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See detailError estimation in quantities of interest for XFEM using recovery techniques
González-Estrada, O. A.; Nadal, E.; Ródenas, J. J. et al

in Yang, Z J (Ed.) 20th UK National Conference of the Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering (ACME) (2012)

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See detailError estimation of recovered solutions in FE analysis. Higher order h-adaptive refinement strategies
Ródenas, J. J.; Nadal, E.; González-Estrada, O. A. et al

in Pimienta, P M (Ed.) 10th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM 2012) (2012)

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See detailError-controlled adaptive extended finite element method for 3D linear elastic crack propagation
Jin, Y.; González-Estrada, O. A.; Pierard, O. et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2017), 318

We present a simple error estimation and mesh adaptation approach for 3D linear elastic crack propagation simulations using the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM). A global extended recovery technique ... [more ▼]

We present a simple error estimation and mesh adaptation approach for 3D linear elastic crack propagation simulations using the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM). A global extended recovery technique (Duflot and Bordas, 2008) is used to quantify the interpolation error. Based on this error distribution, four strategies relying on two different mesh optimality criteria are compared. The first aims at homogenizing the error distribution. The second minimizes the total number of elements given a target global error level. We study the behaviour of these criteria in the context of cracks treated by an X-FE approach. In particular, we investigate the convergence rates at the element-level depending its enrichment type. We conclude on the most suitable refinement criterion and propose and verify a strategy for mesh adaptation on 3D damage tolerance assessment problems. [less ▲]

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See detailError-controlled computational fracture mechanics
Bordas, Stéphane UL

Scientific Conference (2017, July 12)

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See detailEstimación precisa del error en magnitudes de interés mediante técnicas de recovery con equilibrio local
Nadal, E.; Ródenas, J. J.; González-Estrada, O. A. et al

in Congress on Numerical Methods in Engineering (2011)

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See detailEstimating bike-share trips using station level data
Medard de Chardon, Cyrille UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Tranportation Research Part B: Methodological (2015), 78

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) have increased in number rapidly since 2007. The potential benefits of BSS, mainly sustainability, health and equity, have encouraged their adoption through support and ... [more ▼]

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) have increased in number rapidly since 2007. The potential benefits of BSS, mainly sustainability, health and equity, have encouraged their adoption through support and promotion by mayors in Europe and North America alike. In most cases municipal governments desire their BSS to be successful and, with few exceptions, state them as being so. New technological improvements have dramatically simplified the use and enforcement of bicycle return, resulting in the widespread adoption of BSS. Unfortunately little evaluation of the effectiveness of differently distributed and managed BSS has taken place. Comparing BSS systems quantitatively is challenging due to the limited data made available. The metrics of success presented by municipalities are often too general or incomparable to others making relative evaluations of BSS success arduous. This paper presents multiple methodologies allowing the estimation of the number of daily trips, the most significant measure of BSS usage, based on data that is commonly available, the number of bicycles available at a station over time. Results provide model coefficients as well as trip count estimates for select cities. Of four spatial and temporal aggregate models the day level aggregation is found to be most effective for estimation. In addition to trip estimation this work provides a rigorous formalization of station level data and the ability to distinguish spatio-temporal rebalancing quantities as well as new characteristics of BSS station use. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating fibres' material parameter distributions from limited data with the help of Bayesian inference
Rappel, Hussein UL; Beex, Lars UL

in European Journal of Mechanics. A, Solids (2019), 75

Numerous materials are essentially structures of discrete fibres, yarns or struts. Considering these materials at their discrete scale, one may distinguish two types of intrinsic randomness that affect ... [more ▼]

Numerous materials are essentially structures of discrete fibres, yarns or struts. Considering these materials at their discrete scale, one may distinguish two types of intrinsic randomness that affect the structural behaviours of these discrete structures: geometrical randomness and material randomness. Identifying the material randomness is an experimentally demanding task, because many small fibres, yarns or struts need to be tested, which are not easy to handle. To avoid the testing of hundreds of constituents, this contribution proposes an identification approach that only requires a few dozen of constituents to be tested (we use twenty to be exact). The identification approach is applied to articially generated measurements, so that the identified values can be compared to the true values. Another question this contribution aims to answer is how precise the material randomness needs to be identified, if the geometrical randomness will also influence the macroscale behaviour of these discrete networks. We therefore also study the effect of the identified material randomness to that of the actual material randomness for three types of structures; each with an increasing level of geometrical randomness. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation and its Role in Engineering Design - An Introduction
Adolphy, Sebastian; Gericke, Kilian UL; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design (2009)

