Reference : The fluid mechanics of membrane filtration
Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings : Paper published in a journal
Engineering, computing & technology : Mechanical engineering
Computational Sciences
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/10082
The fluid mechanics of membrane filtration
English
Hale, Jack mailto [Bristol University > Department of Mechanical Engineering]
Harris, A. [Rice University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, MS-318, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, United States]
Li, Q. [Rice University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, MS-318, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, United States]
Houchens, B. C. [Rice University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, MS-321, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, United States]
2008
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings
8 PART A
63-67
No
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2007
11 November 2007 through 15 November 2007
Seattle, WA
[en] Crossflow filtration ; Membrane filtration ; Colloids ; Macromolecules ; Membranes ; Nanofiltration ; Viruses ; Fluid mechanics
[en] Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes remove colloids, macromolecules, salts, bacteria and even some viruses from water. In crossflow filtration, contaminated water is driven parallel to the membrane, and clean permeate passes through. A large pressure gradient exists across the membrane, with permeate flow rates two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the crossflow. Membrane filtration is hindered by two mechanisms, concentration polarization and caking. During filtration, the concentration of rejected particles increases near the membrane surface, forming a concentration polarization layer. Both diffusive and convective transport drive particles back into the bulk flow. However, the increase of the apparent viscosity in the concentration polarization layer hinders diffusion of particles back into the bulk and results in a small reduction in permeate flux. Depending on the number and type of particles present in the contaminated water, the concentration polarization will either reach a quasi-steady state or particles will begin to deposit onto the membrane. In the later case, a cake layer eventually forms on the membrane, significantly reducing the permeate flux. Contradictive theories suggest that the cake layer is either a porous solid or a very viscous (yield stress) fluid. New and refined models that shed light on these theories are presented. Copyright © 2007 by ASME.
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/10082
10.1115/IMECE2007-43656
72091
0791843025; 9780791843024

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