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See detailEmbracing diversity in the digital transformation of primary healthcare
Lygidakis, Charilaos UL

Scientific Conference (2017, June 30)

The use of information and communication technologies for health constitutes a strategic ally to the sustainable development goals and attaining universal health coverage through enabling equitable access ... [more ▼]

The use of information and communication technologies for health constitutes a strategic ally to the sustainable development goals and attaining universal health coverage through enabling equitable access to high quality and affordable health care services. The omnipresence of mobile devices and sensors, the increasing availability of data and computational power, and the breakthroughs in imaging and genomics, are creating a perfect storm that is bound to transform health care profoundly. At the population level, the coordination of disease control and prevention programmes is facilitated, cost-effective interventions are implemented, and ultimately the quality of life of our communities is enhanced. EHealth also plays a significant role in the delivery of people-centred and integrated health services, empowers individuals to make informed decisions and self-manage their health needs. For the first time in history, the individual is placed at the centre, has timely and affordable access to data, knowledge and tools, and health care is tailored for his/her diverse background, context and needs. A second perspective to the digital revolution is how our own discipline is transformed. As technology is a catalyst for sustainable, large scale social change, health care has the opportunity to invest in inter-professional collaboration, and leverage a diverse range of expertise, stakeholders and resources to expand its horizons and tackle old and future challenges. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (0 UL)
See detailThe emergence of leapfrogging in an urban growth model combining an economic approach and cellular automata
Frankhauser, Pierre; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Peeters, Dominique et al

Scientific Conference (2009)

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See detailEmpirical Cognitive Study on Abstract Argumentation Semantics
Cramer, Marcos UL; Guillaume, Mathieu UL

in Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (2018)

In abstract argumentation theory, multiple argumentation semantics have been proposed that allow to select sets of jointly acceptable arguments from a given set of arguments based on the attack relation ... [more ▼]

In abstract argumentation theory, multiple argumentation semantics have been proposed that allow to select sets of jointly acceptable arguments from a given set of arguments based on the attack relation between arguments. The existence of multiple argumentation semantics raises the question which of these semantics predicts best how humans evaluate arguments, possibly depending on the thematic con- text of the arguments. In this study we report on an empirical cognitive study in which we tested how humans evaluate sets of arguments de- pending on the abstract structure of the attack relation between them. Two pilot studies were performed to validate the intended link between argumentation frameworks and sets of natural language arguments. The main experiment involved a group deliberation phase and made use of three different thematic contexts of the argument sets involved. The data strongly suggest that independently of the thematic contexts that we have considered, strong acceptance and strong rejection according to the CF2 and preferred semantics are a better predictor for human argument acceptance than the grounded semantics (which is identical to strong acceptance/rejection with respect to complete semantics). Furthermore, the data suggest that CF2 semantics predicts human argument acceptance better than preferred semantics, but the data for this comparison is limited to a single thematic context. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergieaudit Schul -und Sportkomplex Roodt/Syre
Scheuren, Jean-Jacques UL; Scholzen, Frank UL

in Revue Technique Luxembourgeoise (2008), Heft 2-2008

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See detailEnergieeffizienz neuer Schul-und Bürogebäude in Luxemburg basierend auf Verbrauchsdaten und Simulationen
Thewes, Andreas UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

In Luxemburg, energy consumption in the building and housing sector has been significantly increasing over the last years. An assessment of the energy saving potential of buildings requires a ... [more ▼]

