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See detailNumerical investigation of bridges with the aim of condition assessment in applying the Deformation Area Difference method (DAD-method) and selecting appropriate measurement techniques
Erdenebat, Dolgion UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

in 5th International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2016), Delft (2016, October)

Condition assessment of existing road bridges gains ever increasing importance today as bridges are getting older and the inflow of heavy traffic is constantly increasing. The further development of ... [more ▼]

Condition assessment of existing road bridges gains ever increasing importance today as bridges are getting older and the inflow of heavy traffic is constantly increasing. The further development of recognized techniques and the development of new methods for early and accurate detection of damage to the structure are made possible by means of innovative technological progress. In this contribution, the principles of Defor-mation Area Difference Method (DAD-Method) for condition assessment of bridges are presented. This method is based on the further processing of measured and computed deformation values. The application of the DAD-Method requires a precise recording of the deflection of a load-deflection test. On the basis of theoretical cal-culations, this method has allowed to identify as well as to localise damage to a structure. The DAD-Method is independent of a reference measurement and insensitive to global influences such as temperature fluctuations. For precise detection of deformations, the most modern measuring instruments and methods like photogram-metry, total stations, displacement sensors, strain gauges and levelling are compared to each other. In collabo-ration with the appropriate measurement technology, the localisation of damage in bridges becomes possible. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch for sustainable construction
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Poulles, Romain

in Science and Technology (2016)

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See detailMasonry blocks from lightweight concrete on the basis of Miscanthus as aggregates
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL; Dahm, Franz et al

in Barth, S; Murphy-Bokern, D; Kalinina, O (Eds.) et al Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource Constrained World (2016)

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See detailNumerical Analysis for the determination of Stress Percolation in Dry-Stacked Wall Systems
Agaajani, Shahriar; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in Revue Technique (2016)

This paper comprises a portion of a PhD study concluding on the potential use of a new mortarless and modular masonry system by taking into consideration the outcome of a multidisciplinary study including ... [more ▼]

This paper comprises a portion of a PhD study concluding on the potential use of a new mortarless and modular masonry system by taking into consideration the outcome of a multidisciplinary study including aspects of experimental, numerical and analytical investigations in relation to a practical and economical development of modular load-bearing dry-stacked masonry systems. Different forms of interlocking masonry elements have been modelled and optimised thermo-mechanically. Full-scale masonry walls were assembled and tested experimentally under compressive, flexural, shear, cyclic and long term loads. The overall structural behaviour was compared to conventional masonry systems such as hollow and shuttering blocks. The investigations showed overall relative high structural performances for the developed dry-stacked elements. The effect of dry joint interfaces was extensively investigated experimentally and numerically under FE analysis. Based on the experimental observations, a numeric-analytical failure mechanism of the dry-stacked masonry structure is anticipated under axial and flexural loading. The structural investigations and engineering processes are completed by the development of a package of dry-stacked units consisting of interlocking modular masonries and an accompanying array of various other precast parts. This confirmed the practical issues and solutions towards the exploitation of the developed dry-stacked elements for the construction of ready-to-build, modular and load-bearing walls. The portion of work presented herein proposes a new numerical technique for the determination of stress-percolation in dry stacked load-bearing structures. The model is developed in three steps under a numerical computing environment. First, based on geometrical properties of the dry-stacked elements and with a linear-elastic material behaviour, the load percolation and intensity in dry-stacked masonry walls is determined. In a second step, a phenomenon known as a plastic accommodation which accompanies the redistribution of the stress percolations, is incorporated in the model. This enables the understanding of the evolution of the stress percolations in the post-elastic phase, which is crucial for the determination of the load capacity and stability of the structure in function of an increased external load. This paper also supports the better understanding of early fissuring in dry-stacked masonry structures which has an important influence on the overall stability of the structure. Finally, in a third step, the improvement of dry-stacked structures is pursued by further analysis of the results obtained through the algorithm. This paper represents a new tool for investigating the localized and randomly defined internal stress distribution induced by external compression forces on dry-stacked structures. Furthermore, the algorithm illustrates that experimental investigations on dry-stacked systems may only give real indications on the load capacity of the structure, when the number of joint interfaces and height to length ratio of the block is respected and that results of experimental investigations on reduced prism specimens may not be extrapolated to full sized walls as they may over-evaluate the effective loaded masonry sections and therefore the overall load capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailPrédiction de la résistance mécanique d’un bloc de maçonnerie sans joint par calcul numérique
Chewe Ngapeya, Gelen Gael UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

