Results 1-20 of 293.
((uid:50003275))

Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTime for a Plot Twist: Beyond Confirmatory Approaches to Binge-Watching Research
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychology of Popular Media Culture (in press)

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one ... [more ▼]

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one session). Binge-watching has now become the new normative way to consume TV shows. Nevertheless, along with its recent massive rise has come concerns about the associated mental and physical health outcomes. Currently available results suggest the potential harmfulness and even addictive nature of binge-watching. The psychological investigation of this behavior, however, is still in its infancy, with most studies using a confirmatory approach and assuming a priori its genuine addictive nature. In contrast, the current perspective paper argues the case for an exploratory approach as an initial step for conducting research on behaviors that − at first sight − look like addiction when applying a symptom-based approach. A qualitative understanding of the phenomenological characteristics of binge-watching as the foundation of an initial comprehensive discussion makes it possible to formulate hypotheses concerning its potentially addictive nature and to emphasize challenges and directions for future research. Here we propose an exploration of the dynamics of binge-watching behavior based on a model involving emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of problem binge-watching. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 226 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSocial Media as an Opportunity for Public Health Interventions: The #Metoo Movement as an Exemplar
Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL; Gomez Bravo, María; Lygidakis, Charilaos UL et al

in Journal of the International Society for Telemedicine and EHealth (2019), 7(e5), 1-7

Background: Social media have been used exponentially and globally, providing a means for billions of users to connect, interact, share opinions and criticise, becoming one of the main channels of ... [more ▼]

Background: Social media have been used exponentially and globally, providing a means for billions of users to connect, interact, share opinions and criticise, becoming one of the main channels of communication for users around the world. One of the most popular free social media networks is Twitter, with more than 100 million active users per day worldwide. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse a sample of the public conversations generated, using the hashtag #MeToo, around the topic of sexual abuse on Twitter. Methods: Using social media marketing software, the use of the #MeToo hashtag was analysed over a period of 60 days (14 September 2017 to 13 November of 2017). Results: The #MeToo conversation was mainly in English (79.3%), located in the United States (48.2% of cases), but with global repercussions. The volume of mentions of the #MeToo hashtag was far greater (97.7%), compared with other hashtags related to violence over this period of time, using mostly Twitter (96.2%). Conclusions: These results suggest that it is possible to describe different groups using the social media, and analyse their conversations to identify opportunities for successful public health interventions. If the topic is relevant for the general public, it will generate interest and conversations at the global level, supported by a universal and borderless channel such as Twitter. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDie Rolle von Sport und Bewegung für die körperliche und psychische Gesundheit.
Vögele, Claus UL

in Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen (Eds.) Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie, Band 3: Psychologische Therapie bei Indikationen im Kindes- und Jugendalter (2019)

Physical activity plays an important role in children’s growth and development. Understanding why a child is active or inactive is, therefore, essential for prevention of and intervention in childhood ... [more ▼]

Physical activity plays an important role in children’s growth and development. Understanding why a child is active or inactive is, therefore, essential for prevention of and intervention in childhood obesity. This narrative review provides an up-to-date summary of the literature pertaining to biological, psychosocial and environmental factors affecting young children’s acquisition of physical activity behaviour. Physical activity-related traits are characterized by familial aggregation and influenced by genetic factors. Nevertheless, the genetic contribution to physical activity shows increasing expression with age, supporting the need for interventions in early childhood. In addition to genetic factors, a range of psychosocial and environmental factors that are associated with physical activity in children have been identified: boys are more active than girls, and children with active parents tend to be more active. Overall physical activity support provided by parents predicts children’s organized physical activity. Perceived road safety and threat posed by strangers are major causes of parental anxiety in relation to their children’s safety in the neighbourhood. Programmes designed to increase physical activity should promote the importance of physical activity to parents. In addition, improving perceived safety may help to ease parental restriction of their children's active transport and physical activity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFamily Violence Curricula in Europe (FAVICUE): a cross-sectional descriptive study protocol
Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL; Lygidakis, Charilaos UL; Feder, Gene et al