In Luxemburg, energy consumption in the building and housing sector has been significantly increasing over the last years. An assessment of the energy saving potential of buildings requires a comprehensive data basis with real consumption figures that are not yet available. One focus of this study was to create a priori a detailed energy consumption database for new “School and Administrative Buildings” for Luxembourg. These are both groups cover a major part of the building and housing sector in Luxembourg besides residential buildings. Based on the samples collected, it was able to expand the figures to the entire country using mathematical methods and the medium heat and electricity consumption of these two types of buildings could determined. After collecting some details about each object, it was able to analyze the influence of different parameters, such as building age, size, type, glass fraction etc., on energy consumption using multivariate statistical methods. A posteriori, the results from the database were verified using parameter studies to existing objects and one object still under construction. Based on this, important key parameters relevant for both energy savings and thermal comfort could be found. This knowledge are necessary to understand energy flows within buildings better and, based on this, to be able meeting the nearly zero energy buildings requirements as set out by the EU Directive in the years to come. As conclusion, the central-European climatic zone provides opportunities to design energy-saving office and school buildings (primary energy consumption < 100 kWh/m2a) without mechanical cooling and ventilation systems that still guarantee appropriate degrees of thermal comfort. Unfortunately, the real average primary energy consumption figures of new school (187 kWh/m2a) and office buildings (677 kWh/m2a) in Luxemburg are still significantly higher. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy harvesting
Zilian, Andreas UL

in Science and Technology (2015), 15

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See detailEnergy minimising multi-crack growth in linear-elastic materials using the extended finite element method with application to Smart-CutTM silicon wafer splitting
Sutula, Danas UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

We investigate multiple crack evolution under quasi-static conditions in an isotropic linear-elastic solid based on the principle of minimum total energy, i.e. the sum of the potential and fracture ... [more ▼]

We investigate multiple crack evolution under quasi-static conditions in an isotropic linear-elastic solid based on the principle of minimum total energy, i.e. the sum of the potential and fracture energies, which stems directly from the Griffith’s theory of cracks. The technique, which has been implemented within the extended finite element method, enables minimisation of the total energy of the mechanical system with respect to the crack extension directions. This is achieved by finding the orientations of the discrete crack-tip extensions that yield vanishing rotational energy release rates about their roots. In addition, the proposed energy minimisation technique can be used to resolve competing crack growth problems. Comparisons of the fracture paths obtained by the maximum tension (hoop-stress) criterion and the energy minimisation approach via a multitude of numerical case studies show that both criteria converge to virtually the same fracture solutions albeit from opposite directions. In other words, it is found that the converged fracture path lies in between those obtained by each criterion on coarser numerical discretisations. Upon further investigation of the energy minimisation approach within the discrete framework, a modified crack growth direction criterion is proposed that assumes the average direction of the directions obtained by the maximum hoop stress and the minimum energy criteria. The numerical results show significant improvements in accuracy (especially on coarse discretisations) and convergence rates of the fracture paths. The XFEM implementation is subsequently applied to model an industry relevant problem of silicon wafer cutting based on the physical process of Smart-CutTM technology where wafer splitting is the result of the coalescence of multiple pressure-driven micro-crack growth within a narrow layer of the prevailing micro-crack distribution. A parametric study is carried out to assess the influence of some of the Smart-CutTM process parameters on the post-split fracture surface roughness. The parameters that have been investigated, include: mean depth of micro-crack distribution, distribution of micro-cracks about the mean depth, damage (isotropic) in the region of micro-crack distribution, and the influence of the depth of the buried-oxide layer (a layer of reduced stiffness) beneath the micro-crack distribution. Numerical results agree acceptably well with experimental observations. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy performance assessment of an existing double-skin façade: measurements and simulation
Carton, Julien UL; Scholzen, Frank UL; Thomas, Sébastien et al

in Energy Forum - Solar Building Skins, 06 - 07 December 2012, Italy (2012, December)

An existing office building with an active double skin façade in Luxembourg has been analyzed. In the first step in-situ measurements have been performed. For this purpose outside, inside and cavity ... [more ▼]