Estimation is assumed to be a relevant method for problem solving in product development due to the deficiencies in information availability and certainty, as well because of short resources. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

Estimation is assumed to be a relevant method for problem solving in product development due to the deficiencies in information availability and certainty, as well because of short resources. Nevertheless estimation as a method is hardly mentioned in literature on product development nor is it part of engineering education. As a consequence good performance in estimation and the development of estimation competence is left to chance, i.e. expected to be built up through experience. We believe that estimation can be supported and taught. Hence estimation competence can be developed purposive and more quickly. The aims of the research introduced in this paper are to understand relevance and functioning of estimation in engineering design, and to develop support for engineering practice and education based on this understanding. This paper focuses on demonstrating the topics’ relevance by addressing the following questions: •Why is estimation important for engineering design? •What is the state of the art in understanding estimation in general? •What is the state of the art of estimation as a method in engineering design? On the basis of this initial investigation we propose our research framework. After goal, approach and scope of our research, the main research questions on estimation in engineering design we wish to answer are formulated, and the research methods we are using. Furthermore first results on characteristics of estimation in engineering design identified by tests, as well as video and protocol analysis are summarized. At least an outlook on the prospect research is given. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude biomécanique comparative de cinq différents systèmes de fixation utilisés dans les cas d'ostéotomies tibiales valgisantes: Essais expérimentaux et simulations numériques incluant les forces musculaires
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This research project was carried out in partnership with the Orthopaedic and Traumatology service of the “clinique d’Eich” of the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg. The main objective consisted in a ... [more ▼]

This research project was carried out in partnership with the Orthopaedic and Traumatology service of the “clinique d’Eich” of the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg. The main objective consisted in a comparative biomechanical study of the stability of five different currently used implants for open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). The following implants were tested in the comparative biomechanical study: Contour Lock HTO, PEEKPower HTO, iBalance HTO, TomoFix standard and TomoFix small stature. The implants were chosen freely from the market and there has not been any funding or link to any of the manufacturers. The comparison was first made experimentally using static compression loading to failure and dynamic loading to failure tests, then computationally using simulations by mean of the finite element method. Muscle forces were predicted using musculoskeletal modeling and applied to the finite element models of the lower limb that simulated the stance phase of the gait cycle. The finite element models created included all the bones of the lower limb, except those of the foot, as well as the menisci, the articular cartilage layers of the knee and the patellar tendon which was modelled by springs. The comparative study using numerical simulations was done considering two separate loadings: (1) application of a compressive load on the tibial plateau and (2) consideration of muscle forces. The comparison of the two types of loading (1) and (2) showed that loading (1) used during the mechanical tests is compatible with a realistic loading of the tibia with the leg at 15 % of the gait cycle during slow walking. Observations from numerical simulations considering loading (2) emphasized the necessity to take into account the muscle forces in the testing protocols and implant design process. The results of the numerical simulations considering loading (1) were in line with the findings of the experimental study. All the implants tested showed sufficient stability during static loading. All the specimens failed due to fracture of the opposite cortical bone. In regards to the results of this study, the implant iBalance offered the best mechanical stability to the operated tibia, and the PEEKPower plate the worst. Simplifications were made to reduce the complexity of the different physical and numerical models; hence the transposition of the obtained results to clinical settings should be done with precaution. There is no conflict of interest in relation to this work. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Association for Data Science, its main goals and tasks
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias UL

Presentation (2016, December)

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See detailEuropean Conference on Data Analysis 2013. Book of Abstracts.
Lausen, Berthold; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Böhmer, Matthias UL

Book published by University of Luxembourg (2013)

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See detailEvaluating the effects of information reliability on travellers’ route choice
Bifulco, Gennaro N.; Di Pace, Roberta; Viti, Francesco UL

in European Transport Research Review (2013)

Purpose This paper analyses travellers’ behaviour with respect to route choice in a context where an Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS) is in place. ATIS are important applications in the field ... [more ▼]

