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See detailThe mod 2 cohomology rings of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups
Berkove, Ethan; Lakeland, Grant; Rahm, Alexander UL

E-print/Working paper (in press)

We provide new tools for the calculation of the torsion in the cohomology of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups : An algorithm for finding particularly useful fundamental domains, and an analysis ... [more ▼]

We provide new tools for the calculation of the torsion in the cohomology of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups : An algorithm for finding particularly useful fundamental domains, and an analysis of the equivariant spectral sequence combined with torsion subcomplex reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailReducibility of n-ary semigroups: from quasitriviality towards idempotency
Couceiro, Miguel; Devillet, Jimmy UL; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Denote by $\mathcal{F}^n_k$ the class of associative operations $F\colon X^n\to X$ satisfying the condition $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ whenever at least $k$ of the ... [more ▼]

Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Denote by $\mathcal{F}^n_k$ the class of associative operations $F\colon X^n\to X$ satisfying the condition $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ whenever at least $k$ of the elements $x_1,\ldots,x_n$ are equal to each other. The elements of $\mathcal{F}^n_1$ are said to be quasitrivial and those of $\mathcal{F}^n_n$ are said to be idempotent. We show that $\mathcal{F}^n_1=\cdots =\mathcal{F}^n_{n-2}\varsubsetneq\mathcal{F}^n_{n-1}\varsubsetneq\mathcal{F}^n_n$. The class $\mathcal{F}^n_1$ was recently characterized by Couceiro and Devillet \cite{CouDev}, who showed that its elements are reducible to binary associative operations. However, some elements of $\mathcal{F}^n_n$ are not reducible. In this paper, we characterize the class $\mathcal{F}^n_{n-1}\setminus\mathcal{F}^n_1$ and show that its elements are reducible. In particular, we show that each of these elements is an extension of an $n$-ary Abelian group operation whose exponent divides $n-1$. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgien und Deutschland: eine kleine Beziehungsgeschichte
Brüll, Christoph UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailBad representations and homotopy groups of Character Varieties
Guerin, Clément UL; Lawton, Sean; Ramras, Daniel

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Let G be a connected, reductive, complex affine algebraic group, and let Xr denote the moduli space of G-valued representations of a rank r free group. We first characterize the singularities in Xr ... [more ▼]

Let G be a connected, reductive, complex affine algebraic group, and let Xr denote the moduli space of G-valued representations of a rank r free group. We first characterize the singularities in Xr resolving conjectures of Florentino-Lawton. In particular, we compute the codimension of the orbifold singular locus using facts about Borel-de Siebenthal groups. We then use this codimension to calculate some higher homotopy groups of the smooth locus of Xr, proving conjectures of Florentino-Lawton-Ramras. Lastly, using the earlier analysis of Borel-de Siebenthal groups, we prove a conjecture of Sikora about CI Lie groups. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasicircles and width of Jordan curves in CP1
bonsante, francesco; danciger, jeffrey; maloni, sara et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We study a notion of "width" for Jordan curves in CP1, paying special attention to the class of quasicircles. The width of a Jordan curve is defined in terms of the geometry of its convex hull in ... [more ▼]

We study a notion of "width" for Jordan curves in CP1, paying special attention to the class of quasicircles. The width of a Jordan curve is defined in terms of the geometry of its convex hull in hyperbolic three-space. A similar invariant in the setting of anti de Sitter geometry was used by Bonsante-Schlenker to characterize quasicircles amongst a larger class of Jordan curves in the boundary of anti de Sitter space. By contrast to the AdS setting, we show that there are Jordan curves of bounded width which fail to be quasicircles. However, we show that Jordan curves with small width are quasicircles. [less ▲]

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See detailDual pairs in the Pin-group and duality for the corresponding spinorial representation
Guerin, Clément UL; Liu, Gang; Merino, Allan

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In this paper, we give a complete picture of Howe correspondence for the setting (O(E,b),Pin(E,b),Π), where O(E,b) is an orthogonal group (real or complex), Pin(E,b) is the two-fold Pin-covering of O(E,b ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we give a complete picture of Howe correspondence for the setting (O(E,b),Pin(E,b),Π), where O(E,b) is an orthogonal group (real or complex), Pin(E,b) is the two-fold Pin-covering of O(E,b), and Π is the spinorial representation of Pin(E,b). More precisely, for a dual pair (G,G′) in O(E,b), we determine explicitly the nature of its preimages (G̃,G′~) in Pin(E,b), and prove that apart from some exceptions, (G̃,G′~) is always a dual pair in Pin(E,b); then we establish the Howe correspondence for Π with respect to (G̃,G′~). [less ▲]

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See detailRefining transparency and responsible investment?: The case of EIB and sustainable finance
Alexandraki, Chrysa UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

On 8 January 2019, an action was brought before the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereafter CJEU) by an environmental law charity, ClientEarth (hereafter applicant) against a multilateral ... [more ▼]