An existing office building with an active double skin façade in Luxembourg has been analyzed. In the first step in-situ measurements have been performed. For this purpose outside, inside and cavity conditions have been measured for representative summer and winter conditions. In a second step, a thermal simulation using TRNSYS was performed. The simulation model has been compared to the time limited series of measurements and thus has been validated for some of the annual meteorological conditions. Then the model has been extrapolated to a whole year in order to assess the energy performance of the given façade. Further a parametric study of alternative façades has been carried out based on the validated simulation model to assess their own performances. For the given case study building, the double skin concept energetically performs well compared to other concepts with non outside (non weather exposed) solar protection, but worse than an external solar protection. The thermal comfort level in the rooms has also been determined by simulation - the calculated room averaged comfort level is quite optimal, but further investigations regarding the local comfort close to the glazed façades still have to be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailAn engineering approach to mapping meanings in products and services
Waltersdorfer, Gregor UL; Gericke, Kilian UL; Desmet, Pieter M. A. et al

in Maier, Anja; Skec, Stanko; Kim, Harrison (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 17) Vol 3: Product, Services and Systems Design (2017, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (6 UL)
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See detailEngineering design and Artificial Intelligence: a promising marriage?
Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Cross, Nigel; Dorst, K.; Roozenburg, N. (Eds.) Research in Design Thinking (1992)

An increasing interest in the application of artificial intelligence tools and techniques can be observed in several fields, including engineering design. Due to their natures, engineering design and ... [more ▼]

An increasing interest in the application of artificial intelligence tools and techniques can be observed in several fields, including engineering design. Due to their natures, engineering design and artificial intelligence, more than "conventional" programming paradigms, seem to be made for each other or at least seem to promise an important leap forwards in the development of computer tools for complex tasks. However, the same natures demand more research to be done not only in the field of artificial intelligence, but also in the field of engineering design. For a genuine integration of Artificial Intelligence with Engineering Design both research areas should go hand in hand. After a short history of the relation between artificial intelligence and engineering design and some of the typical characteristics of engineering design, an overview is given of the different aspects of the design process supported already by artificial intelligence. Finally research areas are described that emerge if the areas supported are projected in the design space. The point of view taken is engineering design with an emphasis on mechanical engineering design. [less ▲]

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See detailEngineering Solutions for Representative Models of the Gastrointestinal Human-Microbe Interface
Mac Giolla Eain, Marc UL; Baginska, Joanna UL; Greenhalgh, Kacy UL et al

in Engineering (2017)

Host-microbe interactions at the gastrointestinal interface have emerged as a key component in the governance of human health and disease. Advances in micro-physiological systems are providing researchers ... [more ▼]

Host-microbe interactions at the gastrointestinal interface have emerged as a key component in the governance of human health and disease. Advances in micro-physiological systems are providing researchers with unprecedented access and insights into this complex relationship. These systems combine the benefits of microengineering, microfluidics, and cell culture in a bid to recreate the environmental conditions prevalent in the human gut. Here we present the human-microbial cross talk (HuMiX) platform, one such system that leverages this multidisciplinary approach to provide a representative in vitro model of the human gastrointestinal interface. HuMiX presents a novel and robust means to study the molecular interactions at the host-microbe interface. We summarize our proof-of-concept results obtained using the platform and highlight its potential to greatly enhance our understanding of host-microbe interactions with a potential to greatly impact the pharmaceutical, food, nutrition, and healthcare industries in the future. A number of key questions and challenges facing these technologies are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced recovery techniques for accurate evaluation of error estimates in FE aproximations
González-Estrada, O. A.; Ródenas, J. J.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Laghrouche, O; El Kacimi, A; Woodwaed, P (Eds.) et al 19th UK National Conference of the Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering (2011)

When modelling critical structures, it is crucial to rationally assess the outcome of numerical simu- lations. Specifically, error estimation strategies are key tools in critical decision-based processes ... [more ▼]

