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See detailEntwicklung eines intelligenten, robotergestützten Assistenzsystems für die Demontage industrieller Produkte
Jungbluth, Jan UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Technical assistance systems are used in many aspects of our private environment to simplify our daily lives. Such assistance would also be desirable in our working environment, especially in physically ... [more ▼]

Technical assistance systems are used in many aspects of our private environment to simplify our daily lives. Such assistance would also be desirable in our working environment, especially in physically demanding activities such as dismantling products for maintenance, corrective maintenance, or remanufacturing. However, the use of robot-supported assistance systems is prevented by the imponderabilities in the dismantling process of different products due to the lack of autonomy of the technical systems. In the course of this dissertation, the development of intelligent, robot-supported assistance systems that can support people in such complex processes in a target-oriented manner are considered, and the following research question is posed: What are the technical requirements for such assistance systems and how can they be implemented? In the reviewed scientific literature, no holistic approach has been identified for the development of these systems, but many approaches to partial aspects of such a system have been collected across several research disciplines. In order to address the research question, this dissertation discusses the theoretical fields of technical assistance systems, human-robot systems, and the field of application in order to define technical requirements. A demonstrator for experimental validation is implemented in the form of a multi-agent system in which various technical systems are integrated and interconnected by software. The function of the developed robot-based assistance system could be verified in concrete dismantling processes in conjunction with suitable man-machine communication interfaces. Finally, this dissertation identifies further research questions that must be addressed before such systems can be introduced in the industrial environment. [less ▲]

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See detailElucidation of influencing parameters of the laser butt welding process of dissimilar steel to tungsten alloy sheets
Schiry, Marc UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Proceedings: International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing COMA'19 (2019, January)

Laser welding of steel - tungsten alloy joints requires deep understanding of the impact of the laser parameters on the welding process. Due to the dissimilar thermal and metallurgical properties of both ... [more ▼]

Laser welding of steel - tungsten alloy joints requires deep understanding of the impact of the laser parameters on the welding process. Due to the dissimilar thermal and metallurgical properties of both materials, a defined heat input and a precise temperature control in the weld interface is required. In the presented work, the influence of different laser parameter (e.g. laser power, focal position, scanner speed etc.) on the joint quality of laser welded steel / tungsten alloy butt-joints were investigated. By using statistical methods, the influencing process parameters were defined and optimized. It is shown that the horizontal focal position is the main parameter for the welding process in a butt-joint configuration. Additionally, manipulation of the heat input leads to modifications of the weld bead profile. By obtaining vertical seam boundaries in the sheet metal, a homogenous temperature profile at the interface of the materials to be welded was achieved. Due to the complete bonding and low amount of intermetallic phases, high shear strength accompanied with a low variance were the result. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel Opportunities by Laser Welding of Dissimilar Materials
Schiry, Marc UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Proceeding: International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing COMA'19 (2019, January)

The Laser Technology Competence Centre (LTCC) of the University of Luxembourg provides skills in joining material combinations, which are considered being non-weld able with traditional methods or at ... [more ▼]

The Laser Technology Competence Centre (LTCC) of the University of Luxembourg provides skills in joining material combinations, which are considered being non-weld able with traditional methods or at least challenging to join (e.g. Copper and Aluminium, Aluminium and Polyamide (PA), Titanium and PEEK, steel and tungsten hard alloy). Related accomplishments include minimal intermetallic compounds, convincing mechanical and superior electrical properties of the laser-welded specimen. With defined spatial and temporal modulation of the laser beam, an accurately defined temperature profile is created on the lower side of the upper material in the two dimensional directions, which enable joining of dissimilar materials in overlap configurations, despite challenging thermal properties. To weld butt-joint geometries with minimal heat affected volume, the temperature profiles were expanded in the third dimension, which can be achieved through controlled laser energy guidance. The scientific methods to accomplish these convincing results are explained, with selected industrial use cases ranging from automotive industry, energy storage, and medical implants. An outlook with unsolved challenges is intended to ignite discussions about upcoming research topics. [less ▲]

