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See detailModelling Metrics for Transparency in Medical Systems
Pierina Brustolin Spagnuelo, Dayana UL; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of TrustBus 2017 (in press)

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See detailAn approach to information retrieval and question answering in the legal domain
Adebayo, Kolawole John UL; Di Caro, Luigi; Boella, Guido et al

Scientific Conference (2016, November 15)

We describe in this paper, a report of our participation at COLIEE 2016 Information Retrieval (IR) and Legal Question Answering (LQA) tasks. Our solution for the IR part employs the use of a simple but ... [more ▼]

We describe in this paper, a report of our participation at COLIEE 2016 Information Retrieval (IR) and Legal Question Answering (LQA) tasks. Our solution for the IR part employs the use of a simple but effective Machine Learning (ML) procedure. Our Question Answering solution answers "YES or 'NO' to a question, i.e., 'YES' if the question is entailed by a text and 'NO' otherwise. With recent exploit of Multi-layered Neural Network systems at language modeling tasks, we presented a Deep Learning approach which uses an adaptive variant of the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM), i.e. the Child Sum Tree LSTM (CST-LSTM) algorithm that we modified to suit our purpose. Additionally, we benchmarked this approach by handcrafting features for two popular ML algorithms, i.e., the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Random Forest (RF) algorithms. Even though we used some features that have performed well from similar works, we also introduced some semantic features for performance improvement. We used the results from these two algorithms as the baseline for our CST-LSTM algorithm. All evaluation was done on the COLIEE 2015 training and test sets. The overall result conforms the competitiveness of our approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards legal compliance by correlating Standards and Laws with a semi-automated methodology
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Robaldo, Livio UL

in Proceedings of the 28 Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC) (2016, November)

Since legal regulations do not generally provide clear parameters to determine when their requirements are met, achieving legal compliance is not trivial. If there were a clear correspondence between the ... [more ▼]

Since legal regulations do not generally provide clear parameters to determine when their requirements are met, achieving legal compliance is not trivial. If there were a clear correspondence between the provisions of a specific standard and the regulation’s requirements, one could implement the standard to claim a presumption of compliance. However, finding those correspondences is a complex process; additionally, correlations may be overridden in time, for instance, because newer court decisions change the interpretation of certain provisions. To help solve this problem, we present a framework that supports legal experts in recognizing correlations between provisions in a standard and requirements in a given law. The framework relies on state-of-the-art Natural Language Semantics techniques to process the linguistic terms of the two documents, and maintains a knowledge base of the logic representations of the terms, together with their defeasible correlations, both formal and substantive. An application of the framework is shown by comparing a provision of the European General Data Protection Regulation against the ISO/IEC 27018:2014 standard. [less ▲]

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See detailA Framework to Reason about the Legal Compliance of Security Standards
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Giurgiu, Andra UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL et al

in Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Juris-informatics (JURISIN) (2016, November)

Achieving compliance with legal regulations is no easy task. Normally, laws state general requirements but do not provide clear parameters to determine when such requirements are met. On a different level ... [more ▼]

Achieving compliance with legal regulations is no easy task. Normally, laws state general requirements but do not provide clear parameters to determine when such requirements are met. On a different level, industrial standards and best practices define specific objectives that can be certified by means of auditing procedures from qualified bodies. Implementing a standard does not per se guarantee legal compliance, with the rare exception when the standard is also endorsed by the law itself. But standards and laws in the same domain may have overlaps and correlations, so adopting the former may provide an argument to demonstrate that adequate measures were taken to achieve legal compliance. In this paper, we introduce a framework that, using state-of-the-art Natural Language Semantics techniques, helps process legal documents and standards to build a knowledge base to store their logic representations, and the correlations between them. The knowledge base will help legal experts assess what requirements of the law are met by the standard and, consequently, recognize what requirements still need to be implemented to fill the remaining gaps. An application of the framework is exemplified by comparing a provision of the European General Data Protection Regulation against the ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard. [less ▲]

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See detailMetrics for Transparency
Pierina Brustolin Spagnuelo, Dayana UL; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of DPM 2016 and QASA 2016 (2016, September)

