References of "2015"
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See detailImplementation of regularized isogeometric boundary element methods for gradient-based shape optimization in two-dimensional linear elasticity
Haojie, Lian; Pierre, Kerfriden; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2015)

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See detailSystematic analysis of global and local control policies
Cantelmo, Guido UL; Viti, Francesco UL; Rinaldi, Marco et al

in Periodica Polytechnica (2015)

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See detailA Markov chain dynamic model for trip generation and distribution based on CDR
Viti, Francesco UL; Cantelmo, Guido UL

in Periodica Polytechnica (2015)

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See detailMulti-scale methods for fracture: model learning across scales, digital twinning and factors of safety
: primer on Bayesian Inference
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Hale, Jack UL; Beex, Lars UL et al

Speeches/Talks (2015)

Fracture and material instabilities originate at spatial scales much smaller than that of the structure of interest: delamination, debonding, fibre break- age, cell-wall buckling, are examples of nano ... [more ▼]

Fracture and material instabilities originate at spatial scales much smaller than that of the structure of interest: delamination, debonding, fibre break- age, cell-wall buckling, are examples of nano/micro or meso-scale mechanisms which can lead to global failure of the material and structure. Such mech- anisms cannot, for computational and practical reasons, be accounted at structural scale, so that acceleration methods are necessary. We review in this presentation recently proposed approaches to reduce the computational expense associated with multi-scale modelling of frac- ture. In light of two particular examples, we show connections between algebraic reduction (model order reduction and quasi-continuum methods) and homogenisation-based reduction. We open the discussion towards suitable approaches for machine-learning and Bayesian statistical based multi-scale model selection. Such approaches could fuel a digital-twin concept enabling models to learn from real-time data acquired during the life of the structure, accounting for “real” environmental conditions during predictions, and, eventually, moving beyond the era of factors of safety. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale methods for fracture: model learning across scales, digital twinning and factors of safety
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Beex, Lars UL; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

Scientific Conference (2015, November 18)

Authors: S. P. A. Bordas, L. A. A. Beex, P. Kerfriden, D. A. Paladim, O. Goury, A. Akbari, H. Rappel  Multi-scale methods for fracture: model learning across scales, digital twinning and factors of safety ... [more ▼]

Authors: S. P. A. Bordas, L. A. A. Beex, P. Kerfriden, D. A. Paladim, O. Goury, A. Akbari, H. Rappel  Multi-scale methods for fracture: model learning across scales, digital twinning and factors of safety Fracture and material instabilities originate at spatial scales much smaller than that of the structure of interest: delamination, debonding, fibre breakage, cell-wall buckling, are examples of nano/micro or meso-scale mechanisms which can lead to global failure of the material and structure. Such mechanisms cannot, for computational and practical reasons, be accounted at structural scale, so that acceleration methods are necessary.  We review in this presentation recently proposed approaches to reduce the computational expense associated with multi-scale modelling of fracture. In light of two particular examples, we show connections between algebraic reduction (model order reduction and quasi-continuum methods) and homogenisation-based reduction. We open the discussion towards suitable approaches for machine-learning and Bayesian statistical based multi-scale model selection. Such approaches could fuel a digital-twin concept enabling models to learn from real-time data acquired during the life of the structure, accounting for “real” environmental conditions during predictions, and, eventually, moving beyond the “factors of safety” era. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction of the European Association for Data Science
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias UL

Scientific Conference (2015, November)

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See detailGreener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2015), 54

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Bayes' theorem to infer the material parameters of human soft tissue
Hale, Jack UL; Farrell, Patrick; Bordas, Stéphane UL

Presentation (2015, October 21)

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See detailSignal phase and timing (spat) for cooperative public transport priority measures
Seredynski, Marcin; Viti, Francesco UL; Khadraoui, Djamel

Scientific Conference (2015, October)

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See detailBiopharm - the Influence of Macro-substrates & Conditioning on Pharmaceutical Removal Rates by Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors
Köhler, Christian UL

