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See detailMeasuring urban forms from inter-building distances: Combining MST graphs with a Local Index of Spatial Association
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Hilal, Mohamed; Thomas, Isabelle

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2017), 163

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and ... [more ▼]

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and provides an efficient way to account for the proximity of built and non-built land. The strength of the approach resides in the direct use of the coordinates of each building, a very parsimonious input of external parameters, and a local spatial statistical perspective. The method consists in, first, constructing and clumping the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) that links each building to its neighbours in order to obtain connected urban and suburban graph subsets, and second, measuring a Local Index of Spatial Association (LISA) on inter-building distances in order to characterise patterns. The method differentiates heterogeneous settlements from statistically significant homogeneous clusters with either long or short connections between buildings. The method is applied to the Southern periphery of Brussels (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2017, June 19)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)
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See detailDes espaces verts pour une ville durable: quelle demande? Les cas de Bruxelles et Luxembourg
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailLocational and socio-economic sorting in the use of green space: Evidence from Brussels
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, April 08)

Urban green space is important for making cities sustainable. It provides environmental benefits and makes cities attractive to people. Extensive evidence exists on their benefits but is lacking in ... [more ▼]

Urban green space is important for making cities sustainable. It provides environmental benefits and makes cities attractive to people. Extensive evidence exists on their benefits but is lacking in quantifying how and whether socio-economic benefits of green space accrue to all households or only a portion depending on their socio-economic status and residential location. From urban economic theory we know that residential markets sort households by income along an urban–suburban continuum and the housing-transport-costs trade-off. This trade-off can however be dominated in the presence of exogenous central amenities (parks) or endogenous effects (high income attracting high income) and pull better-off households toward the center, adding discrepancies in accessibility to green amenities by different socio-economic groups. Tiebout's hypothesis implied that marginal benefits from localised amenities are the same for all households in a given location but empirics point to non-efficient sorting and endogenous effects (socio-economic sorting) in the demand for localised amenities in general. We address these questions based on results of a survey conducted along an urban-suburban continuum in Brussels (Belgium) in May 2016. The survey includes around 500 respondents sampled across (non-park) public space and malls to reach both users and non-users of green space and cover the variety of residential locations (good or bad provision of green / distant or far from the CBD). We analyse the role of proximity, size and quality of public green space on its use across different socio-economic attributes and residential/job places and stated willingness-to-pay and substitution possibilities with private green space. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling evidence of the homothetic nature of cities
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and soil-sealing profiles for a large set of cities, we demonstrate a remarkable constancy of the profiles across city size. Our analysis combines the GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2006 land use database at 5m resolu- tion for 300 European cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants and the Geostat population grid at 1km resolution. Population is allocated proportionally to surface and weighted by soil sealing and density classes of the Urban Atlas. We analyse the profile of each artificial land use and population with distance to the town hall. In line with earlier literature, we confirm the strong monocentricity of the European city and the negative exponential curve for population density. Moreover, we find that land use curves, in particular the share of housing and roads, scale along the two horizontal dimensions with the square root of city population, while population curves scale in three dimensions with the cubic root of city population. In short, European cities of different sizes are homothetic in terms of land use and population density. While earlier literature documented the scaling of average densities (total surface and population) with city size, we document the scaling of the whole radial distance profile with city size, thus liaising intra-urban radial analysis and systems of cities. In addition to providing a new empirical view of the European city, our scaling offers a set of practical and coherent definitions of a city, independent of its population, from which we can re-question urban scaling laws and Zipf’s law for cities. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing geographical effects in spatial diffusion processes: The case of euro coins
Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2017), 61

We examine how geographical structures impact diffusion processes within a regional system. From the example of euro coin diffusion across countries, we show how the relative position and population ... [more ▼]

We examine how geographical structures impact diffusion processes within a regional system. From the example of euro coin diffusion across countries, we show how the relative position and population endowment of regions impact our understanding of interregional mobility, beyond simple spatial interaction effects. The mix of coins of different origins is a complex but unique trace of the movement of individuals within a common currency area, potentially revealing a new facet of European integration. We simulate an individual-based dynamic model where agents move and exchange coins across regions. We analyse the convergence towards a homogeneous mix of coins through time for a series of different theoretical spatial systems. This sensitivity analysis demonstrates the impact of the regularity and aggregation levels, or centrality/periphery effects, on spatial diffusion dynamics. We then calibrate the model against empirical data for the regions of 5 European countries and provide estimates of mobility rates, distance decay and population attractiveness factors, affecting the diffusion of coins, hence international movements and European integration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (6 UL)
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See detailEquilibrium and first-best city with endogenous exposure to local air pollution from traffic
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Picard, Pierre M UL

in Regional Science and Urban Economics (2017), 62

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and ... [more ▼]