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See detailRule-Based Supervisory Control-Extension for Automated Manufacturing Processes
Klecker, Sophie UL; Hichri, Bassem UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research (2019)

Before performing a surface finishing process, human operators analyze the workpiece-conditions and react accordingly, i.e. they adapt the contact-situation of the tool with respect to the surface. This ... [more ▼]

Before performing a surface finishing process, human operators analyze the workpiece-conditions and react accordingly, i.e. they adapt the contact-situation of the tool with respect to the surface. This first step is ignored in most suggested automation concepts. Although their performance is satisfactory for the general process thanks to adaptive position- and force-/torque-control algorithms, they are unable to address specific problematic cases as often encountered in practice because of variations in workpiece-dimensions or -positioning. In this work, a human mimicking element is developed to overcome this limitation of current control concepts and to translate human expertise to the robotic manipulator. A rule-based system is designed where human knowledge is encoded as if-then rules. This system is integrated with a previously suggested control strategy in a hierarchical manner. The developed concept is experimentally validated on a KUKA LWR 4+-robotic manipulator. [less ▲]

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See detailDissimilar Laser Micro-Welding of Nickel Wire to CuSn6 Bronze Terminal
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals (2018)

In the present study, the laser welding of wire to flat geometry for miniature electromechanical hybrid components has been investigated. Considering the geometry of parts to be welded and also ... [more ▼]

In the present study, the laser welding of wire to flat geometry for miniature electromechanical hybrid components has been investigated. Considering the geometry of parts to be welded and also requirement of mechanical properties, spatial modulation of the laser beam was needed to be implemented to achieve a sound joint. Tensile-shear test and optical microscopy were employed to represent the mechanical properties and melt pool geometry of the joints. All welds were done by power modulation of the laser beam to better control the energy input at several feed rates and three different beam trajectories. Results showed that the shear load of the joint could be controlled by feed rate and the trajectory of the laser beam. Considering the material combination of the study that were nickel and CuSn6 bronze, which represented solubility in solid state, a joint stronger than base wire metal was achieved by defining a proper spatial modulation and feed rate of the laser beam. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey: The usage of Augmented Reality in Industry
Gallala, Abir UL; Hichri, Bassem UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics 2018 (2018, November 01)

Human-Robot-Interaction technologies in industry 4.0 and modern manufacturing are more and more growing. Using off-line robot programming methods such as Augmented Reality (AR) could gain time and money ... [more ▼]

Human-Robot-Interaction technologies in industry 4.0 and modern manufacturing are more and more growing. Using off-line robot programming methods such as Augmented Reality (AR) could gain time and money as well as improve programming and repair tasks. This paper is a study of the use of AR in smart factories. [less ▲]

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See detailRobotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018
Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter UL; Brüls, Olivier et al

Book published by Shaker Verlag - 1st ed (2018)

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See detailIndustry 4.0 – Implementation of an automated assembly line in a wooden modular house production plant: The case Leko Labs
de Vincenzo, Vincenzo UL; Hichri, Bassem UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in De vincenzo, Vincenzo; Hichri, Bassem; Plapper, Peter (Eds.) Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018 (2018, November)

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See detailFLEXCAP – Cost competitive flexible process for highly aesthetic closures manufacturing
Kakogiannos, Ioannis UL; Hichri, Bassem UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Kakogiannos, Ioannis; Hichri, Bassem; Plapper, Peter (Eds.) Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018 (2018, November)

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See detailAutogenous Laser welding of copper to aluminium
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Poster (2018, September 13)

This work investigates laser joining of copper sheets to aluminium in overlap configuration. Dissimilar Cu-Al connections are widely used in the electrical and electronics applications e.g. battery and ... [more ▼]