When modelling critical structures, it is crucial to rationally assess the outcome of numerical simu- lations. Specifically, error estimation strategies are key tools in critical decision-based processes. The development of design tools that enhance performance of the final product and give reliability on the calculations is essential in todays industrial environment, which increasingly seeks to reduce develop- ment times for new products while improving the quality. During the last years there has been an increasing interest on the use of error estimates which help to measure and control the error committed in standard or enriched finite element approximations. The error can be defined in terms of energy norm or in quantities relevant for design purposes (such as the mean stress value in a particular area, displacements, the stress intensity factor for fracture problems). In this work, we discuss the use of different a posteriori recovery techniques to evaluate error estimates for different finite element (FE) approximations. These techniques are based on equilibrated supercon- vergent patch recovery or equilibrated moving least squares procedures and can be used in smooth or singular problems. Numerical results show the capabilities of the proposed techniques to provide good error estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailEnriched Element Free Galerkin Method for Gradient Elasticity
Natarajan, S; Kerfriden, P; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

Scientific Conference (2011, June)

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See detailAn enriched quadtree/octree implicit boundary finite element method for the simulation of incompressible hyperelastic materials
Hale, Jack UL; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

Scientific Conference (2014, April 03)

Octree (and quadtree) representations of computational geometry are particularly well suited to modelling domains that are defined implicitly, such as those generated by image segmentation algorithms ... [more ▼]

Octree (and quadtree) representations of computational geometry are particularly well suited to modelling domains that are defined implicitly, such as those generated by image segmentation algorithms applied to medical scans. In this work we consider the simulation of soft-tissue which can be modelled with a hyperelastic constitutive law. We include the effects of both non-linear geometry and material properties. Similarly to Legrain et al. (10.1002/nme.3070) and Moumnassi et al. (10.1016/j.cma.2010.10.002) we use the implicitly designed level set functions as the basis for a partition of unity enrichment to more accurately represent the domain boundary. Furthermore we use traditional extended finite element (XFEM) ideas to introduce arbitrary cuts and discontinuities in the domain. We explore the use of a two-field u-p mixed approach as well as a smoothed finite element method (SFEM) to deal with the problem of volumetric-locking in the incompressible limit. We will discuss the extension of our method towards both traditional parallel and GPU implementation. We aim to solve extremely large problems as well as produce snapshots to feed into model order reduction methods for real-time surgical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Enriched Quasi-Continuum Approach to Crack Propagation in Discrete Lattices
Rokos, Ondrej; Peerlings, Ron; Zeman, Jan et al

Scientific Conference (2017, June 14)

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See detailEnriched residual free bubbles for semiconductor device simulation
Simpson, R. N.; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Asenov, A. et al

in Computational Mechanics (2012), 50(1), 119-133

This article outlines a method for stabilising the current continuity equations which are used for semiconductor device simulation. Residual-free bubble functions (RfBF) are incorporated into a finite ... [more ▼]

This article outlines a method for stabilising the current continuity equations which are used for semiconductor device simulation. Residual-free bubble functions (RfBF) are incorporated into a finite element (FE) implementation that are able to prevent oscillations which are seen when using the conventional Bubnov-Galerkin FE implementation. In addition, it is shown that the RfBF are able to provide stabilisation with very distorted meshes and curved interface boundaries. Comparison with the commonly used SUPG scheme is made throughout, showing that in the case of 2D problems the RfBF allow faster convergence of the coupled semiconductor device equations, especially in the case of distorted meshes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Enthusiast, the Interested, the Sceptic, and the Cynic: Understanding User Experience and Perceived Value in Location-Based Cultural Heritage Games Through Qualitative and Sentiment Analysis
Jones, Catherine UL; Theodosis, Efstathios UL; Lykourentzou,

in Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (2019), 12(1),

We discuss the user study of a mobile cultural heritage game, designed to stimulate reflection about a city’s history. Aided by location-aware technology, the game fosters the serendipitous discovery of ... [more ▼]