in BMJ Open (2019), 9

Introduction. Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem of epidemic proportions and serious consequences. Doctors may be the first or only point of contact for victims who may be hesitant ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem of epidemic proportions and serious consequences. Doctors may be the first or only point of contact for victims who may be hesitant or unable to seek other sources of assistance, and they tend not to disclose abuse to doctors if not specifically asked. A comprehensive healthcare response is key to a coordinated community-wide approach to FV, but most of the practising physicians have received either no or insufficient education or training in any aspect of FV. Training of medical students concerning FV is often delivered in an inconsistent or ad hoc manner. The main aim of this project, Family Violence Curricula in Europe (FAVICUE), is to (1) describe current FV education delivery in European medical universities (undergraduate period) and during the specialist training in general practice (GP)/family medicine (FM) (postgraduate residency programme), and (2) compare it with WHO recommendations for FV curriculum. Methods and analysis. This is the protocol of a cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of two self-report online surveys (for undergraduate and postgraduate training, respectively) with 40 questions each. For both surveys, general practitioners, residents, medical students and professionals involved in their education from countries of the European region will be identified through the European Regional Branch of the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA Europe) and will be invited to provide information regarding the training on FV. Descriptive tests will be carried out and a thematic analysis will be conducted on the open-ended questions. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained by the University of Luxembourg (ERP 17–015 FAVICUE). The results will provide important information concerning current curricula on FV, and can be used for mapping the educational needs and planning the implementation of future training interventions. They will be published and disseminated through WONCA Europe and its networks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVisceral-afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not urinary urge, affect startle eye blink
Schulz, André UL; Schilling, Thomas M.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2019), 199

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid until 80% of the subjective urge to micturate was reached. EMG responses to acoustic startle stimuli were assessed before and after micturition, as well as in the early and late cardiac cycle phases (230 vs. 530 ms after a cardiac R-wave). Sonographic assessment confirmed bladder-filling status. Emotional arousal, stress, urge and unpleasantness ratings, as well as mean blood pressure were higher before than after micturition. Startle eye blink responses were lower during the early than during the late cardiac cycle phase, but were not affected by bladder filling status. We conclude that startle methodology is suitable for the investigation of afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not to reflect urinary urgency. This result may be due to different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying afferent signals from the bladder compared to other visceral organs or interference with affective states or sympathetic activation associated with bladder filling. Notwithstanding, the present research protocol of fluid intake, sonographic assessment of the bladder, and subjective reports, can be applied to examine visceral-afferent signals from the bladder. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessing binge-watching behaviors: Development and validation of the “Watching TV Series Motives” and “Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms” questionnaires
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Canale, Natale; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 90

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation ... [more ▼]

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation, however, remains fragmentary. Based on the previous phenomenological investigation of TV series watching, we developed and validated two original assessment instruments, assessing TV series watching motives and binge-watching engagement and symptoms, respectively. Preliminary items were created for each questionnaire, and a focus group with TV series viewers was conducted and analyzed to generate the final instruments. The questionnaires were then administered via an online survey (N=6556), together with complementary measures of affect, problematic Internet use and substance use. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, along with correlational analyses, were performed to examine both structural and external validity of the scales. The factorial analyses resulted in a 4-factor model (i.e. emotional enhancement, enrichment, coping-escapism and social) for the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire (WTSMQ), and in a 7-factor model (i.e. engagement, positive emotions, desire-savoring, pleasure preservation, binge-watching, dependency and loss of control) for the Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire (BWESQ). The results suggest good psychometric properties for both scales. The current study thus provides theoretically-driven and psychometrically sound instruments for further research on binge-watching behaviors [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNahrungsvermeidung versus Nahrungsaversion bei restriktiven Essstörungen.
Garcia-Burgos, David; Wilhelm, Peter; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie (2019), 67(1), 1-9

The terms food avoidance and food aversion are often used interchangeably in the eating disorders (EDs) literature. However, they represent two different (but closely related) constructs that are the ... [more ▼]

The terms food avoidance and food aversion are often used interchangeably in the eating disorders (EDs) literature. However, they represent two different (but closely related) constructs that are the result of different processes. In patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant / restrictive food intake disorder, food avoidance / restriction is usually assumed to be motivated by fear / anxiety (e. g., “intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat” or “being afraid to eat after a frightening episode of choking”). In contrast, studies show that taste aversion often leads to food avoidance. Unlike fear-motivated avoidance in which the flavour of food becomes a signal for danger, avoidance produced by taste aversions involves a reduction in the amount consumed due to a hedonic downshift. Here the attractiveness of the flavour changes by its association with a nauseogenic event. It is noteworthy that both sources of food avoidance exhibit different behavioural characteristics, contents of learning, and activate different brain regions and neuromodulators. This is especially important for the understanding and treatment of the EDs and their most serious behavioural manifestation: the life-threatening food refusal. Finally, the clinical implications of such a distinction and promising future research directions are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHealth benefits of walking in nature: a randomized controlled study under conditions of real-life stress.
Olafsdottir, Gunnthora; Cloke, Paul; Schulz, André UL et al

in Environment & Behavior (2018)

