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See detailFuzzy-4D/RCS for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F. et al

in BICS 2010 Conference on Brain-Inspired Cognitive Systems (2010, July)

Abstract This paper presents an improvement of the cognitive architecture, 4D/RCS, developed by the NIST. This improvement consist of the insertion of Fuzzy Logic cells (FLCs), in different parts and ... [more ▼]

Abstract This paper presents an improvement of the cognitive architecture, 4D/RCS, developed by the NIST. This improvement consist of the insertion of Fuzzy Logic cells (FLCs), in different parts and hierarchy levels of the architecture, and the adaptation of this architecture for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This advance provides an improvement in the functionality of the system based on the uses of the Miguel Olivares’ Fuzzy Software for the definition of the FLCs and its adaptative learning algorithm. These adaptative-FLCs contribute with the reduction of the uncertainty in the data sensor adquisition, a more adaptative behavior of the system to the real world and the reduction of the computational cost in the decision making. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual Servoing for UAVs
Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F.; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in Fung, Rong-Fong (Ed.) Visual Servoing (2010)

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See detailA Robotic Eye Controller Based on Cooperative Neural Agents
Chang, Oscar; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol et al

in Proccedings of World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI 2010) (2010)

A neural behavior initiating agent (BIA) is proposed to integrate relevant compressed image information coming from others cooperating and specialized neural agents. Using this arrangement the problem of ... [more ▼]

A neural behavior initiating agent (BIA) is proposed to integrate relevant compressed image information coming from others cooperating and specialized neural agents. Using this arrangement the problem of tracking and recognizing a moving icon has been solved by partitioning it into three simpler and separated tasks. Neural modules associated to those tasks proved to be easier to train and show a good general performance. The obtained neural controller can handle spurious images and solve an acute image related task in a dynamical environment. Under prolonged dead-lock conditions the controller shows traces of genuine spontaneity. The overall performance has been tested using a pan and tilt camera platform and real images taken from several objects, showing the good tracking results discussed in the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy Controller for UAV-Landing Task Using 3D-Position Visual Estimation
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy; Martinez, Carol et al

in Proccedings of World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI 2010) (2010)

This paper presents a Fuzzy Control application for a landing task of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, using the 3D-position estimation based on visual tracking of piecewise planar objects. This application ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a Fuzzy Control application for a landing task of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, using the 3D-position estimation based on visual tracking of piecewise planar objects. This application allows the UAV to land on scenarios in which it is only possible to use visual information to obtain the position of the vehicle. The use of the homography permits a realtime estimation of the UAV's pose with respect to a helipad using a monocular camera. Fuzzy Logic allows the definition of a model-free control system of the UAV. The Fuzzy controller analyzes the visual information to generate altitude commands for the UAV to develop the landing task. [less ▲]

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See detailOmnidirectional vision applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) attitude and heading estimation
Mondragon, Ivan F.; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol et al

in Robotics & Autonomous Systems (2010), 58(6), 809-819

This paper presents an aircraft attitude and heading estimator using catadioptric images as a principal sensor for UAV or as a redundant system for IMU (Inertial Measure Unit) and gyro sensors. First, we ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an aircraft attitude and heading estimator using catadioptric images as a principal sensor for UAV or as a redundant system for IMU (Inertial Measure Unit) and gyro sensors. First, we explain how the unified theory for central catadioptric cameras is used for attitude and heading estimation, explaining how the skyline is projected on the catadioptric image and how it is segmented and used to calculate the UAV's attitude. Then, we use appearance images to obtain a visual compass, and we calculate the relative rotation and heading of the aerial vehicle. Finally the tests and results using the UAV COLIBRI platform and the validation of them in real flights are presented, comparing the estimated data with the inertial values measured on board. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail3D pose estimation based on planar object tracking for UAVs control
Mondragon, Ivan F.; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol et al

in Proccedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (2010)

This article presents a real time Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs 3D pose estimation method using planar object tracking, in order to be used on the control system of a UAV. The method explodes the rich ... [more ▼]