We discuss the user study of a mobile cultural heritage game, designed to stimulate reflection about a city’s history. Aided by location-aware technology, the game fosters the serendipitous discovery of Points-Of-Interest, historical images and stories, whilst players wander the city. This exploration differs from the typical pre-calculated path recommendations used by other location-based applications. It triggers reflection about the city’s past that is as unique as its visitors. Ours is one of the first studies to attempt an understanding of the effects of serendipitous urban discovery and historic reflection-triggering technologies on user experience. We combined field trials with controlled experiments, analysing perceptions of the experience and value using responses expressed in open-ended questionnaire items. Using thematic coding and sentiment analysis, we observed types of emotional responses, indicating four potential profiles of their likelihood towards future technology adoption. Enthusiastic and Interested users appreciated the freedom of movement choice that created an autonomous experience that fostered a sense of personal accomplishment. The interface interactions of the game, designed to stimulate reflection, supported a feeling of connectedness to others. In contrast, Cynical and Sceptical users were less tolerant of perceived technological issues, and required more perfection in functionality and design. These users are less likely to be the early adopters of serendipitous location-based apps. The game was developed as part of a large cultural informatics project, but unlike typical evaluations, we conducted this study midway through the project and not at its end. This approach (1) gave the team the possibility to take stock, pause and reflect and (2) provided insight on future design improvements for increasing the perceived value of serendipitous urban discovery applications. Our results contribute towards a grounded understanding of user experience, and help progress the development of cultural heritage applications that incorporate elements of reflection and/or place-based exploration into their functionalities. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklungsmethodik nach Pahl und Beitz und Design thinking. Vergleich und Einordnung
Gericke, Kilian UL; Beinke, Christian; Gemmer, Pascal et al

in Proceedings of 19th Symposium Design for X (2010)

Die Konstruktionsforschung strebt danach die Entwicklungspraxis zu unterstützen indem Methodiken, Methoden, Tools und Empfehlungen erarbeitet werden, welche die Arbeit der Entwickler erleichtern sollen ... [more ▼]

Die Konstruktionsforschung strebt danach die Entwicklungspraxis zu unterstützen indem Methodiken, Methoden, Tools und Empfehlungen erarbeitet werden, welche die Arbeit der Entwickler erleichtern sollen, mit dem Ziel bessere Produkte zu entwickeln. Das Umfeld der Entwicklungspraxis ist dabei gekennzeichnet durch Komplexität, Wettbewerb auf globalen Märkten, Dynamik und sich ständig ändernden Kundenwünschen und -bedürfnissen. Die daraus erwachsenden Herausforderungen nehmen fortlaufend zu und tangieren alle Entwicklungsprozesse unabhängig davon ob eine Maschine, eine Software, ein Service oder ein andere Produktform entwickelt wird. Neben den genannten Aspekten stellt auch das veränderte Konsumentenverhalten eine Herausforderung für die Produktentwicklung dar. Das Internet ermöglicht eine nie dagewesene Auswahl- und Vergleichsmöglichkeit von Produkten, wodurch wesentlich selektiver konsumiert wird und infolge dessen Produkte immer differenzierter und tärker an die Kundenwünsche und –bedürfnisse angepasst werden müssen. Abhängig von Entwicklungsgegenstand, Marktsegment, Branche und weiteren Faktoren sind die existierenden methodischen Hilfsmittel unterschiedlich gut geeignet, die Arbeit des Entwicklers zu erleichtern und die Entwicklung besserer Produkte zu unterstützen. Dies bedeutet, dass methodische Ansätze Kontext-abhängig ausgewählt bzw. adaptiert werden müssen. In jüngster Zeit hält Design Thinking, ein neuer Ansatz zur methodischen Produktentwicklung, Einzug in verschiedenste Branchen. Im nachfolgenden Artikel wird Design Thinking kurz beschrieben und exemplarisch mit dem methodischen Vorgehen nach Pahl und Beitz verglichen. Der Vergleich beinhaltet den Prozessumfang (welche Phasen des Entwicklungsprozesses werden abgebildet) und ausgewählte Kontext-Aspekte (für welche Art von Entwicklungsvorhaben ist der Ansatz anwendbar). Anhand dieser Aspekte wird diskutiert, welche wesentlichen Unterschiede zwischen den Ansätzen bestehen, wo Überschneidungen existieren und welches Potential die Kombination beider Ansätze in sich birgt. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 179 (1 UL)