We investigated the effects of recreational exposure to the natural environment on mood and psychophysiological responses to stress. We hypothesized that walking in nature has restorative effects over and ... [more ▼]

We investigated the effects of recreational exposure to the natural environment on mood and psychophysiological responses to stress. We hypothesized that walking in nature has restorative effects over and above the effects of exposure to nature scenes (viewing-nature-on-TV) or physical exercise alone (walking-on-a-treadmill-in-a-gym) and that these effects are greater when participants were expected to be more stressed. Healthy university students (N=90) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 conditions and tested during an exam-free period and again during their exam time. Mood and psychophysiological responses were assessed before and after the interventions, and again after a laboratory stressor. All interventions had restorative effects on cortisol levels (p < .001), yet walking in nature resulted in lower cortisol levels than did nature viewing (p < .05) during the exam period. Walking in nature improved mood more than watching nature scenes (p < .001) or physical exercise alone (p < .05). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 165 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTask interference and distraction efficacy in patients with fibromyalgia: an experimental investigation
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Rost, Silke; Kissi, Ama et al

in Pain (2018), 159(6), 1119-1126

Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought ... [more ▼]

Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought to be reduced in fibromyalgia patients. In this study, we investigated task interference and distraction efficacy in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and a matched healthy control group. Forty-nine fibromyalgia patients and 49 heathy volunteers performed as quickly as possible (a) a visual localization task in the presence of non-painful vibrating or painful electric somatic stimuli, and (b) a somatosensory localization task (using non-painful or painful stimuli). Participants reported on their experience of the somatic stimuli on some of the trials during both localisation tasks. Results indicated that pain interferes with performance of the visual task, in both FM patients and healthy individuals. Furthermore, participants experienced the pain stimulus as less intense when directing attention away from the pain than when focusing on the pain. Overall, task performance of FM patients was slower compared to the task performance in the healthy control group. In contrast to our hypotheses, FM patients and healthy volunteers did not differ in the magnitude of the interference effect and distraction-efficacy. In conclusion, current study provides support for contemporary theories claiming that attention modulates the experience of pain and vice versa. However, no evidence was however found for an altered attentional processing of pain in fibromyalgia patients. Furthermore, results indicate that task interference and distraction-efficacy are not just two sides of the same coin. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBlunted endocrine response to a combined physical-cognitive stressor in adults with early life adversity
Hengesch, X.; Elwenspoek, M.M.C.; Schaan, Violetta UL et al

in Child Abuse & Neglect (2018)

The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However ... [more ▼]

The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However, many previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions as to whether ELA induces a long-term increase or decrease in stress reactivity. Therefore, we tested the association of ELA exposure and adult stress reactivity in a sample of early life adoptees and controls.Two previously validated stressful elements (bilateral feet CPT and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)) were combined in an extended Cold Pressor Test (CPT). This test was performed on 22 participants who had experienced severe ELA (separation from biological parents, institutionalization, and adoption in early childhood), and in 22 age-matched control participants.A prior history of ELA was associated with blunted reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Cohen´s d = 0.680). Cardiovascular reactivity remained unchanged, and affective reactivity (self-report ratings) were increased in participants exposed to ELA compared to the control group (range Cohen´s d: 0.642–0.879).Our results suggest that the activity of the HPA axis reactivity was inhibited in ELA participants. Importantly, cardiovascular stress responsiveness was not affected by ELA. This separation of the HPA axis and cardiovascular stress responses may best be explained by ELA selectively enhancing central feedback-sensitivity to glucocorticoids, but preserving cardiovascular/ autonomic stress reactivity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLate heartbeat-evoked potentials are associated with survival after cardiac arrest
Schulz, André UL; Stammet, P.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Resuscitation (2018), 126(1), 7-13