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and investigates the feedback effect of endogenous pollution on residential choices. The presence of stronger traffic-induced air pollution exposure reduces the geographical extent and the population of cities. Land rents fall with distance from the city center while population densities may be non-monotonic. Cleaner vehicle technologies reduce pollution exposure everywhere, increase population and density everywhere and do not affect the spatial extent of the city. The paper compares the urban equilibrium with the first-best. The first-best structure is a less expanded city with higher densities at the center and lower densities at the fringe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (4 UL)
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See detailBee Species Richness in Europe
Schiel, Kerry UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Vereecken, Nicolas

Cartographic material (2017)

This map portfolio compares maps of bee species richness in Europe automatically aggregated per country from the IUCN Red List with national numbers obtained from various other sources.

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (15 UL)
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See detailGrenzüberschreitende Alltagspraktiken in der Großregion SaarLorLux
Wille, Christian UL; Pauly, Michel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In diesem Beitrag werden Alltagspraktiken untersucht, die von den Einwohnern des Saarlandes, Lothringens, Luxemburgs, von Rheinland-Pfalz und Wallonien in angrenzenden Regionen im Ausland ausgeführt ... [more ▼]

In diesem Beitrag werden Alltagspraktiken untersucht, die von den Einwohnern des Saarlandes, Lothringens, Luxemburgs, von Rheinland-Pfalz und Wallonien in angrenzenden Regionen im Ausland ausgeführt werden. Dafür leitend ist die Überlegung, dass sich die Großregion SaarLorLux anhand der grenzüberschreitenden Ausführungen von Alltagspraktiken ihrer Bewohner als grenzüberschreitende Lebenswirklichkeit bestimmen lässt. In einer solchen sozialkonstruktivistischen Perspektive wird nicht danach gefragt, was die Großregion SaarLorLux ist, sondern auf welche Weisen sie konstituiert wird bzw. wie sie sich im Alltag ihrer Bewohner manifestiert. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 UL)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailCity delineation in European applications of LUTI models: review and tests
Thomas, Isabelle; Jones, Jonathan; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Transport Reviews (2017)

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the ... [more ▼]

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the argumentation develops from a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications about LUTI applications in European cities. We show that most authors do not assess findings against potential geographical biases. Second, theoretical simulations are conducted with UrbanSim applied to a synthetic urban area. By varying the geographical limits of the system and population endowments, our simulations confirm that the absence of control on city delineation weakens the results. Finally, the paper suggests methodological guidelines to improve the comparability of LUTI applications and push forward their theoretical agenda. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
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See detailBicycle sharing system ‘success’ determinants
Médard de Chardon, Cyrille; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Thomas, Isabelle

in Transportation Research. Part A : Policy & Practice (2017), 100

Many municipalities assert bicycle sharing systems (BSS) as having many benefits, justifying their adoption, yet few explicitly state the purpose of their system making comparison or determination of ... [more ▼]

Many municipalities assert bicycle sharing systems (BSS) as having many benefits, justifying their adoption, yet few explicitly state the purpose of their system making comparison or determination of success impossible. In addition, the apprehension of many BSS operators to share data further hinders comparison. This paper estimates the number of daily trips from publicly available data for 75 BSS case studies across the world and provides trips per bike per day scores as a comparison of performance and success. Results reveal that a third of case studies have fewer than the psychologically important one trip per bicycle per day. To ascertain what factors are associated with this metric we estimate models with independent variables related to system attributes, station density, weather, geography and transportation infrastructure. Our analysis provides strong evidence undermining the ‘network effect’ promoted by influential BSS policy makers that expanding system size increases performance. Finally our results describe and discuss causal variables associated with higher BSS performance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn agent-based model to simulate the feedback effect between traffic-induced air pollution and urban structure
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, September 22)

A spatial complexity currently of increasing concern is the relation between the internal structure of urban areas and traffic‐induced air pollution. Urban air pollution has severe impacts on the ... [more ▼]

