Reference : Villin-induced growth of microvilli is reversibly inhibited by cytochalasin D.
Scientific journals : Article
Life sciences : Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology
Villin-induced growth of microvilli is reversibly inhibited by cytochalasin D.
Friederich, Evelyne mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Life Science Research Unit >]
Kreis, T. E. [> >]
Louvard, D. [> >]
Journal of cell science
105 ( Pt 3)
Yes (verified by ORBilu)
[en] Actins/metabolism ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cytochalasin D/pharmacology ; Cytoskeleton/drug effects/metabolism ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Humans ; Microfilament Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Microvilli/drug effects/metabolism/ultrastructure
[en] Villin is an actin-binding protein that is associated with the cytoskeleton of brush border microvilli. In vitro, villin nucleates, caps or severs actin filaments in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In the absence of Ca2+, villin organizes microfilaments into bundles. Transfection of a villin-specific cDNA into cultured cells that do not produce this protein results in the growth of long surface microvilli and the reorganization of the underlying actin cytoskeleton. Here we studied the effects of low concentrations of cytochalasin D on the induction of these plasma membrane-actin cytoskeleton specializations. Transfected cells were treated with concentrations of cytochalasin D that prevent the association of actin monomers with the fast-growing end of microfilaments in vitro. In villin-positive cells, cytochalasin D inhibited the growth of microvilli and promoted the formation of rodlet-like actin structures, which were randomly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The formation of these structures was dependent on large amounts of villin and on the integrity of an actin-binding site located at the carboxy terminus of villin, which is required for microfilament bundling in vitro and for the growth of microvilli in vivo. The effect of cytochalasin D was reversible. The observation of living cells by video-imaging revealed that when cytochalasin D was removed, rapid disassembly of actin rodlets occurred after a lag phase. The present data stress the important role of the plasma membrane in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and suggest that the extension of the microvillar plasma membrane is dependent on the elongation of microfilaments at their fast-growing end. Inhibition of microfilament elongation near the plasma membrane by cytochalasin D may result in the 'random' nucleation of actin filaments throughout the cytoplasm. On the basis of the present data, we propose that villin is involved in the assembly of the microvillar actin bundle by a mechanism that does not prevent monomer association with the preferred end of microfilaments. For instance, villin may stabilize actin filaments by lateral interactions. The functional importance of the carboxy-terminal F-actin binding site in such a mechanism is stressed by the fact that it is required for the formation of F-actin rodlets in cytochalasin D-treated cells. Finally, our data further emphasize the observations that the effects of cytochalasin D in living cells can be modulated by actin-binding proteins.

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