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. METHODS: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 hours after resuscitation. All patients were treated with targeted temperature management and a standardized sedation protocol during assessment. We investigated the association between HEP amplitude (180- 320 ms, 455-595 ms, 860-1000 ms) and 6-month survival. RESULTS: Twenty-five of 55 patients (45%) were still alive at 6-month follow-up. Survivors showed a higher HEP amplitude at frontopolar and frontal electrodes in the late HEP interval than non-survivors. This effect remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in terms of age, Fentanyl dose, and time lag between resuscitation and EEG assessment. There were no group differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. CONCLUSION: Brain-heart communication, as reflected by HEPs, is associated with survival after CA. Future studies should address the brain-heart axis in CA. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 120 (19 UL)
Full Text
See detailThe D²Rwanda Study: March 2018 Report
Kallestrup, Per; Vögele, Claus UL; Uwizihiwe, JeanPaul et al

Report (2018)

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed ... [more ▼]

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed in collaboration with Aarhus University (AU) and the University of Luxembourg (UL), and under the auspices of the University of Rwanda and Rwanda Biomedical Centre. The project involves two PhD students, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe (enrolled at AU) and Charilaos Lygidakis (enrolled at UL), and is kindly sponsored by the Karen Elise Jensens Foundation, alongside AU and UL. In this report we wished to narrate what we had been working on for the past two years: from the first steps to understanding better the context and mapping the territory; from obtaining the necessary authorisations to developing the app and translating the questionnaires. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 78 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Latent State-Trait Analysis of Interoceptive Accuracy
Wittkamp, M.; Bertsch, K.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2018), e0185802

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), i.e. the ability to accurately perceive one’s own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations, such as stress, may affect IAc. We ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), i.e. the ability to accurately perceive one’s own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations, such as stress, may affect IAc. We used structural equation modeling to estimate the reliability of IAc, and the proportions of individual differences in IAc, explained by a trait and occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interactions. We assessed IAc in 59 healthy participants (40 women, MAge = 23.4 years) on three consecutive measurement occasions, approx. one week apart, in a ‘rest’ and ‘poststress’ condition, using a heartbeat counting and a heartbeat discrimination task. The results show fair temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.38) and good reliability (Mdn = .63; range .49-.83) for both methods. While around 40% of the variance of a single IAc measurement could be explained by a trait, approx. 27% were accounted for by occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interaction. These results suggest that IAc measures are relatively consistent and that situations and person-situation interactions impact IAc as measured at a certain point in time. An aggregation across at least two measurements is recommended when using IAc as a trait variable. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOperationsvorbereitung
Vögele, Claus UL

in Kohlmann, Carl-Walter; Salewski, Christel; Wirtz, Markus Antonius (Eds.) Psychologie in der Gesundheitsförderung (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTrends and transitions
Vögele, Claus UL

in European Journal of Health Psychology (2018), 25(1), 1

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDie Erweiterung von Konzepten und Definitionen von Suchtverhalten
Billieux, Joël UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2018), 28(4), 209-211

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe role of alexithymia in parent-child interaction and in the emotional ability of children with autism spectrum disorder
Pinto Costa, Andreia UL; Steffgen, Georges UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Autism Research (2018)

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have more emotional difficulties than typically developing (TD) children. Of all the factors that impact children’s emotional development, parents, and the way ... [more ▼]

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have more emotional difficulties than typically developing (TD) children. Of all the factors that impact children’s emotional development, parents, and the way they interact with their children, are of crucial importance. The present study compared the amount of parent-child interactions among 35 dyads of parents and their children with ASD and 41 dyads of parents and their TD children, aged between 3 and 13 years, during a frustration-eliciting situation. We further examined whether children’s alexithymia is linked to parent-child interactions and whether parent-child interactions are linked to children’s emotional difficulties. We found that parents of children with ASD interacted significantly less with their children than parents of TD children. This reduced interaction was better explained by children’s alexithymia than by children’s ASD diagnosis. Finally, parent-child interaction mediated the relationship between children’s ASD diagnosis and children’s emotion regulation ability, as well as some aspects of children’s emotional reactivity but only if not accounting for children’s alexithymia levels. Our results demonstrate the determinant role children’s alexithymia plays on parent-child interactions and on how these interactions are linked to children’s difficulties in emotion regulation and emotional reactivity. Results are discussed in light of how parent-child interactions and the emotional ability of children with ASD can be improved by targeting children’s alexithymia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (5 UL)