A spatial complexity currently of increasing concern is the relation between the internal structure of urban areas and traffic‐induced air pollution. Urban air pollution has severe impacts on the environment and on human health with traffic being its major source. Air pollution from traffic varies locally within the city depending on traffic patterns that arise from the spatial arrangement of land uses and subsequent travel demand across time. In this paper, we contribute a dynamic agent‐based residential model (ABM) applied to 2D theoretical space based on micro‐economic principles with local exposure and pollution externalities arising from car commuting traffic and an endogenous road network. We analyse the effects of households’ aversion to generating and being exposed to local traffic pollution on emerging land use patterns and pollution distribution. The focus is thereby set on endogenising local health but also global environmental concerns of traffic‐induced air pollution in location choice. The ABM framework allows discussing the spatial interactions against the background of pollution‐related (e.g., pollutant diffusion, cold‐start emissions, additional emissions through traffic congestion) and preference‐related (e.g., exposure during the commute versus at the residential location, size of the impact neighbourhood) framework conditions and planning approaches (localized lump‐sum taxes, cordon tolls, flat taxes). We discuss the stability and performance criteria of the resulting cities, which are on the one hand city aggregates (e.g., total emissions, total exposure, spatial extent of the urban area), but on the other hand and more importantly location‐dependent disaggregates (local patterns of land rents, exposure, green spaces, design of the road network). Thus, our paper interlinks pollution‐related concerns and urban structures from a health and environmental perspective, which take place at different spatial scales (different radii of interaction) and thereby ties in with the compaction‐sprawl debate in the literature. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (4 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailConsidering activity pattern to achieve a more sustainable commuting behavior
Sprumont, François UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Viti, Francesco UL et al

Scientific Conference (2016, September 19)

While commuting allows workers to take part to the economy, this specific trip represents a non-negligible share of the total trips undertaken by individuals. Because of the repetitive pattern both in ... [more ▼]

While commuting allows workers to take part to the economy, this specific trip represents a non-negligible share of the total trips undertaken by individuals. Because of the repetitive pattern both in time and space of the home-to-work trip, different transport policies can be implemented in order to reduce some of its negative impacts. Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures aim at reducing the transport demand or inducing a modal shift towards active or public transport modes. Too often, these strategies, by focusing narrowly on the home-to-work trip, do not take into account the complexity of the individuals’ daily activity chain. Indeed, the complexity of the activity pattern might impede some workers to use public or active modes for the commuting trip despite, for instance, a very short home-to-work distance. Results of a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach indicates that, for working days, socio-demographic variables affect more car use than activity-chain complexity. Thus, the proposed TDM measures aiming at decreasing car use for commuting takes into account the daily activity behavior but also suggest ways to deal with individual’s characteristics [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (5 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLand use and density in the European city: monocentric analysis and scaling
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, August)

In this work we study the evolution of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre, and how land use and density curves scale with city population ... [more ▼]

In this work we study the evolution of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre, and how land use and density curves scale with city population. The principal aim of this research is to provide stylized facts and generic formulas for the calibration of monocentric urban economic models to European cities. We use the GMES Urban Atlas database, providing a precise description of land use in the 305 major European larger urban zones (LUZ), which have more than 100.000 inhabitants. For the population density we use the Geostat population grid, which covers the whole of European Union (EU) with a 1km$^2$ grid dataset. We combine the land use and population datasets by attributing the population of the Geostat grid to the geographic units of the (much more precise) land use dataset. This attribution is proportional to the surface of each unit and weighted thanks to the nomenclature of the GMES Urban Atlas, which gives classes of soil sealing and density of urban fabric. Then we analyse the evolution with distance to the city centre, which we define for convenience as the location of the city hall, of population density and of the share of land used for different purposes: housing, roads, railways, urban green, water, agriculture, forest. To this end, we define concentric rings of fixed width around the city centre, in which we average land use and population. In order to compare results between different cities and to obtain a global picture ("average" or "standard" European city), we study simple scaling relationships for the obtained monocentric land use shares and density curves. We choose to study the scaling of these curves with respect to the city population, as has been done in the literature for different parameters (like income or road space). In our case city population is taken as the population of the LUZ, computed thanks to the population grid. It turns out that land use curves, in particular housing or roads shares, tend to scale like the square root of city population. Population curves have roughly exponential shapes, as widely modelled in the literature, and tend to scale like the city population to a power close to $1/3$. These results allow us to propose a simple monocentric description of land use shares and population curves in a representative European city, whose size can be chosen based on the scaling relationships we obtain. This result is especially interesting, and of practical use, for the purpose of calibration of monocentric urban models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 UL)
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See detailEquilibrium and first-best city with endogenous exposure to local air pollution from traffic
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Picard, Pierre M UL

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and ... [more ▼]

Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and investigates the feedback effect of endogenous pollution on residential choices. The presence of stronger traffic-induced air pollution exposure reduces the geographical extent and the population of cities. Land rents fall with distance from the city center while population densities may be non-monotonic. Cleaner vehicle technologies reduce pollution exposure everywhere, increase population and density everywhere and do not affect the spatial extent of the city. The paper compares the urban equilibrium with the first-best. The first-best structure is a less expanded city with higher densities at the center and lower densities at the fringe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (16 UL)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailBike-share rebalancing strategies, patterns, and purpose
Medard de Chardon, Cyrille UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Thomas, Isabelle

in Journal of Transport Geography (2016), 55

We provide a first spatio-temporal exploration of bicycle sharing system (BSS) rebalancing patterns from data extracted for individual stations at a fine temporal scale and operator interviews. Analyzing ... [more ▼]

We provide a first spatio-temporal exploration of bicycle sharing system (BSS) rebalancing patterns from data extracted for individual stations at a fine temporal scale and operator interviews. Analyzing rebalancing operations for nine BSS, we describe implications for operators, municipalities, and future optimization work. We find that stations adjacent to transit hubs receive disproportionate amounts of rebalancing relative to trips and that rebalancing is more often responding to morning and afternoon demand exceeding station dock capacities rather than longer term accumulations of bicycles. More importantly, we observe some operator’ rebalancing behaviors constrained between opposing goals of maximizing trips, profits, and service level agreements. Many BSS have no explicitly defined purpose, but existing rebalancing strategies can support or clash with the purpose or suggested benefits of a BSS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (4 UL)
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See detailLand use and density in the European city: monocentric analysis and scaling
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2016, May)

In this work we study the profile of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre. More specifically we address the scaling of land use and density ... [more ▼]

In this work we study the profile of land use and population density in European cities with respect to the distance to the city centre. More specifically we address the scaling of land use and density curves with respect to city population and rely on fine grained land use data. Our main objective is to retrieve generic laws that can support the calibration of monocentric urban economic models for European cities. We use the GMES Urban Atlas database, providing a precise description of land use at 5m resolution in the 305 major European urban areas (more than 100.000 inhabitants). We combine this dataset with population density from the Geostat population grid, which covers the whole of European Union (EU) with a 1km2 resolution. Population is allocated proportionally to surface and weighted by soil sealing and density classes of the GMES data. We analyse the evolution with distance to the city centre, which we define for convenience as the location of the city hall, of population density and of the share of land used for different purposes: housing, roads, railways, urban green, water, agriculture, forest. To this end, we define concentric rings of fixed width around the city centre, in which we average each land use and population. In order to compare different cities and to identify a global picture, i.e. a standard representative European city, we study scaling relationships for the ob- tained monocentric land use shares and density curves. We analyse the scaling of these curves with respect to city population, following similar approaches con- ducted in the literature for different parameters (such as income or road space). The total population for each city is computed from the population grid. We find that land use curves, in particular housing and roads shares, tend to scale like the square root of city population. Population curves have roughly exponential shapes, as it has been widely modelled in the literature, although usually not based on land use and soil sealing data. Population curves tend to scale like the city population to a power close to 1/3. These results allow us to propose a simple monocentric description of land use shares and population curves in a representative European city, whose size can be chosen based on the scaling relationships we obtain. This result is especially interesting, and of practical use, for the purpose of calibration and validation of monocentric urban models, that can differentiate (or not) housing from land and include interactions between non-developed and developed land. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 175 (8 UL)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailGIS-based modelling of shallow geothermal energy potential for CO2 emission mitigation in urban areas
Schiel, Kerry UL; Baume, Olivier; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Renewable Energy : An International Journal (2016), 86

Due to the rapidly increasing percentage of the population living in urban centres, there is a need to focus on the energy demand of these cities and the use of renewable energies instead of fossil fuels ... [more ▼]

Due to the rapidly increasing percentage of the population living in urban centres, there is a need to focus on the energy demand of these cities and the use of renewable energies instead of fossil fuels. In this paper, we develop a spatial model to determine the potential per parcel for using shallow geothermal energy, for space heating and hot water. The method is based on the space heating and hot water energy demand of each building and the specific heat extraction potential of the subsurface per parcel. With this information, along with the available space per parcel for boreholes, the percentage of the energy demand that could be supplied by geothermal energy is calculated. The potential reduction in CO2 emissions should all possible geothermal energy be utilised, is also calculated. The method is applied to Ludwigsburg, Germany. It was found that CO2 emissions could potentially be reduced by 29.7% if all space heating and hot water requirements were provided by geothermal energy, which would contribute to the sustainability of a city. The method is simple in execution and could be applied to other cities as the data used should be readily available. Another advantage is the implementation into the web based Smart City Energy platform which allows interactive exploration of solutions across the city. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 166 (10 UL)
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See detailFormes Urbaines et Aménités Vertes
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (9 UL)