Presentation (2016, July 06)

La nouvelle génération de blocs de maçonnerie montés à sec (sans joint) et muni d’éléments d’engrenages ou d’emboîtement présente des avantages substantiels tant en précision et vitesse de pose, qu’en ... [more ▼]

La nouvelle génération de blocs de maçonnerie montés à sec (sans joint) et muni d’éléments d’engrenages ou d’emboîtement présente des avantages substantiels tant en précision et vitesse de pose, qu’en résistance aux déplacements transversaux, en économie de matériaux et en facilité de démontage. La performance d’un mur en maçonnerie est étroitement liée à sa stabilité générale et à la résistance mécanique des blocs de maçonnerie qui le composent. L’un des objectifs de cette étude était de rechercher un optimum entre cinq paramètres importants dans la conception d’une maçonnerie à savoir le poids, le coût, la facilité de production, mais surtout la résistance mécanique et la résistance thermique. La conception du nouveau bloc a ainsi été entreprise par calculs numériques. [less ▲]

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See detailUntersuchung der Rissentwicklung an zementgebundenen Sichtestrichen
Weiler, Michael UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Beton (2016), (66), 248-252

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See detailField tests of centralized and decentralized ventilation units inresidential buildings – Specific fan power, heat recovery efficiency,shortcuts and volume flow unbalances
Merzkirch, Alexander UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in Energy and Buildings (2016), 116(2016), 376-383

tThe energy efficient operation of mechanical ventilation systems depends on various parameters. InLuxembourg, field tests with 20 centralized and 60 decentralized mechanical ventilation systems insingle ... [more ▼]

tThe energy efficient operation of mechanical ventilation systems depends on various parameters. InLuxembourg, field tests with 20 centralized and 60 decentralized mechanical ventilation systems insingle- and multi-family homes were conducted in order to measure the actual performance of thosesystems in occupied buildings. The considered parameters were: Main air flows, internal and externalrecirculation, sensitivity to differential pressure, specific fan power and heat recovery efficiency. In manycases, the performance of the ventilation units was lower than expected. The systems showed deviationsbetween supply and exhaust flows of up to 60%. In particular, the air flow in decentralized units wasstrongly influenced by pressure differences between the inside and outside due to wind or stack effectswhich leads to a decreased heat recovery efficiency. The total mean recirculation ratio was 6.5%, with astandard deviation of 12.5% for centralized and 13 ± 6.2% for decentralized devices. As a consequence,the delivered flow of fresh air is smaller by the amount of recirculation. The specific fan power, theratio between air flow and power consumption, was measured with 0.475 ± 0.37 Wh/m3for centralizedand 0.22 ± 0.023 Wh/m3for decentralized systems. The lower value for the decentralized systems canbe explained by lower pressure losses due to the lack of ductwork. The heat recovery efficiency was0.65 ± 0.24 for centralized systems and 0.7 ± 0.17 for decentralized systems which is significantly lowerthan nominal values provided by the manufacturers. The results of this study show that the overall energyefficiency of ventilation devices installed in residential buildings under real working conditions are oftenlower than expected. These findings could possibly serve as indicators for future research & developmentat manufacturer and commissioning level. [less ▲]

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See detailUntersuchung der Rissentwicklung an zementgebundenen Sichtestrichen
Weiler, Michael; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Beton (2016), (66), 248-252

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See detailMasonry blocks from lightweight concrete on the basis of miscnathus as aggregates
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL; Dahm, Franz et al

in Barth, Susanne; Murphy-Bokern, Donal; Kalinina, Olena (Eds.) et al Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World (2016)