This work investigates laser joining of copper sheets to aluminium in overlap configuration. Dissimilar Cu-Al connections are widely used in the electrical and electronics applications e.g. battery and solar panels.Joining these materials is a very critical assembly process. The laser welding from the aluminium surface to copper (Al-Cu) is well described in the literature .But there is no data concerning the laser seam welding from the copper side to join with aluminium i.e Cu-Al.The selection of aluminium surface to irradiate is mainly because of poor absorption of copper to laser in IR region.But high intensities of about 100 MW/cm2 allow for initial vaporization of copper surface.Once the keyhole is generated, absorption of laser light is improved.Thereby high power lasers allow for successful penetration of copper surface to produce a joint with aluminium. The main objective is to investigate the approach of dissimilar laser welding starting from the copper surface to aluminium.The effect of process parameters on the shear force, microstructure and weld pool dimensions are studied.An experimental design is realized to see the effect of laser irradiation of copper surface (Cu-Al) in contrast to aluminium surface(Al-Cu). The selection of aluminium or copper surface is mainly dependent on the laser power.With the high power disk laser the possibility of joining from the copper side was evident and results of joining copper to aluminium and aluminium to copper are comparable.Therefore welding from a highly reflective surface to achive a comparable shear strength is demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser micro-welding of wire to flat geometry for dissimilar materials in an electromechanical application
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Poster (2018, September 11)

In the presented study, the laser welding of wire to flat geometry for miniature electromechanical hybrid components has been investigated. Laser welding offers variety of advantages compared to the ... [more ▼]

In the presented study, the laser welding of wire to flat geometry for miniature electromechanical hybrid components has been investigated. Laser welding offers variety of advantages compared to the current joining processes for this application however, considering the geometry of parts to be welded also mechanical properties requirement, an accurate spatial modulation of laser beam should be implemented to achieve a sound joint. Tensile shear test and optical microscopy were employed to represent the mechanical properties and melt pool geometry of the joint. All welds were done by power modulation of the laser beam to better control the energy input at several feed rates and three different beam trajectories. Results show that the shear load of the joint can be controlled by feed rate and the trajectory of the laser beam. The material combination of the study (Nickel and CuSn6), represents solubility in solid state therefore, by defining a proper spatial modulation of the laser beam a joint stronger than base wire metal is achievable. Figure 1 represents schematics of weld components. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of laser parameter on weld bead shape and process stability of laser welded steel sheets
Schiry, Marc UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Proceedings of 10th Conference on Photonic Technologies LANE 2018 (2018)

Laser butt-welding of dissimilar heat sensitive materials is one of the most challenging tasks. Significant differences in melting and transition temperatures are typical and occur frequently. Therefore ... [more ▼]

Laser butt-welding of dissimilar heat sensitive materials is one of the most challenging tasks. Significant differences in melting and transition temperatures are typical and occur frequently. Therefore, accurate control of the temperature profile at the interface of the weld is essential. In this paper, the influence of the laser parameter power and velocity, as well as laser spot diameter on the laser process were investigated. It is shown that the beam diameter has a significant impact on the weld bead formation. Further variation of the type of shielding gas showed an effect on the bead geometry depending on the used laser spot diameter. Spectroscopic process observations showed a significant impact of the spot diameter and shielding gas on the energy input and the efficiency of the laser process. A homogeneous damping effect of the laser radiation was obtained by using the larger fiber diameter accompanied with a higher overall intensity of process radiation. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition and phases in laser welded Al-Cu joints by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction
Schmalen, Pascal Guy UL; Plapper, Peter UL; Peral Alonso, Inmaculada UL et al

in Proceedings of 10th CIRP Conference on Photonic Technologies [LANE 2018] (2018)

