "The Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States" is not easily available. It ... [more ▼]

This online annex to the paper http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/19078 "The Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States" is not easily available. It shows the problem of previous APC models (APC-IE and HAPC) implemented on education: they generally show individual's level of education is drastically falling with age. Better APC models exist. [less ▲]

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See detailClasses moyennes : des espèces menacées?
Chauvel, Louis UL

Article for general public (2013)

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See detailWelfare Regimes, Cohorts and the Middle Classes
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Gornick, Janet C.; Jäntti, Markus (Eds.) Income Inequality : Economic Disparities and the Middle Class in Affluent Countries (2013)

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See detailStratification Sociale : grandes tendances
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Lau, Elisabeth (Ed.) Etat de la France 2013-2014 (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (7 UL)
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See detailLa dynamique de la stratification sociale
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Castel, Robert; Chauvel, Louis (Eds.) Les mutations de la société française : les grandes questions économiques et sociales (2013)

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See detailLes mutations de la société française : les grandes questions économiques et sociales
Castel, Robert; Chauvel, Louis UL; et, al.

Book published by La découverte (2013)

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See detailSpecificity and Consistency of Cohort Effects: The APCD Model Applied to Generational Inequalities, France-United States, 1985-2010
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Revue Française de Sociologie (2013), 54(4), 663-703

By returning to the theoretical sources of the generational question, the importance of two central concepts, specificity and consistency of cohort effects, is emphasized and gives rise to a new APC-D ... [more ▼]

By returning to the theoretical sources of the generational question, the importance of two central concepts, specificity and consistency of cohort effects, is emphasized and gives rise to a new APC-D model and a hysteresis test designed to identify long-term cohort effects: a scarring effect, or cohortal scar. A Franco-American comparison of living standards is developed by using cohort data from 1985 to 2010 from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) and Statistics on Income and Living Conditions–Eurostat (EU-SILC). In France, net generational inequalities (taking account of demographic and educational contexts, in particular) are of the same magnitude as the inequalities linked to immigrant status; the beneficiaries being cohorts born around the year 1950. This phenomenon is not declining in intensity with time. The dynamic within the USA is its antithesis, which can be explained by differences in French and American welfare regimes. France is thus marked by deep intergenerational inequalities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 269 (5 UL)