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See detailSome remarks on the influence of temperature-variations, non-linearities, repeatability and ageing on modal-analysis for structural health monitoring of real bridges
Maas, Stefan UL; Schommer, Sebastian UL; Nguyen, Viet Ha UL et al

in MATEC Web of Conferences (2015, October 19), 24(Article No. 05006),

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) intends to identify damage by changes of characteristics as for instance the modal parameters. The eigenfrequencies, mode-shapes and damping-values are either directly ... [more ▼]

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) intends to identify damage by changes of characteristics as for instance the modal parameters. The eigenfrequencies, mode-shapes and damping-values are either directly used as damage indicators or the changes of derived parameters are analysed, such as e.g. flexibilities or updated finite element models. One common way is a ontinuous monitoring under environmental excitation forces, such as wind or traffic, i.e. the so-called output-only modal analysis. Alternatively, a forced measured external excitation in distinct time-intervals may be used for input-output modal analysis. Both methods are limited by the precision or the repeatability under real-life conditions at site. The paper will summarize everal field tests of artificially step by step damaged bridges prior to their final demolishment and it will show the changes of eigenfrequencies due to induced artificial damage. Additionally, some results of a monitoring campaign of a healthy bridge in Luxembourg are presented. Reinforced concrete shows non-linear behaviour in the sense that modal parameters depend on the excitation force amplitude, i.e. higher forces lead often to lower eigenfrequencies than smaller forces. Furthermore, the temperature of real bridges is neither constant in space nor in time, while for instance the stiffness of asphalt is strongly dependant on it. Finally, ageing as uch can also change a bridge’s stiffness and its modal parameters, e.g. because creep and hrinkage of concrete or ageing of elastomeric bearing pads influence their modulus of elasticity. These effects cannot be considered as damage, though they influence the measurement of modal parameters and hinder damage detection. [less ▲]

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See detailMesstechnische Ermittlung der U-Werte von Altbaufassaden im Vergleich mit Typologiewerten für den Gebäudebestand
Hoos, Thorsten UL; Merzkirch, Alexander UL; Maas, Stefan UL et al

in Bauphysik (2015)

Die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Renovierungsvorhaben an Altbauten hängt im Wesentlichen von der erwarteten Wertsteigerung, der Miethöhe und den zu erreichenden Energieeinsparungen ab. Um diese Einsparungen zu ... [more ▼]

Die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Renovierungsvorhaben an Altbauten hängt im Wesentlichen von der erwarteten Wertsteigerung, der Miethöhe und den zu erreichenden Energieeinsparungen ab. Um diese Einsparungen zu berechnen, wird ein rechnerischer Vergleich zwischen dem aktuellen Verbrauch und dem Verbrauch nach der Sanierung angestrebt. Zahlreiche Studien zeigen auf, dass der rechnerische Energiebedarf von Gebäuden häufig von dem tatsächlichen Verbrauch abweicht. Dies gilt vor allem für vor 1970 errichtete Altbauten. Ein wichtiger Eingangsparameter der Berechnungsmethodik sind die U-Werte der Aussenwände, welche typischerweise vom Energieexperten vor Ort aus Typologien des Gesetzgebers für die jeweilige Wandkonstruktion ausgewählt werden. In dieser Veröffentlichung werden Mess- und Simulationsergebnisse von verschiedenen Wandtypen präsentiert. Die ermittelten Werte lagen zwischen 0.9 und 1,2 W/(m2K) und somit deutlich unter den in Luxemburg angenommenen Typologiewerten von 1,4 bis 2,1 W/(m2K). Die beschriebenen Abweichungen zwischen Energiebedarfsberechnung und tatsächlichem Energieverbrauch können somit zum Teil auf fehlerhafte Annahmen des ausstellenden Experten vor Ort zurückgeführt werden, welche sich an Typologiewerten orientieren. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of temperature-dependent stiffness variation of a layer of asphalt and their possible effect on the deformation behaviour of concrete structures
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Erdenebat, Dolgion UL; Scherbaum, Frank et al

in 6th International Conference on Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures, Duebendorf 2015 (2015, October)

In the time of increasing maintenance costs, the continuous inspection and the earliest possible damage detection become more and more important. In order to minimize future maintenance costs, the exact ... [more ▼]