This paper presents the characterization of the intermetallic phases of laser-welded Al-Cu joints by synchrotron trough-the-substrate microdiffraction combined with SEM/EDX and etched/non-etched optical ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the characterization of the intermetallic phases of laser-welded Al-Cu joints by synchrotron trough-the-substrate microdiffraction combined with SEM/EDX and etched/non-etched optical micrographs. Transmission microdiffraction offers the spatial resolution and beam flux necessary to study the intermetallic phases, which in conjunction with the excellent contrast of etched micrographs, rendered possible the phase identification. It was found that the major phases are Al2Cu (θ), Al4Cu9 (γ1) and AlCu (η2) were formed. The Al3Cu4 (ζ1) and δ phases where formed in less amount and found to be the primary cause for cracks inside the weld seam and therefore for the failure of the joint. [less ▲]

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See detailStandardisierte unternehmensübergreifende Wertstrommethode (StreaM)
Oberhausen, Christof UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

In the course of globalization, complex corporate networks arise in which diverse players are involved in the value-added process. Particularly at the interfaces of the value chain, there are challenges ... [more ▼]

In the course of globalization, complex corporate networks arise in which diverse players are involved in the value-added process. Particularly at the interfaces of the value chain, there are challenges in terms of communication and cooperation, since so far no uniform procedure for the visualization, analysis and continuous improvement of product and information flows is used. These difficulties occur both within organizations and especially across company boundaries. In particular, no internationally recognized value stream standard exists at present, which is inter alia a result of a low cooperativeness of organizations due to a lack of trust, inadequate knowledge and insufficient incentives. The inconsistent use of Value Stream Management (VSM) affects many economic sectors worldwide. These inconsistent VSM approaches lead to inefficiencies, such as rework and coordination difficulties in the case of value stream audits, which represent an avoidable waste of time, natural and financial resources. In the scientific literature, a large number of fundamental VSM approaches, modifications and further developments are available that serve as a basis for the present work. The existing VSM approaches include provisions, e.g. in terms of symbols, data boxes, associated process variables and their calculation, which are each extensive, diverse and in some cases process-specific. In contrast, complex, globally distributed value chain structures require a holistic approach for the modeling of value streams. In the context of this dissertation, a VSM draft standard will be generated by means of a comparison of existing VSM approaches. Based on four different value stream levels, a multi-stage approach for the visualization, analysis and continuous improvement of cross-company product and information flows will be developed. The present thesis thus provides the methodological basis on the way towards an internationally recognized VSM standard and demonstrates in addition the potential of efficient and targeted application of VSM in value networks. On the one hand, standardizing the VSM method will enable an improved communication and cooperation along value chains in different economic sectors. On the other hand, the holistic approach helps to identify, show and implement improvement measures across company borders and ultimately leads to a reduction or ideally to the elimination of waste from an end customer perspective. The developed approach allows organizations worldwide to assess internal as well as cross-company value streams in a structured manner, to design them flexibly and to implement them effectively in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic Studies of dissimilar Al-Cu laser welding
Schmalen, Pascal Guy UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in proceedings of asme msec 2018 (2018)

This paper describes a novel method to analyze the effect of the fiber laser induced plasma on welding of dissimilar Al and Cu. Based on spectroscopic studies, specific wavelengths were found to be ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a novel method to analyze the effect of the fiber laser induced plasma on welding of dissimilar Al and Cu. Based on spectroscopic studies, specific wavelengths were found to be suitable for process monitoring during laser welding. For aluminum, the double peak at 394.4 and 396.1 nm was studied, for cu the 578 nm peak was studied. The characteristic peaks were observed by multiple photodiodes equipped with narrow optical filters with varying FWHM. Analyzing the plasma emissions of the process enabled to detect material changes in the plasma plume. This novel method has the advantage of higher sampling rate combined with reduced costs compared to a spectrometer and is thus able to capture the process dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailCILAP-Architecture for Simultaneous Position- and Force-Control in Constrained Manufacturing Tasks
Klecker, Sophie UL; Hichri, Bassem UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in ICINCO 2018 Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics Volume 2 (2018, July)

