Reference : Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying astrocyte identity
Scientific journals : Article
Life sciences : Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology
Life sciences : Genetics & genetic processes
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/38704
Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying astrocyte identity
English
Pavlou, Maria Angeliki mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Life Science Research Unit >]
Grandbarbe, Luc mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Life Science Research Unit >]
Buckley, Noel [> Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom]
Niclou, Simone []
Michelucci, Alessandro mailto [University of Luxembourg > Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) > >]
29-Dec-2018
Progress in Neurobiology
Elsevier
Yes
0301-0082
Oxford
United Kingdom
[en] Astrocytes play a significant role in coordinating neural development and provide critical support for the function of the CNS. They possess important adaptation capacities that range from their transition towards reactive astrocytes to their ability to undergo reprogramming, thereby revealing their potential to retain latent features of neural progenitor cells. We propose that the mechanisms underlying reactive astrogliosis or astrocyte reprogramming provide an opportunity for initiating neuronal regeneration, a process that is notably reduced in the mammalian nervous system throughout evolution. Conversely, this plasticity may also affect normal astrocytic functions resulting in pathologies ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders to neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors. We postulate that epigenetic mechanisms linking extrinsic cues and intrinsic transcriptional programs are key factors to maintain astrocyte identity and function, and critically, to control the balance of regenerative and degenerative activity. Here, we will review the main evidences supporting this concept. We propose that unravelling the epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms underlying the acquisition of astrocyte identity and plasticity, as well as understanding how these processes are modulated by the local microenvironment under specific threatening or pathological conditions, may pave the way to new therapeutic avenues for several neurological disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors of astrocytic lineage.
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/38704
10.1016/j.pneurobio.2018.12.007

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