In the time of increasing maintenance costs, the continuous inspection and the earliest possible damage detection become more and more important. In order to minimize future maintenance costs, the exact evaluation of the condition of the structure and the exact assessment of potential damages are of essential importance. Therefore the University of Luxembourg carries out projects to investigate an efficient application of different assessment methods taking into account praxis relevant test conditions. As a part of this project especially the changing temperatures which influence the stiffness of the materials are analysed. As a consequence, for the condition assessment of structures, the asphalt layer cannot only be taken into consideration as a mass applied as load on the structure. Due to bond effects of the asphalt layer to the load carrying element its changing stiffness induced by changing temperatures influences the stiffness of the whole structure. Within this paper this effect will be illustrated. First the load carrying behaviour and the stiffness of pre-stressed concrete slabs realized with and without an additional asphalt layer will be investigated in a climate chamber and the results will be compared for different temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary energy used in centralized and decentralized ventilation systems measured in field tests in residential buildings
Merzkirch, Alexander UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in Proceedings of the 26th AIVC Conference, Effective Ventilation in high performance buildings (2015, September)

Ventilation systems can save heat energy by using heat recovery, but consume electrical energy to power the fans. In practice, the energy efficiency of those systems can be lower than expected, when ... [more ▼]

Ventilation systems can save heat energy by using heat recovery, but consume electrical energy to power the fans. In practice, the energy efficiency of those systems can be lower than expected, when compared to the nominal values provided by the manufacturer. In this paper, results of a comprehensive field tests with 20 centralized and 60 decentralized ventilation systems for residential buildings and the calculation of the primary energy savings of those devices are presented. Factors like volume flow unbalances, shortcuts, temperature change rates and specific fan power have been addressed by tracer gas technology and other means and been used as input factors to calculate the primary energy balance of those devices. Every system showed positive primary energy savings. The mean value for centralized systems was 2.92 Wh/m3 with a high standard deviation of 2.23 Wh/m3, while the decentralized systems showed higher savings of around 4.75 Wh/m3 with a standard deviation of 0.01 to 0.15 Wh/m3. In general, the calculated savings in field tests were significantly lower compared to the case of using nominal values as input parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomechanical properties of five different currently used implants for open-wedge high tibial osteotomy
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2015), 2(14),

Background: As several new tibial osteotomy plates recently appeared on the market, the aim of the present study was to compare mechanical static and fatigue strength of three newly designed plates with ... [more ▼]

Background: As several new tibial osteotomy plates recently appeared on the market, the aim of the present study was to compare mechanical static and fatigue strength of three newly designed plates with gold standard plates for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis. Methods: Sixteen fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomyn(HTO) according to standard techniques, using five TomoFix standard plates, five PEEKPower plates and six iBalance implants. Static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclic fatigue failure tests were performed. Forces, horizontal and vertical displacements were measured; rotational permanent plastic deformations, maximal displacement ranges in the hysteresis loops of the cyclic loading responses and dynamic stiffness were determined. Results: Static compression load to failure tests revealed that all plates showed sufficient stability up to 2400 N without any signs of opposite cortex fracture, which occurred above this load in all constructs at different load levels. During the fatigue failure tests, screw breakage in the iBalance group and opposite cortex fractures in all constructs occurred only under physiological loading conditions (<2400 N). The highest fatigue strength in terms of maximal load and number of cycles performed prior to failure was observed for the ContourLock group followed by the iBalance implants, the TomoFix standard (std) and small stature (sm) plates. The PEEKPower group showed the lowest fatigue strength. Conclusions: All plates showed sufficient stability under static loading. Compared to the TomoFix and the PEEKPower plates, the ContourLock plate and iBalance implant showed a higher mechanical fatigue strength during cyclic fatigue testing. These data suggest that both mechanical static and fatigue strength increase with a wider proximal T-shaped plate design together with diverging proximal screws as used in the ContourLock plate or a closed-wedge construction as in the iBalance design. Mechanical strength of the bone-implant constructs decreases with a narrow T-shaped proximal end design and converging proximal screws (TomoFix) or a short vertical plate design (PEEKPower Plate). Whenever high mechanical strength is required, a ContourLock or iBalance plate should be selected. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of crack development in a fairfaced concrete floor
Weiler, Michael UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Concrete - Innovation and Design (2015)