This paper presents a parallel control concept for automated constrained manufacturing tasks, i.e. for simultaneous position- and force-control of industrial robotic manipulators. The manipulator’s ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a parallel control concept for automated constrained manufacturing tasks, i.e. for simultaneous position- and force-control of industrial robotic manipulators. The manipulator’s interaction with its environment results in a constrained non-linear switched system. In combination with internal and external uncertainties and in the presence of friction, the stable system performance is impaired. The aim is to mimic a human worker’s behaviour encoded as lists of successive desired positions and forces obtained from the records of a human performing the considered task operating the lightweight robot arm in gravity compensation mode. The suggested parallel control concept combines a model-free position- and a model-free torque-controller. These separate controllers combine conventional PID- and PI-control with adaptive neuro-inspired algorithms. The latter use concepts of a reward-like incentive, a learning system and an actuator-inhibitor-interplay. The elements Conventional controller, Incentive, Learning system and Actuator-Preventer interaction form the CILAP-concept. The main contribution of this work is a biologically inspired parallel control architecture for simultaneous position- and force-control of continuous in contrast to discrete manufacturing tasks without having recourse to visual inputs. The proposed control-method is validated on a surface finishing process-simulation. It is shown that it outperforms a conventional combination of PID- and PI-controllers. [less ▲]

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See detailAugmented Reality-based human-robot Interaction Method: ARBI
Gallala, Abir UL; Hichri, Bassem UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Robotix Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR 2018) (2018, June)

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See detailApplication of Value Stream Management to enhance product and information flows in supply chain networks - based on the example of web-based automotive retail business
Plapper, Peter UL; Oberhausen, Christof UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL

in Management and Production Engineering Review (2018), 9(2), 13-19

Due to globalized business operations, companies in different economic sectors are part of complex supply chain networks. Their value-added processes comprise product and information flows, e.g. with a ... [more ▼]

Due to globalized business operations, companies in different economic sectors are part of complex supply chain networks. Their value-added processes comprise product and information flows, e.g. with a focus on manufacturing, service or trade. Until the final product is delivered to the end customer, it needs to pass many different processes in cooperating organizations. As a result, there a lot of business-to-business (B2B) interactions with cross-enterprise transactions, often including cross-border communications and sometimes even cross-industry trades with technological and often cultural implications. Especially the interfaces of supply chain networks are prone to inefficiencies, misunderstandings and delays due to a lack of standardized B2B transactions, which leads to waste in form of rework, errors and mistakes. In addition, new customers are hard to find for the manufacturing or trading company, since potential customers are so far limited to a regional network. The advantages of extending the customer base still need to be explored by many organizations. This paper discusses the opportunities by streamlining the communication along supply chain networks in a general fashion and then describes the application in a B2B automotive retail business. A concept of a web-based trading platform, which provides a seamless service for all steps of a convenient and efficient used vehicle remarketing business, is developed. It includes all phases, like offering and price finding in a comprehensive online platform, which also covers further activities, such as logistic services, financial transactions, and a mandatory feedback loop. The suggested B2B vehicle-trading platform enables a quick turnover of each transaction, which is analyzed and optimized based on the application of cross-enterprise Value Stream Management. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimierung und Charakterisierung einer mittels Laserstrahl gefügten Verbindung zwischen Aluminium und Polyamid 6.6
Lamberti, Christian UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

The creation of strong joints between dissimilar materials and in particular between polymers and metals is one of the most often discussed topics in the fields of automotive, aerospace and transportation ... [more ▼]

