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See detailJeunes générations, inégalités et problèmes sociaux : chômeurs, décrocheurs, Neets, au Luxembourg et chez nos voisins
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Georges, Nathalie; Schronen, Danielle; Urbé, Robert (Eds.) Sozialalmanach Inegalitéiten 2016 (2016)

The international debate on NEETS differs from Luxembourguish realities: the problem associated with unemployment or downward mobile youth as it is described in Japan, Australia or France has no perfect ... [more ▼]

The international debate on NEETS differs from Luxembourguish realities: the problem associated with unemployment or downward mobile youth as it is described in Japan, Australia or France has no perfect equivalent in Luxembourg, where the main problem of youth integration is housing shortage and increasing difficulties to gain autonomy, issues that are exacerbated for the children of immigrants. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of income rank volatility: Evidence from Germany and the US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana

in SOEP2016 Book of Abstracts (2016)

This paper provides a methodology to compare profiles of income rank volatility over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in the marginal ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a methodology to compare profiles of income rank volatility over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in the marginal distributions, this paper proposes a framework that based on individuals’ relative position in the distribution results to be neutral to the structural changes that occur in the economy. Applying this approach to investigate rank volatility in Germany and the US over three decades, we show that while poorer individuals are the most volatile in both countries, the volatility trend of the middle class marks the difference between these two countries. [less ▲]

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See detailIs income equality also better for your cognitive health? A multilevel analysis on trajectories of cognitive function at older ages
Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

in PAA website (2016)

This paper contributes to research on contextual associations with older-age cognitive function by investigating to which extent country-level income inequality is associated with older-age cognitive ... [more ▼]

This paper contributes to research on contextual associations with older-age cognitive function by investigating to which extent country-level income inequality is associated with older-age cognitive function and decline. Data came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), providing information on cognitive function (fluency, immediate and delayed recall) of respondents aged 50-80 years coming from a total of 16 European countries that participated in at least two waves of SHARE. A total of 44,303 observations were available at first and second measurement, 13,509 observations at third measurement, and 9,736 observations at fourth measurement. Three-level hierarchical models (measurements nested within individuals nested within countries) were run, showing that income inequality was negatively associated with cognitive level but not with decline. The findings suggest that income inequality is not associated with cognitive trajectories. Mechanisms of maintaining cognitive function at older ages may not be susceptible to country-level income inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailCohort factors impinging on suicide rates in the United States, 1990-2010
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Smith, Herbert

in PAA server (2016)

We use CDC microdata on cause of death and CPS data on populations by age to create suicide rates for five-year age groups at five-year intervals, further cross-classified by race/ethnicity, education ... [more ▼]

We use CDC microdata on cause of death and CPS data on populations by age to create suicide rates for five-year age groups at five-year intervals, further cross-classified by race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. We examine the suicide history 1990-2010 of U.S. birth cohorts, net of age and cohort linear trends. These de-trended cohort deviations follow familiar patterns: most pronounced in the Baby Boom, least pronounced during the Baby Bust, they illustrate the so-called Easterlin effect. Suicide rates for women show similar patterns as suicide patterns for men. We show persistence of those effects net of micro factors (especially education and marriage) implicated in suicide behavior and correlated at the macro level with relative cohort size. Analysis of suicide patterns over time for high- and low-educated men and women shows that white men with low education face a sharp increase, significantly above the linear time trends, in suicide rates among cohorts born between 1955 and 1970. This bump is mostly unrelated to secular trends of increasing average educational attainment rates, at least if no interaction between age and cohort is involved in the explanation. No obvious pattern related to cohort size is found for African-American high- and low-educated men, which makes sense given the very different historical dynamics for this minority sub-population. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive inequalities in later life: Cross-country differences in the education-cognition gradient
Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2016), 56(S3), 428-429

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See detailDynamics of income volatility: Evidence from Germany and the US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana UL

Scientific Conference (2015, July 15)

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See detailSocial epidemiology
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Wright, James D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical ... [more ▼]

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical evidence for the three main research strands: First, social inequalities can explain health differences. Here, we first focus on hierarchic social stratification with regard to socioeconomic and social class differences influencing health, then we extend the view towards non-hierarchic social stratification with regard to ethno-cultural differences, lifestyle, and cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. We shortly mention social relations and social network as determinants of health. Last, we use the concept of social times to distinguish age, period, and cohort effects in population health. After presenting evidence on contextual social determinants of health, we close with methodological challenges, social policy implications, and translation to practice. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of the stratification of health in more and less equal societies: The role of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2015)

Full paper in press at International Journal for Equity in Health: Chauvel, L., & Leist, A. K. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins

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See detailIncome inequality and health: Age-related health gains for those better-off, in more equal societies
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2015), 55(Suppl 2), 459-460

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See detailThe endless baby-boomer generation: Cohort differences in participation in political discussions in nine European countries in the period 1976-2008
Chauvel, Louis UL; Smits, Fransje UL

in European Societies (2015), 17(2), 242-278

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative ... [more ▼]