The present work shows the crack behaviour of fairfaced concrete floors and the accurate prediction of cracking. The causes for cracking are various and can be divided into cracking of an early stage ... [more ▼]

The present work shows the crack behaviour of fairfaced concrete floors and the accurate prediction of cracking. The causes for cracking are various and can be divided into cracking of an early stage concrete and cracking of concrete of a later stage. Here the cracking of the concrete at an early stage due to shrinkage taking into account the strength evolution during hardening, will be analysed. Shrinkage causes a reduction of the structures’ volume, it tries to constringe. If the boundary conditions are inconvenient, it may cause cracks. Besides, there are thermal causes based on hydration. As a consequence thereof, the strength of concrete develops in the first days after pouring, too. When the concrete starts to cool down, strains may occur which leads to cracking. For that reason, an experimental investigative program is achieved. With the use of a large climate chamber, in which temperature and humidity can be varied, special specimen with a large surface to volume ratio is stored. An available prognosis software program will give the resulting strengths and internal temperatures at different locations and different instants of time of the investigated elements. These results will be implemented into the finite element models [less ▲]

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See detailUse of recycled concrete in construction in Luxembourg
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL

in Cahier Scientifique - Revue Technique Luxembourgeoise (2015)

Construction and demolition waste constitutes a major portion of total waste production in the world, and most of it is used in landfills. The re-use of concrete rubble collected from demolished ... [more ▼]

Construction and demolition waste constitutes a major portion of total waste production in the world, and most of it is used in landfills. The re-use of concrete rubble collected from demolished structures is an important issue. After crushing and screening, there is the possibility of appropriately treating and reusing such waste as aggregate in new concrete, especially in lower level applications. Different aspects of the topic beginning with a brief review of the European initiatives and definition in terms of C&D waste generated and recycled aggregates produced from C&D waste are given. Along with a brief overview of C&D waste, a summary of the situation in Luxembourg in use of recycled aggregate is discussed. This writing concludes by identifying some of the major barriers in more use of recycled aggregate concrete, including lack of awareness, lack of knowledge, barriers of specifications/codes for reusing these aggregates in new concrete. [less ▲]

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See detailA semi-centralized, valveless and demand controlled ventilation system in comparison to other concepts in field tests
Merzkirch, Alexander UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in Building & Environment (2015), 93(21-26),

The idea of adapting the air supply rate to the actual demand in a building is not a new one. In commercial buildings it is already state-of-the-art to establish a demand controlled ventilation, where the ... [more ▼]

The idea of adapting the air supply rate to the actual demand in a building is not a new one. In commercial buildings it is already state-of-the-art to establish a demand controlled ventilation, where the level of air ow is based on sensors or time control. In residential buildings however, mechanical ventilation systems, whether centralized or decentralized, are in most cases operated in a constant modus, providing fresh air regardless if the fresh air is needed or not, even though the technology and the components needed for demand controlled ventilation exist and can be purchased at reasonable prices. In this article, results of eld tests with a semi-centralized demand feedback-controlled ventilation system are shown and compared to outcomes with other demand controlled systems. The semi-centralized prototype includes decentralized fans per ventilation zone, making a room-wise ventilation possible and valves to balance the system hydraulically unnecessary. It is shown that each presented concept of demand controlled ventilation can save energy by decreasing the operational time or the mean airflow rate without compromising air quality. Concepts which make a zone- or even a room-wise control of air ow possible, showed the highest energy saving potential of up to two-thirds compared to a system operating at constant flow rates. In addition to the energy savings due to decreased operational time, the maintenance and lter costs are decreased while the user comfort is increased, as natural ventilation in spring, summer and autumn may easily be added when delta T between inside and outside is small. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign, Repeatability, and Comparison to Literature Data of a New Noninvasive Device Called "Rotameter" to Measure Rotational Knee Laxity
Neumann, Simon UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in International Scholarly Research Notices Orthopedics (2015), Volume 2015, Article ID 439095

The present paper deals with the design, the repeatability, and the comparison to literature data of a new measuring device called “Rotameter” to characterize the rotational knee laxity or the tibia ... [more ▼]