This article presents a real time Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs 3D pose estimation method using planar object tracking, in order to be used on the control system of a UAV. The method explodes the rich information obtained by a projective transformation of planar objects on a calibrated camera. The algorithm obtains the metric and projective components of a reference object (landmark or helipad) with respect to the UAV camera coordinate system, using a robust real time object tracking based on homographies. The algorithm is validated on real flights that compare the estimated data against that obtained by the inertial measurement unit IMU, showing that the proposed method robustly estimates the helicopter's 3D position with respect to a reference landmark, with a high quality on the position and orientation estimation when the aircraft is flying at low altitudes, a situation in which the GPS information is often inaccurate. The obtained results indicate that the proposed algorithm is suitable for complex control tasks, such as autonomous landing, accurate low altitude positioning and dropping of payloads. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intelligent control strategy based on ANFIS techniques in order to improve the performance of a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle vision system
Marichal, G. N.; Hernández, A.; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in Mechatronics and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA), 2010 IEEE/ASME International Conference on (2010)

n this paper, an intelligent control approach based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems is presented. A model of a lowcost vision platform for an unmanned aerial system is taken in the study. A simulation platform ... [more ▼]

n this paper, an intelligent control approach based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems is presented. A model of a lowcost vision platform for an unmanned aerial system is taken in the study. A simulation platform including this low-cost vision system and the influence of the helicopter vibrations over this system is shown. The intelligent control approach has been inserted in this simulation platform. Several trials taking these Neuro-Fuzzy systems as a fundamental part of the control strategy have been carried out. Satisfactory results have been achieved in comparison with the results provided by classical techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailUnmanned aerial vehicles UAVs attitude, height, motion estimation and control using visual systems
Mondragon, Ivan F.; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual et al

in AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS (2010), 29(1), 17-34

This paper presents an implementation of an aircraft pose and motion estimator using visual systems as the principal sensor for controlling an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or as a redundant system for an ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an implementation of an aircraft pose and motion estimator using visual systems as the principal sensor for controlling an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or as a redundant system for an Inertial Measure Unit (IMU) and gyros sensors. First, we explore the applications of the unified theory for central catadioptric cameras for attitude and heading estimation, explaining how the skyline is projected on the catadioptric image and how it is segmented and used to calculate the UAV's attitude. Then we use appearance images to obtain a visual compass, and we calculate the relative rotation and heading of the aerial vehicle. Additionally, we show the use of a stereo system to calculate the aircraft height and to measure the UAV's motion. Finally, we present a visual tracking system based on Fuzzy controllers working in both a UAV and a camera pan and tilt platform. Every part is tested using the UAV COLIBRI platform to validate the different approaches, which include comparison of the estimated data with the inertial values measured onboard the helicopter platform and the validation of the tracking schemes on real flights. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual servoing using fuzzy controllers on an unmanned aerial vehicle
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F. et al

in EUROFUSE 2009. workshop on on preference modelling and decision analysis (2009, September)

This paper presents an implementa- tion of three Fuzzy Logic controllers working in parallel onboard a UAV, two for a pan-tilt camera platform and the third for control the yaw of the helicopter. This ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an implementa- tion of three Fuzzy Logic controllers working in parallel onboard a UAV, two for a pan-tilt camera platform and the third for control the yaw of the helicopter. This implementation uses a Lucas-Kanade tracker algo- rithm with a pyramidal optical ow implementation, which gives infor- mation to follow statics and moving objects, besides the UAV vibrations and movements. The platform con- troller is helped by the heading con- troller, in order to make smooth the big movements to the platform, re- ducing the risk of lost the warp selec- tion of the object to track. Also, the heading control remove the physic limit of the platform at the yaw axis. Some laboratory and UAV tests are presented in order to show the differ- ent behaviors and the good response of the presented controllers. [less ▲]

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See detailA Pan-Tilt Camera Fuzzy Vision Controller on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol et al

in 2009 IEEE-RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (2009)