Transparency is a novel non-functional requirement for software systems. It is acclaimed to improve the quality of service since it gives users access to information concerning the system's processes ... [more ▼]

Transparency is a novel non-functional requirement for software systems. It is acclaimed to improve the quality of service since it gives users access to information concerning the system's processes, clarifying who is responsible if something goes wrong. Thus, it is believed to support people's right to a secure and private processing of their personal data. We define eight quality metrics for transparency and we demonstrate the usage and the effectiveness of the metrics by assessing transparency on the Microsoft HealthVault, an on-line platform for users to collect, store, and share medical records. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud Providers Viability: How to Address it from an IT and Legal Perspective?
Bartolini, Cesare UL; El Kateb, Donia UL; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in Altmann, Jörn; Silaghi, Gheorghe Cosmin; Rana, Omer F. (Eds.) Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services (2016)

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be ... [more ▼]

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be properly addressed to avoid major setbacks. One such challenge is that of cloud provider viability, that is, the reasonable certainty that the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) will not go out of business, either by filing for bankruptcy or by simply shutting down operations, thus leaving its customers stranded without an infrastructure and, depending on the type of cloud service used, even without their applications or data. This article attempts to address the issue of cloud provider viability, proposing some ways of mitigating the problem both from a technical and from a legal perspective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 UL)
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See detailMutating OWLs: semantic mutation testing for ontologies
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Scientific Conference (2016, February 19)

Ontologies are an essential component of semantic knowledge bases and applications, and nowadays they are used in a plethora of domains. Despite the maturity of ontology languages, support tools and ... [more ▼]

Ontologies are an essential component of semantic knowledge bases and applications, and nowadays they are used in a plethora of domains. Despite the maturity of ontology languages, support tools and engineering techniques, the testing and validation of ontologies is a field which still lacks consolidated approaches and tools. This paper attempts at partly bridging that gap, taking a first step towards the extension of mutation testing techniques to ontologies expressed in a widely-used format. Mutation testing techniques, revisited in the light of the peculiar features of the ontology language and structure, can help in the engineering and refinement of ontologies and software based on them. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 176 (1 UL)
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See detailOntology mutation testing
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Presentation (2016, February 03)

Mutation testing is a well-known testing technique which combines error injection and unit testing. Mutation testing is an approach that tests the efficiency of the test suite, but in doing so it also ... [more ▼]

Mutation testing is a well-known testing technique which combines error injection and unit testing. Mutation testing is an approach that tests the efficiency of the test suite, but in doing so it also allows to achieve a better understanding of the System Under Test (SUT). This work extends mutation testing techniques to ontologies expressed in the OWL language. Mutation operators on OWL ontologies change the semantics of the ontology, regardless of the syntax in which it is expressed. Mutation testing can assist the designer in the identification of potential flaws and in the maintenance of the ontology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe right to be forgotten in the light of the consent of the data subject
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Siry, Lawrence UL

in Computer Law & Security Review (2016), 32(2),

Recently, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued decision C-131/12, which was considered a major breakthrough in Internet data protection. The general public welcomed this decision as an ... [more ▼]

Recently, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued decision C-131/12, which was considered a major breakthrough in Internet data protection. The general public welcomed this decision as an actualization of the controversial “right to be forgotten”, which was introduced in the initial draft for a new regulation on data protection and repeatedly amended, due to objections by various Member States and major companies involved in massive processing of personal data. This paper attempts to delve into the content of that decision and examine if it indeed involves the right to be forgotten, if such a right exists at all, and to what extent it can be stated and enforced. [less ▲]

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See detailData Protection
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Presentation (2015, November 12)

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See detailUsing Ontologies to Model Data Protection Requirements in Workflows
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Muthuri, Robert UL; Cristiana, Santos

Scientific Conference (2015, November)

Data protection, currently under the limelight at the European level, is undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to customize ... [more ▼]