The creation of strong joints between dissimilar materials and in particular between polymers and metals is one of the most often discussed topics in the fields of automotive, aerospace and transportation. Especially the combination of polyamide and aluminum is of highest interest, due to their market share as construction materials. New joining concepts are anticipated to deliver strong, durable and resource efficient structural components that are ideally suited for lightweight designs. However, current research activities have shown that the highly distinct material properties of these materials pose enormous challenges on the creation of hybrid structures. The cause that potentially enables the connection between the aluminum surface and the polymer is still not fully understood. The research objective of the presented work, therefore is, on the one hand, to create an optimal joint between aluminum and polyamide 6.6 using a laser beam to reach high shear strength for an industrial application. On the other hand, the presented work seeks to deliver a substantial contribution to furtherly understand the interaction between the polymer and the metal surface during the thermal joining. A laser-based joining method was developed that enables the researchers to overcome limitations of conventional processes, that is minimizing space requirements, making the application of additional gaskets obsolete, reaching high strength, saving weight and reducing processing time. The effectiveness of different surface pre-treatments has been studied, and the described optimization of this method has lead to an increase of the shear strength of the joints by more than 100 %. Laser ablation and the hydrothermal treatment of the metallic surface, before the joining operation, lead to the highest joint strength. The surface pre-treatment method of laser ablation delivered to transfer the gathered insights and experience from the laboratory to the industrial scale, due to its repeatability and reproducibility. The experiment mentioned above includes the use of production materials, such as aluminum with a higher sheet thickness of up to 1.48 mm and glass fiber reinforced polymer. Shear strength of 40 MPa was reached in quasi-static single lap shear tests. During dynamic testing, samples maintained 63 % of static breaking load after one million cycles. The hydrothermal treatment of the aluminum surface leads to a lower surface roughness of Ra = 1.58 µm in average as opposed to 4.90 µm after laser ablation. Due to the lower roughness values, the first-mentioned method was chosen to study the interaction. An XPS-analysis revealed a strong influence of the surface pre-treatment method on the chemical composition of the metal surface, which becomes noticeable by hydroxylation of the surface layer and is expressed by the oxide ratio (O/Al) and hydroxide ratio (OH/O). A high O/Al ratio of 2.36 and an OH/O ratio of 0.63 after the hydrothermal treatment is showing a strong increase of the amount of hydroxide in direct comparison to values of 35 % and 36 % of OH/O ratio after ethanol and hexane cleaning respectively. The question, as to which extent the presence of such hydroxide structures at the boundary layer of the aluminum influence the interaction between the metal surface and the polymer, was a subject matter of an additional FT-IR analysis. In case of the infrared spectra from thin polymer films on the hydrothermally treated surface, clear indications of interaction are visible. In direct comparison to the infrared spectra from polymer films on either ethanol or hexane cleaned surfaces, this interaction seems to increase nearby of the interface further. The interaction mentioned above appears at the carbonyl band and amine band as a shift of 4 cm-1 and 8 cm-1 and an increase of the full width at half maximum by 35 % respectively 40 %. Additional strong differences are visible at the molecule vibrations below 1,200 cm-1, which are typically assigned to both crystalline phases and amorphous phases of the polyamide. In case of the hydrothermal treatment, collected data indicates a polymorphous state inside the polymer films, which seems to become increasingly disordered close to the interface. On the contrary, spectra from the polymer films on ethanol and hexane pre-treated substrates show only marginal changes. Methods are proposed to build upon the results described in this work and refine distinct signs of the interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailLessons from social network analysis to Industry 4.0
Omar, Yamila UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Manufacturing Letters (2018), 15B

With the advent of Industry 4.0, a growing number of sensors within modern production lines generate high volumes of data. This data can be used to optimize the manufacturing industry in terms of complex ... [more ▼]

With the advent of Industry 4.0, a growing number of sensors within modern production lines generate high volumes of data. This data can be used to optimize the manufacturing industry in terms of complex network topology metrics commonly used in the analysis of social and communication networks. In this work, several such metrics are presented along with their appropriate interpretation in the field of manufacturing. Furthermore, the assumptions under which such metrics are defined are assessed in order to determine their suitability. Finally, their potential application to identify performance limiting resources, allocate maintenance resources and guarantee quality assurance are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 161 (20 UL)