The present paper deals with the design, the repeatability, and the comparison to literature data of a new measuring device called “Rotameter” to characterize the rotational knee laxity or the tibia-femoral rotation (TFR). The initial prototype P1 of the Rotameter is shortly introduced and then modified according to trials carried out on a prosthetic leg and on five healthy volunteers, leading therefore to an improved prototype P2. A comparison of results obtained from P1 and P2 with the same male subject shows the enhancements of P2. Intertester and intratester repeatability of this new device were shown and it was observed that rotational laxities of left and right knees are the same for a healthy subject. Moreover, a literature review showed that measurements with P2 presented lower TFR values than other noninvasive devices.The measured TFR versus torque characteristic was quite similar to other invasive devices, which are more difficult to use and harmful to the patient. Hence, our prototype P2 proved to be an easy-to-use and suitable device for quantifying rotational knee laxity. A forthcoming study will validate the Rotameter thanks to an approach based on computed tomography in order to evaluate its precision. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a Computed Tomography Based Approach to Validate Noninvasive Devices to Measure Rotational Knee Laxity
Neumann, Simon UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in International Scholarly Research Notices (2015)

The purpose of this study is to validate a noninvasive rotational knee laxity measuring device called “Rotameter P2” with an approach based on Computed Tomography (CT). This CT-approach using X-rays is ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is to validate a noninvasive rotational knee laxity measuring device called “Rotameter P2” with an approach based on Computed Tomography (CT). This CT-approach using X-rays is hence invasive and can be regarded as a precise reference method that may also be applied to similar devices. An error due to imperfect femur fixation was observed but can be neglected for small torques. The most significant estimation error is due to the unavoidable soft tissues rotation and hence flexibility in the measurement chain. The error increases with the applied torque.The assessment showed that the rotational knee angle measured with the Rotameter is still overestimated because of thigh and femur displacement, soft tissues deformation, and measurement artefacts adding up to a maximum of 285% error at +15Nm for the Internal Rotation of female volunteers. This may be questioned if such noninvasive devices for measuring the Tibia-Femoral Rotation (TFR) can help diagnosing knee pathologies and investigate ligament reconstructive surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailFatigue in the Core of Aluminium Honeycomb Panels: Lifetime Prediction compared to Fatigue Tests
Wahl, Laurent UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in International Journal of Damage Mechanics (2014), 23 no.5

In comparison to their weight, honeycomb composite structures have a high bending stiffness, which makes them very suited for every application where little weight is important, like airplanes, railway ... [more ▼]

In comparison to their weight, honeycomb composite structures have a high bending stiffness, which makes them very suited for every application where little weight is important, like airplanes, railway-cars and vehicles. The sandwich panels consist of two thin and stiff aluminium face sheets , which are bonded to a thick and lightweight aluminium honeycomb core. These structures are subjected to dynamic loading. However, in literature, there are hardly any fatigue properties of the honeycomb core described. The fatigue properties of the core are investigated using the finite element method and experiments. Depending on the load application, the honeycomb core fails either through core indentation or shear failure. For a fatigue prediction, both failure modes have to be investigated. Additionally the physical behavior of the honeycomb core is depending on the orientation of the core. Hence, fatigue tests were conducted in three directions of the core: the stiffest direction, the most compliant direction and the direction with the highest stresses. A three-point bending test setup was built to study the fatigue properties of the honeycomb core. Several fatigue tests were carried out with a load ratio of R=0.1 (maximum load 10 times bigger than minimum load) and the fatigue diagrams being illustrated. Additionally, Food-Cart Roller Tests (wheels of a cart rolling in a circle on a floor panel) were done to dynamically test the panels in every angle. The sandwich structures were modeled with the ANSYS finite element software. The simulations, which were used to determine the stress amplitudes in the specimens, are described in the following pages. In addition, buckling analyses were used to examine core indentation failure. Based on these simulations, failure predictions can be made. The fatigue life of the examined specimens is successfully approximated in this manuscript, with the lifetime analysis being based on the FKM-guideline (error less than 14% in load amplitude). [less ▲]

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