Purpose This paper analyses travellers’ behaviour with respect to route choice in a context where an Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS) is in place. ATIS are important applications in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). However, the practical impact of ATIS is still a matter for debate, and identification of expected route choice behaviour under ATIS is one of themain ways to assess their practical importance. Methods Travellers’ choices are frequently explored by means of stated preference (SP) approaches. In this paper we discuss some issues to be addressed when an SP survey is carried out, with particular reference to cases where a repeated choice approach is employed in the survey. Results Our analysis concerns an application of the SP approach in a pilot study aimed at identifying the effects of ATIS accuracy on travellers’ compliance with information. Conclusions This paper aims tomake two major contributions. First of all, empirical analyses based on proper indicators and statistical tests are suggested in order to evaluate how the collected data have to be handled in order to eliminate transient route-choice observations. These are due to the warm-up phase inherently associated with the survey method adopted, dealing with repeated choices. Secondly, we analyse (stationary) route choice in order to assess the effects of information reliability (and the kind of information) on both route choice and compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailAn evaluation of low-cost consumer-grade UAS systems for 3D reality capture
Backes, Dietmar UL; Teasdale, Oliver; Eloff, Jacques

Poster (2016, September 22)

During the last years, small lightweight and low cost remotely piloted aerial systems (RPAS) commonly referred as Drones have rapidly developed into capable low-cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). Fuelled ... [more ▼]

During the last years, small lightweight and low cost remotely piloted aerial systems (RPAS) commonly referred as Drones have rapidly developed into capable low-cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). Fuelled by a vibrant community of scientists, professionals and hobby enthusiasts enabling technologies have matured quickly, and prices of consumer grade as well as semi-professional systems fell sharply. Especially multirotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAS have proven to be versatile and flexible platforms which can be equipped with a range of sensors capable of capturing aerial data for a variety of 2D and 3D mapping applications. Consumer grade, low weight systems as the DJI Phantom or 3DR Solo have a limited payload and can carry low weight action cameras like the GoPro Hero models which are capable of collecting video as well as still RGB and near-infrared imagery. Applying traditional Photogrammetric methods to imagery from low-cost UAS systems proved complex and impractical in the past. However modern the state-of-the-art structure from motion algorithms implemented in off the shelf software packages (sometimes referred as new Photogrammetry), cloud processing environments and available via open source libraries promise to generate dense 3D point clouds, textured models and orthomosaics in high quality and without much effort. How accurate and how reliable are data products generated from such systems? Expanding from a preliminary study (BACKES & TEASDALE 2015) we review the every progressing capabilities and features of COTS (commercial of the shelf) user and semi-professional UAS systems under the aspects of deployable sensors, ease of use, reliability as well as safety. We show the workflow from flight planning, data collection to dense pointclould matching using a range of software products. The resulting point clouds are evaluated and benchmarked using a highly accurate and dense reference data acquired via geodetic terrestrial survey and Laserscanning. The results of this evaluations allow conclusions on the current accuracy capabilities of this such low-cost systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of V2me: A Virtual Coaching System for Loneliness Prevention and Intervention
Roelofsma, Peter; Ferring, Dieter UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in Medicine 2.0: Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 (2013, September)

One out of three persons in our society suffers from social or emotional loneliness. This percentage is even higher in the population of people who suffer from chronic diseases. Loneliness has pervasive ... [more ▼]

One out of three persons in our society suffers from social or emotional loneliness. This percentage is even higher in the population of people who suffer from chronic diseases. Loneliness has pervasive effects on mental health but it also has negative effects on physical well-being. The aim of this paper is to present a series of pilot studies evaluating the development of an ambient virtual coaching system. This system, called V2me (Virtual Coach reaches Out to Me) offers a friendship enrichment course for people in need for improving their social network. Several pilot studies were performed with about 50 participants in total who evaluated the system that was developed using a living lab approach. In this approach new health media was developed from a user-centered process that allows frequent iterations of user evaluation and involvement. The paper presents the results of the first five iterations. The reactions on receiving the system and experiences during instruction were increasingly positive over these iterations of the system development phase. Over time the system has passed the user’s choice selection criteria. Participants have been expressing a clear interest for choosing and wanting to use the system in their daily lives. However, the system did not pass the persistent use selection criteria when the system was brought and left for independent use. It appeared that participants did not use it very much during the day as expected. Moreover, participants did not perform all the tasks (i.e., messaging, Skyping) that they were asked to achieve on a daily basis. The final goal of the V2me system, i.e. establishing social relations between elderly persons, was not achieved as well, although this might be due to the limited time space of using the system and its facilities. Given these observation, it is concluded that more iterations in the system development are needed for the system in order to pass the habitual use criteria which is needed for its effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailEventually everything connects
Lallemand, Carine UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