On 8 January 2019, an action was brought before the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereafter CJEU) by an environmental law charity, ClientEarth (hereafter applicant) against a multilateral development bank (hereafter MDB) and European institution, the European Investment Bank (hereafter EIB). The case concerns the financing by the bank of a biomass energy generating project in Northern Spain – Galicia -, of the cost of 60 million euros, followed by the bank’s refusal to refine its decision to finance the aforementioned investment, regardless the applicant’s request for an internal review of this decision on April 2018. The applicant bases the request for an internal review on alleged ‘errors in the assessment of the financing combined with the provision of minimal information regarding the funding decision’. The main claim brought by the applicant involves the annulment of EIB’s refusal to conduct an internal review and subject its decision to scrutiny, as requested under Article 10 of the Aarhus Regulation (hereafter Regulation), bringing into discussion implementation issues of both International and European law. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulating banks for the public? The dilemmas of prudential regulation
Commain, Sébastien UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The regulation of banking activities present policymakers with a conundrum: while essential for a healthy and growing economy, they also present important risks of crises that affect all citizens ... [more ▼]

The regulation of banking activities present policymakers with a conundrum: while essential for a healthy and growing economy, they also present important risks of crises that affect all citizens. Prudential regulation is intended to contain the risks while enabling the socially beneficial functions of banks, but the shadow of financial interests influence hangs over the regulatory process. Assessing the reality and extent of this influence, this paper argues, requires first to acquire asound understanding of the social costs and benefits of banking, and the capacity of regulation to promote social welfare. This paper then offers the reader a review of the main issues covered in the literature and suggests some lessons for the study of financial interest groups. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights into protein structural, physicochemical, and functional consequences of missense variants in 1,330 disease-associated human genes 693259
Iqbal, Sumaiya; Jespersen, Jakob B.; Perez-Palma, Eduardo et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Inference of the structural and functional consequences of amino acid-altering missense variants is challenging and not yet scalable. Clinical and research applications of the colossal number of ... [more ▼]

Inference of the structural and functional consequences of amino acid-altering missense variants is challenging and not yet scalable. Clinical and research applications of the colossal number of identified missense variants is thus limited. Here we describe the aggregation and analysis of large-scale genomic variation and structural biology data for 1,330 disease-associated genes. Comparing the burden of 40 structural, physicochemical, and functional protein features of altered amino acids with 3-dimensional coordinates, we found 18 and 14 features that are associated with pathogenic and population missense variants, respectively. Separate analyses of variants from 24 protein functional classes revealed novel function-dependent vulnerable features. We then devised a quantitative spectrum, identifying variants with higher pathogenic variant-associated features. Finally, we developed a web resource (MISCAST; http://miscast.broadinstitute.org/) for interactive analysis of variants on linear and tertiary protein structures. The biological impact of missense variants available through the webtool will assist researchers in hypothesizing variant pathogenicity and disease trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailThe provision of long-term credit and firm growth
Leon, Florian UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper investigates whether a higher level of long-term credit provision affects the growth of small and young firms. Firm-level data from more than 20,000 firms in 62 countries are combined with a ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates whether a higher level of long-term credit provision affects the growth of small and young firms. Firm-level data from more than 20,000 firms in 62 countries are combined with a new hand-collected database on short-term and long-term credit provided to the private sector. Using a difference-in-difference framework, our results indicate that, contrary to short-term credit, long-term credit does not stimulate growth of small and young firms. This finding is, at least partially, explained by the differential impact of short-term and long-term credit provision on small and young firms’ access to credit. While the provision of short-term credit alleviates credit constraints faced by small and young firms, a larger provision of longterm bank loans has an opposite impact. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis that an increase of long-term credit provision reflects a lender’s choice to provide more financing to existing clients (intensive margin) to the detriment of firms without previous access to finance (extensive margin). [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial morphology provides a mechanism for energy buffering at synapses
Garcia, Guadalupe Clara UL; Bartol, Thomas M.; Phan, Sebastien A. et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Mitochondria as the main energy suppliers of eukaryotic cells are highly dynamic organelles that fuse, divide and are transported along the cytoskeleton to ensure cellular energy homeostasis. While these ... [more ▼]

Mitochondria as the main energy suppliers of eukaryotic cells are highly dynamic organelles that fuse, divide and are transported along the cytoskeleton to ensure cellular energy homeostasis. While these processes are well established, substantial evidence indicates that the internal structure is also highly variable in dependence on metabolic conditions. However, a quantitative mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial morphology affects energetic states is still elusive. To address this question, we here present an agent-based dynamic model using three-dimensional morphologies from electron microscopy tomography which considers the molecular dynamics of the main ATP production components. We apply our modeling approach to mitochondria at the synapse which is the largest energy consumer within the brain. Interestingly, comparing the spatiotemporal simulations with a corresponding space-independent approach, we find minor space dependence when the system relaxes toward equilibrium but a qualitative difference in fluctuating environments. These results suggest that internal mitochondrial morphology is not only optimized for ATP production but also provides a mechanism for energy buffering and may represent a mechanism for cellular robustness. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of pathogenic variant enriched regions across genes and gene families
Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; May, Patrick UL; Iqbal, Sumaiya et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Missense variant interpretation is challenging. Essential regions for protein function are conserved among gene family members, and genetic variants within these regions are potentially more likely to ... [more ▼]