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative dataset (Eurobarometer 1976-2008) and of recent improvements of the APC methodology to have a better assessment of these cohort-based changes. Thereafter, we search for appropriate explanations for these cohort fluctuations with contextual elements of cohort specific socialization and life conditions. The Easterlin effect (problematic consequences of oversized birth cohort) and the economic scarcity scarring effect explanation (difficulties of socialization of cohorts that faced economic slow down at age 20) are tested. The economic explanation is better than the demographic one. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schroeder, Martin

in European Sociological Review (2015)

Do some birth cohorts monopolize lucrative positions and social transfers, so that they are unduly advantaged over others? In a world without such intercohort-inequalities, a cohort born into an economy ... [more ▼]

Do some birth cohorts monopolize lucrative positions and social transfers, so that they are unduly advantaged over others? In a world without such intercohort-inequalities, a cohort born into an economy that is, say, two percent richer, should have two percent more disposable income over its life-course. In reality however, increasing prosperity could have bypassed some birth cohorts, while others disproportionately reaped the fruits of economic growth, appropriating lucrative positions and social transfers, thereby disadvantaging other birth cohorts. We measure whether this happened for birth cohorts of the 20th century in West Germany, France and the US. We show how much belonging to a certain birth cohort influences incomes in these three countries and whether they advantage some birth cohorts while disadvantaging others. The existing literature has speculated on this question, but not answered it. This is largely due to methodological limitations, as we show below. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreases in well-being after transition to retirement for unemployed. Catching up with formerly employed persons.
Ponomarenko, Valentina UL; Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning from employment to unemployment has been found to cause an increase in depressive symptoms or decline in life satisfaction with more time spent in unemployment, it is not clear to which extent transitioning from unemployment to retirement affects well-being levels compared to retiring after being employed or economically inactive. We use two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe monitoring respondents transitioning to retirement and use life satisfaction as well-being measure. The effect of the transition is captured with a difference-in-difference like approach to test if the change in well-being after retirement is different for persons who were formerly unemployed or inactive, respectively, compared to formerly employed retirees. Results indicate that retiring from unemployment is associated with an increase in life satisfaction, but presents mainly a catching-up effect compared to employed persons transitioning to retirement. Retirement from labour market inactivity, especially sick leave, does not lead to significant changes in well-being. Findings are robust to selection into unemployment and country differences. As well-being of unemployed persons recovers after transitioning to retirement, especially the currently unemployed population should be supported to prevent detrimental consequences of economically unfavourable conditions and lower well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2015), 14(132), 1-12

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. Method. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Results. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Discussion. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such as familial orientation play a considerable role in explaining steepness of the health gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailGenerational Inequalities and Welfare Regimes
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Social Forces (2014), 92(4), 1259-1283

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such ... [more ▼]

This paper uses a new age period cohort model to show that among cohorts born between 1935 and 1975, cohorts born around 1950 are significantly above the income trend in most countries. However, such inequalities between generations are much stronger in conservative, continental European welfare states, compared to social democratic and liberal welfare states. As we show, this is because conservative welfare states expose some cohorts to high youth unemployment and make lifetime earnings dependent on a favorable entry into the labor market. We thus demonstrate that conservative welfare states have put the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown on birth cohorts that could not get stable jobs before 1975, while similar cohort inequalities are much weaker in liberal and social democratic welfare states. In these latter two welfare regimes, the burden of adjustment to the post-1975 economic slowdown was not put on the shoulders of some cohorts relative to others. Our analysis is the first to show which welfare regimes are more conducive to such inequalities between cohorts and what mechanisms lead to these material cohort inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailMoyennisation ou polarisation ? La dynamique des classes moyennes en France dans un monde globalisé
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Cahiers français (2014), (378), 21-27

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See detailDie Grenzen des Ausbildungsexports. Arbeitsmarktchancen Jugendlicher in Südeuropa sind besonders konjunkturabhängig
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 43(6), 4-5

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von ... [more ▼]

Nach den aktuellsten von Eurostat harmonisierten Arbeitslosendaten für unter 25-Jährige stehen Länder mit dualen Ausbildungssystemen gut da. Die deutsche Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ist von 2007 bis 2013 von 11,9 auf 7,9 Prozent gesunken. In den südeuropäischen Ländern ist sie jedoch um ein Vielfaches gestiegen. Deswegen zu schlussfolgern, dass eine bessere Ausbildung auch die Arbeitsmarktchancen junger Südeuropäer verbessert, ist jedoch zu einfach. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline annex: problems with APC-IE and HAPC
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin UL

in European Sociological Review (2014)

This online annex to the paper http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/19078 "The Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States" is not easily available. It ... [more ▼]

This online annex to the paper http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/19078 "The Impact of Cohort Membership on Disposable Incomes in West Germany, France, and the United States" is not easily available. It shows the problem of previous APC models (APC-IE and HAPC) implemented on education: they generally show individual's level of education is drastically falling with age. Better APC models exist. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 UL)