Data protection, currently under the limelight at the European level, is undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to customize semantic standards towards the prospective legal framework. The aim of this paper is to provide a bottom-up ontology describing the constituents of data protection domain and its relationships. Our contribution envisions a methodology to highlight the (new) duties of data controllers and foster the transition of IT-based systems, services/tools and businesses to comply with the new General Data Protection Regulation. This structure may serve as the foundation in the design of present and future information systems abiding to data protection legal requirements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 145 (13 UL)
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See detailCloud Providers Viability: How to Address it from an IT and Legal Perspective?
Bartolini, Cesare UL; El Kateb, Donia UL; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services (2015, September 16)

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be ... [more ▼]

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be properly addressed to avoid major setbacks. One such challenge is that of cloud provider viability, that is, the reasonable certainty that the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) will not go out of business, either by filing for bankruptcy or by simply shutting down operations, thus leaving its customers stranded without an infrastructure and, depending on the type of cloud service used, even without their applications or data. This article attempts to address the issue of cloud provider viability, proposing some ways of mitigating the problem both from a technical and from a legal perspective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (15 UL)
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See detailReconciling Data Protection Rights and Obligations: An Ontology of the Forthcoming EU Regulation
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Muthuri, Robert UL

Scientific Conference (2015, September 10)

Knowledge theory has made its way into modern computing, through the use of models and annotations to organize it. The bottom layer of knowledge organizations makes use of ontologies, which are models ... [more ▼]

Knowledge theory has made its way into modern computing, through the use of models and annotations to organize it. The bottom layer of knowledge organizations makes use of ontologies, which are models based on a formal language structure and designed to express the concepts pertaining to a domain and the relationships between them. The use of ontologies is popular also in the legal domain to organize legal documents and as a support to legal reasoning. A legal topic which is currently under the limelight at the European level is data protection. Under the pressure of the last years’ technological developments, the data protection legislation has shown its weaknesses, and is currently undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. The reform will urge businesses dealing with personal data to comply with the new Regulation. The aim of the current paper is to provide a basic ontology for the upcoming data protection legislation, highlighting the duties of the data controller, to ease the transition of systems and services from the existing legislation to the new one. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 234 (7 UL)
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See detailLiability of Intermediary Service Providers
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Presentation (2015, July 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 UL)
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See detailAn overview of the limitations to the dissemination of data
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Presentation (2015, June 03)

The changes occurred during the last decades have made data one of the most important business assets. With this evolution, together with the no man's land that the Internet was in its early years, came ... [more ▼]

The changes occurred during the last decades have made data one of the most important business assets. With this evolution, together with the no man's land that the Internet was in its early years, came the awareness of the inherent dangers and potential damages involved in collecting and transferring data. Therefore, the attention of lawmakers has focused more and more on addressing the various risks related to this new asset. Limitations exist under different perspectives, sometimes protecting private interests, sometimes public. Rules impose limitations on the basis of traffic in arms; trade secret; copyright and author's rights; and, most prominently, the protection of personal data. The last topic is particularly complex. The Internet has drastically changed the landscape for the protection of personal data, and the existing patchwork of rules is no longer adequate. The very ownership of the data has been overthrown, making it hard to understand where liability rests. The changing context calls for a major revision of the existing rules on data protection. The European Union is discussing the reform, with provisions that are more high-level, but introducing significant penalties for violations. However, the reform is facing delays and difficulties, and it is still unknown when it will enter into force. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (4 UL)
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See detailAssessing IT Security Standards Against the Upcoming GDPR for Cloud Systems
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Gheorghe, Gabriela UL; Giurgiu, Andra UL et al

Poster (2015, March 11)

This work in progress aims at identifying a mapping between the current security standards (in particular, but not limited to, ISO 27001-2013) and the upcoming regulations in data protection. The aim is ... [more ▼]

This work in progress aims at identifying a mapping between the current security standards (in particular, but not limited to, ISO 27001-2013) and the upcoming regulations in data protection. The aim is to find an overlap between the requirements for data protection and the existing security standards, to measure the gap that a business has to cross (and consequently an estimate of the expenses that it must sustain) to achieve compliance with the GDPR. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 547 (38 UL)