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Organic micropollutants with endocrine disruptive properties are present in the aquatic environment. A major part of their emission is caused by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For this ... [more ▼]

Organic micropollutants with endocrine disruptive properties are present in the aquatic environment. A major part of their emission is caused by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For this reason, a vast amount of research has been undertaken to remove xenobiotics from municipal wastewater by developing post-treatment technologies with some success. However, these technologies cause considerable environmental costs due their high demand for electrical energy implicating an increase in CO2 emissions. Consequently, existing biological treatments need first to be better understood and subsequently optimized regarding xenobiotic removal before post-treatments are employed. The study focused on the fate of xenobiotics during biological wastewater treatment. In particular, metabolic strategies of bacteria degrading pharmaceuticals were investigated within moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) processes. Two main objectives were tracked. On the one hand, it was to unfold the impact of macro-substrates in terms of type and molecular complexity on the activity of microorganisms and consequently pharmaceutical degradation performance. On the other hand, the study was set out to explore the adaptation of metabolic means regarding exoenzymes and consortia structure during continuous (long-term) exposure to pharmaceuticals. Accordingly, the ability to increase microbial competences during pharmaceutical short-term pulses was the general target of investigation. Both conditions continuous substance flow and short-term peak loads of xenobiotics are believed to occur in urban WWTPs. A pilot MBBR was set up next to a domestic WWTP. The pilot treated municipal sewage and served as inoculation reservoir for biofilm carriers used for in-depth laboratory experiments. The latter comprised six lab-scale MBBRs featuring flow through operation under controlled conditions regarding temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, influent flow and influent load. The reactors were conditioned over four weeks with a synthetic sewage providing substrates and micro-nutrients in a similar manner as expected under real conditions. Biofilm was monitored by respirometry and a series of enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates to capture esterase, phosphatase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase activity. All enzymes are essential during organic carbon metabolism. An array of macro-substrates with different molecular complexity was triggering individual enzyme activity profiles. After conditioning, 12 pharmaceuticals being subject to a range of anticipated metabolic pathways and degradation rates were spiked into the MBBRs. Their degradation kinetics were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). Pseudo first-order kinetics revealed substrate related fingerprints and showed that readily biodegradable substrate leads generally to good pharmaceutical degradation performance compared to synthetic sewage with a mixture of several high molecular organic substrates. The latter was designed to induce the greatest metabolic effort of tested substrates before microbial uptake occurs. However, single substrates triggering exoenzyme activity in a more targeted manner such as maltose and cellobiose showed positive impact on the pseudo first-order rate coefficients of particular pharmaceuticals such as atenolol and diclofenac. Accordingly, alpha-glucosidase activity was found to be directly proportional to atenolol degradation kinetics. Phylogenetic characterisation of DNA and RNA involving state-of-the-art 16S ribosomal rRNA gene amplification and sequencing techniques was used to explore community structures. Prokaryote diversity in lab-scale MBBRs was in agreement to previous studies which investigated microbial consortia in full-scale systems. Multivariate analysis revealed that bacteria are adapting their active gene pool when the beta-blocker atenolol is continuously present with a concentration in ug/L range. Differential analysis unfolded that the prokaryotic genera Delftia and Lysobacter were thereby exclusively benefiting from the exposure to atenolol. Yet, compared to the influence of macro-substrates, biomass conditioning (training) with atenolol and diclofenac had no notable impact on the degradation performance of pharmaceutical short-term pulses. The outstanding comprehensive character of the study which encompassed sophisticated experimental design and powerful analytical tools from different scientific domains uncovered some interesting insights in xenobiotic degradation processes. The results finally show how biomass is reacting towards the presence of primary carbon sources and organic micro-pollutants. The outcomes highlight the importance of WWTP influent characterization being indicative of metabolic activity and therefore degradation capacity of xenobiotics. The study further suggests that xenobiotic metabolism and co-metabolism co-exist during biological treatment processes. Co-metabolism is the decisive actor when adaption time is relatively short as it was the case during the lab-scale experiments compared to real conditions. Further, the study indicates some potential of process enhancement of WWTPs ranging from straightforward implementations such as external carbon sources to more elaborated processes of bioaugmentation. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud Providers Viability: How to Address it from an IT and Legal Perspective?
Bartolini, Cesare UL; El Kateb, Donia UL; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services (2015, September 16)