This paper presents an implementation of two Fuzzy Logic controllers working in parallel for a pan-tilt camera platform on an IJAV. This implementation uses a basic Lucas-Kanade tracker algorithm, which ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an implementation of two Fuzzy Logic controllers working in parallel for a pan-tilt camera platform on an IJAV. This implementation uses a basic Lucas-Kanade tracker algorithm, which sends information about the error between the center of the object to track and the center of the image, to the Fuzzy controller. This information is enough for the controller to follow the object by moving a two axis servo-platform, regardless the UAV vibrations and movements. The two Fuzzy controllers for each axis, work with a rules-base of 49 rules, two inputs and one output with a more significant sector defined to improve the behavior of those controllers. The controllers have shown very good performances in real flights for statics objects, tested on the Colibri prototypes. [less ▲]

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See detailTrinocular Ground System to Control UAVs
Martinez, Carol; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan et al

in 2009 IEEE-RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (2009)

In this paper we introduce a real-time trinocular system to control rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles based on the 3D information extracted by cameras located on the ground. The algorithm is based on ... [more ▼]

In this paper we introduce a real-time trinocular system to control rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles based on the 3D information extracted by cameras located on the ground. The algorithm is based on key features onboard the UAV to estimate the vehicle's position and orientation. The algorithm is validated against onboard sensors and known 3D positions, showing that the proposed camera configuration robustly estimates the helicopter's position with an adequate resolution, improving the position estimation, especially the height estimation. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is suitable to complement or replace the GPS-based position estimation in situations where GPS information is unavailable or where its information is inaccurate, allowing the vehicle to develop tasks at low heights, such as autonomous landing, take-off, and positioning, using the extracted 3D information as a visual feedback to the flight controller. [less ▲]

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See detailComputer Vision Onboard UAVs for Civilian Tasks
Campoy, Pascual; Correa, Juan F.; Mondragon, Ivan et al

in JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT & ROBOTIC SYSTEMS (2009), 54(1-3), 105-135

Computer vision is much more than a technique to sense and recover environmental information from an UAV. It should play a main role regarding UAVs' functionality because of the big amount of information ... [more ▼]

Computer vision is much more than a technique to sense and recover environmental information from an UAV. It should play a main role regarding UAVs' functionality because of the big amount of information that can be extracted, its possible uses and applications, and its natural connection to human driven tasks, taking into account that vision is our main interface to world understanding. Our current research's focus lays on the development of techniques that allow UAVs to maneuver in spaces using visual information as their main input source. This task involves the creation of techniques that allow an UAV to maneuver towards features of interest whenever a GPS signal is not reliable or sufficient, e. g. when signal dropouts occur (which usually happens in urban areas, when flying through terrestrial urban canyons or when operating on remote planetary bodies), or when tracking or inspecting visual targets-including moving ones-without knowing their exact UMT coordinates. This paper also investigates visual servoing control techniques that use velocity and position of suitable image features to compute the references for flight control. This paper aims to give a global view of the main aspects related to the research field of computer vision for UAVs, clustered in four main active research lines: visual servoing and control, stereo-based visual navigation, image processing algorithms for detection and tracking, and visual SLAM. Finally, the results of applying these techniques in several applications are presented and discussed: this study will encompass power line inspection, mobile target tracking, stereo distance estimation, mapping and positioning. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual 3-D SLAM from UAVs
Artieda, Jorge; Sebastian, Jose M.; Campoy, Pascual et al

in JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT & ROBOTIC SYSTEMS (2009), 55(4-5), 299-321

The aim of the paper is to present, test and discuss the implementation of Visual SLAM techniques to images taken from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) outdoors, in partially structured environments. Every ... [more ▼]

The aim of the paper is to present, test and discuss the implementation of Visual SLAM techniques to images taken from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) outdoors, in partially structured environments. Every issue of the whole process is discussed in order to obtain more accurate localization and mapping from UAVs flights. Firstly, the issues related to the visual features of objects in the scene, their distance to the UAV, and the related image acquisition system and their calibration are evaluated for improving the whole process. Other important, considered issues are related to the image processing techniques, such as interest point detection, the matching procedure and the scaling factor. The whole system has been tested using the COLIBRI mini UAV in partially structured environments. The results that have been obtained for localization, tested against the GPS information of the flights, show that Visual SLAM delivers reliable localization and mapping that makes it suitable for some outdoors applications when flying UAVs. [less ▲]