If you are reading these lines, you are probably curious about the type of experience that you would have as an attendee of this talk. You might wonder whether the topic would match your interests ... [more ▼]

If you are reading these lines, you are probably curious about the type of experience that you would have as an attendee of this talk. You might wonder whether the topic would match your interests, whether the speaker will be good enough to satisfy your expectations, whether you will feel inspired, exhilarated, or whether you will have concrete tools to bring back to your work. While you are usually the ones shaping people’s experiences, you are striving for nice experiences as well. Designing for human experiences is one of the most challenging yet fascinating activities. It is a responsibility that we should embrace with humility and dedication. To face the complexity of our mission, we need to draw on theoretical knowledge, methodological skills and of course on our shared professional expertise, as a community. While UX practitioners are working hard at the front lines to design better products or services, scientists work in the shadows to develop and consolidate a myriad of novel and highly valuable UX methods. During this talk, you will discover the ever-growing UX toolbox that could greatly support you in collecting richer, insightful and more valid data. From scientific theories to pragmatic methods, from academia to industry, from Luxembourg to Puerto Rico… Eventually everything connects. [less ▲]

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See detailExact and approximate route set generation for resilient partial observability in sensor location problems
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Transportation Research. Part B : Methodological (2017), 105

Sensor positioning is a fundamental problem in transportation networks, as the location of sensors strongly determines how traffic flows are observable and hence manageable. This paper aims to develop a ... [more ▼]

Sensor positioning is a fundamental problem in transportation networks, as the location of sensors strongly determines how traffic flows are observable and hence manageable. This paper aims to develop a methodology to determine sensor locations on a network such that an optimal trade-off solution is found between the amount of sensors installed and the resilience of the sensor set. In particular, we propose exact and heuristic solutions for identifying the optimal route sets such that no other route would include any additional information for finding optimal full and partial observability solutions. This is an important contribution to sensor location problems, as route-based link flow inference problems have non-unique solutions, strongly depending on the used link-route information. The properties of the new methodology are analyzed and illustrated through different case studies, and the advantages of the algorithms are quantified both for full and for partial observability solutions. Due to the route sets found by our approach, we are able to find full observability solutions characterized by a small number of sensors, while yet being efficient also in terms of partial observability. We perform validation tests on both small and real-life sized network instances. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental analysis of eGLOSA and eGLODTA transit control strategies
Giorgione, Giulio UL; Viti, Francesco UL; Rinaldi, Marco UL et al

in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Models and Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems, MT-ITS 2017 (2017)

Battery powered electric buses have higher energy efficiency, lower emissions and noise when compared to buses with internal combustion engines. However, due to battery charging requirements, their large ... [more ▼]

Battery powered electric buses have higher energy efficiency, lower emissions and noise when compared to buses with internal combustion engines. However, due to battery charging requirements, their large-scale integration into public transport operations is more complex. This study proposes a novel concept supporting said integration via new control strategies, dubbed e-GLOSA and e-GLODTA. These strategies extend the existing Green Light Optimal Speed and Dwell Time Systems (GLOSA/GLODTA) to account for the specific needs of electric buses. That is, they include the goals of minimizing the energy consumption between charging stations, and maximizing available charging time. At the same time, interference with schedule requirements is minimized. The formulated heuristics are tested on a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridor case study, where different scenarios—such as placement of charging stations and bus regularity—are studied to assess under which conditions each action (maintain speed, accelerate or dwell for a longer time at a stop) is beneficial. Results show that eGLOSA contributes to schedule adherence while eGLODTA allows satisfying charging time constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and numerical assessment of the mechanics of keloid-skin composites undergoing large deformations
Sensale, Marco UL; Chambert, Jerome; Chouly, Franz et al

Scientific Conference (2017, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (9 UL)