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be ... [more ▼]

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be properly addressed to avoid major setbacks. One such challenge is that of cloud provider viability, that is, the reasonable certainty that the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) will not go out of business, either by filing for bankruptcy or by simply shutting down operations, thus leaving its customers stranded without an infrastructure and, depending on the type of cloud service used, even without their applications or data. This article attempts to address the issue of cloud provider viability, proposing some ways of mitigating the problem both from a technical and from a legal perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher-order quasicontinuum methods for elastic and dissipative lattice models: uniaxial deformation and pure bending
Beex, Lars UL; Rokos, Ondrej; Zeman, Jan et al

in GAMM Mitteilungen (2015), 38(2), 344-368

The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been ... [more ▼]

The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been applied to (conservative) atomistic lattices in the past, but using a virtual-power-statement it was recently shown that QC approaches can also be used for spring and beam lattice models that include dissipation. Recent results have shown that QC approaches for planar beam lattices experiencing in-plane and out-of-plane deformation require higher-order interpolation. Higher-order QC frameworks are scarce nevertheless. In this contribution, the possibilities of a second-order and third-order QC framework are investigated for an elastoplastic spring lattice. The higher-order QC frameworks are compared to the results of the direct lattice computations and to those of a linear QC scheme. Examples are chosen so that both a macroscale and a microscale quantity influences the results. The two multiscale examples focused on are (i) macroscopically prescribed uniaxial deformation and (ii) macroscopically prescribed pure bending. Furthermore, the examples include an individual inclusion in a large lattice and hence, are concurrent in nature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Route Choice Modeling on Dynamic OD Estimation
Cipriani, Ernesto; Del Giudice, Andrea; Nigro, Marialisa et al

in Proceedings of IEEE-ITS Conference (2015, September)

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See detailPrimary energy used in centralized and decentralized ventilation systems measured in field tests in residential buildings
Merzkirch, Alexander UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in Proceedings of the 26th AIVC Conference, Effective Ventilation in high performance buildings (2015, September)

Ventilation systems can save heat energy by using heat recovery, but consume electrical energy to power the fans. In practice, the energy efficiency of those systems can be lower than expected, when ... [more ▼]

Ventilation systems can save heat energy by using heat recovery, but consume electrical energy to power the fans. In practice, the energy efficiency of those systems can be lower than expected, when compared to the nominal values provided by the manufacturer. In this paper, results of a comprehensive field tests with 20 centralized and 60 decentralized ventilation systems for residential buildings and the calculation of the primary energy savings of those devices are presented. Factors like volume flow unbalances, shortcuts, temperature change rates and specific fan power have been addressed by tracer gas technology and other means and been used as input factors to calculate the primary energy balance of those devices. Every system showed positive primary energy savings. The mean value for centralized systems was 2.92 Wh/m3 with a high standard deviation of 2.23 Wh/m3, while the decentralized systems showed higher savings of around 4.75 Wh/m3 with a standard deviation of 0.01 to 0.15 Wh/m3. In general, the calculated savings in field tests were significantly lower compared to the case of using nominal values as input parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailA two-steps dynamic demand estimation approach sequentially adjusting generations and distributions
Cantelmo, Guido UL; Viti, Francesco UL; Cipriani, Ernesto et al

in Proceedings of IEEE-ITS Conference (2015, September)

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See detailDistributed Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) System Based on Connected Vehicle Technology
Smietanka, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Viti, Francesco UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE-ITS Conference (2015, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (9 UL)