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See detailVision for guidance and control of UAVs in civilian tasks
Campoy, Pascual; correa, Juan Fernando; Mondragon, Ivan F. et al

in UAV'08 International Symposium On Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (2008, June)

Computer vision is much more than a technique to sense and recover environmental information from an UAV. It should play a main role regarding UAVs’ functionality because of the big amount of information ... [more ▼]

Computer vision is much more than a technique to sense and recover environmental information from an UAV. It should play a main role regarding UAVs’ functionality because of the big amount of information that can be extracted, its possible uses and applications, and its natural connection to human driven tasks, taking into account that vision is our main interface to world understanding. Our current research’s focus lays on the development of techniques that allow UAVs to maneuver in spaces using visual information as their main input source. This task involves the creation of techniques that allow an UAV to maneuver towards features of interest whenever a GPS signal is not reliable or suffi cient, e.g. when signal dropouts occur (which usually happens in urban areas, when flying through terrestrial urban canyons or when operating on remote planetary bodies), or when tracking or inspecting visual targets—including moving ones—without knowing their exact UMT coordinates. This paper also investigates visual servoing control techniques that use velocity and position of suitable image features to compute the references for flight control. This paper aims to give a global view of the main aspects related to the research field of computer vision for UAVs, clustered in four main active research lines: visual servoing and control, stereo-based visual navigation, image processing algorithms for detection and tracking, and visual SLAM. Finally, the results of applying these techniques in several applications are presented and discussed: this study will encompass power line inspection, mobile target tracking, stereo distance estimation, mapping and positioning. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy control system navigation using priority areas
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, P.; Martinez, C. et al

in Ruan, D (Ed.) COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN DECISION AND CONTROL (2008)

This paper presents an improvement for the software implementation (MOFS) of a user adaptive fuzzy control system for autonomous navigation of mobile robots in unknown environments. This improvement ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an improvement for the software implementation (MOFS) of a user adaptive fuzzy control system for autonomous navigation of mobile robots in unknown environments. This improvement consists of a priority areas definition where the environment is measured by a PLS laser sensor, in order to get a reduction in the number of fuzzy rules and also in the computational cost, and hence obtaining improvements in the trajectory. This system has been tested in a pioneer mobile robot and on a robotic wheelchair, odometry sensors are used to localize the robots and the goal positions. The system is able to drive the robots to their goal position avoiding static and dynamic obstacles, without using any pre-built map. This approach improves the way to measure the danger of the obstacles, the way to follow the walls of corridors and the detection of doors. These improvements reduce the zigzag effect of the previous system by making the trajectories significantly straighter and hence reducing the time to reach the goal position. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy Logic User Adaptive Navigation Control System For Mobile Robots In Unknown Environments
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Fernadez Madrigal, Juan Antonio

in Intelligent Signal Processing, 2007. WISP 2007. IEEE International Symposium on (2007, October)

This paper presents a software implementation of a user adaptive fuzzy control system for autonomous navigation in mobile robots for unknown environments. This system has been tested in a pioneer mobile ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a software implementation of a user adaptive fuzzy control system for autonomous navigation in mobile robots for unknown environments. This system has been tested in a pioneer mobile robot and on a robotic wheelchair, fitted with PLS laser sensor to detect the obstacles and odometry sensors for localization of robots and the goal positions. The system is able to drive the robots to their goal position avoiding static and dynamic obstacles, without using any pre-built map. Our approach learn from user behaviors in the way it can resolve different situations against obstacles or walls.We propose and implement two updates for the fuzzy system. For the implementation of the learning algorithm we use a weighting scheme giving a value for each fuzzy-rule, this value is based on the synapse-weight idea and represent the contribution of each rule in the system output. We also create of a more important sector in the definition of the fuzzy-variables, based on a statistics system that measure the uses of all the sets of the variables in order to contract the size of the rule-base. [less ▲]

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