Missense variant interpretation is challenging. Essential regions for protein function are conserved among gene family members, and genetic variants within these regions are potentially more likely to confer risk to disease. Here, we generated 2,871 gene family protein sequence alignments involving 9,990 genes and performed missense variant burden analyses to identify novel essential protein regions. We mapped 2,219,811 variants from the general population into these alignments and compared their distribution with 65,034 missense variants from patients. With this gene family approach, we identified 398 regions enriched for patient variants spanning 33,887 amino acids in 1,058 genes. As a comparison, testing the same genes individually we identified less patient variant enriched regions involving only 2,167 amino acids and 180 genes. Next, we selected de novo variants from 6,753 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders and 1,911 unaffected siblings, and observed a 5.56-fold enrichment of patient variants in our identified regions (95% C.I. =2.76-Inf, p-value = 6.66×10−8). Using an independent ClinVar variant set, we found missense variants inside the identified regions are 111-fold more likely to be classified as pathogenic in comparison to benign classification (OR = 111.48, 95% C.I = 68.09-195.58, p-value < 2.2e−16). All patient variant enriched regions identified (PERs) are available online through a user-friendly platform for interactive data mining, visualization and download at http://per.broadinstitute.org. In summary, our gene family burden analysis approach identified novel patient variant enriched regions in protein sequences. This annotation can empower variant interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Lorrains acttifs à l'étranger, analyse au niveau communal
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Helfer, Malte UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

A growing number of people living in Lorraine cross the border for work. Today, there are more than 100 000 commuters, the majority of them working in Luxembourg. The flow of commuters into Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

A growing number of people living in Lorraine cross the border for work. Today, there are more than 100 000 commuters, the majority of them working in Luxembourg. The flow of commuters into Luxembourg is on the increase, whereas commuting into Germany continues to shrink. The analysis of com-munes of residence shows a high proportion of cross-border commuters living as the active population in close vicinity to Luxembourg, but many also live in communes further afield; this phenomenon is moving beyond the borders and raises many issues: environmental, social and economic … [less ▲]

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See detailCan the Plight of the European Banking Structural Reforms be a Blessing in Disguise?
Nabilou, Hossein UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

One of the problems perceived to be at the heart of the global financial crisis was an amalgamation of various commercial and investment banking activities under one entity, as well as the ... [more ▼]

One of the problems perceived to be at the heart of the global financial crisis was an amalgamation of various commercial and investment banking activities under one entity, as well as the interconnectedness of the banking entities with other financial institutions, investment funds, and the shadow banking system. This paper focuses on various measures that aim to structurally separate the banking entities and their core functions from riskier financial activities such as (proprietary) trading or investments in alternative investment funds. Although banking structural reforms in the EU, UK, and the US have taken different forms, their common denominator is the separation of core banking functions from certain trading or securities market activities. Having reviewed the arguments for and against banking structural reforms and their varieties in major jurisdictions, including the EU, UK, US, France, and Germany, the paper argues that a more nuanced approach to introducing such measures at the EU level is warranted. Given the different market structures across the Atlantic and the lack of conclusive evidence on the beneficial impact of banking structural reforms, the paper concludes that the withdrawal of the banking structural reforms proposal by the European Commission has been a prudent move. It seems that in the absence of concrete evidence, experimenting with structural reforms at the Member-State level would be less costly and would provide for opportunities for learning from smaller mistakes that could pave the way for a more optimal approach to introducing banking structural reforms at the European level in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailA Symbol of History
Danescu, Elena UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

As the fifth sovereign of the national dynasty since 1890, Grand Duke Jean was a head of state who perfectly embodied the ideals of service to his country and commitment to European integration.

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See detail5. Forschungsbericht zur Weiterentwicklung des Arbeitsqualitätsindexes in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Der „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW)-Survey, der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambre des Salariés konzipiert wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015, 2016 ... [more ▼]

Der „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW)-Survey, der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambre des Salariés konzipiert wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019), wurde 2018 zum sechsten Mal durchgeführt. Ziel des Surveys ist es, die erlebte Arbeitssituation und -qualität luxemburgischer Arbeitnehmer zu erfassen. Der vorliegende Bericht dokumentiert die psychometrische Testung der Güte des aktuellen Erhebungsinstruments. In einem ersten Schritt erfolgt eine Beschreibung der Befragungsumstände sowie eine demographische Beschreibung der Stichprobe. Da die Erhebung 2018 als Mixed-Mode-Design – telefonische als auch Online-Befragung – durchgeführt wurde, wird auch analysiert, ob Stichprobenunterschiede zwischen den beiden Erhebungsmodi auftreten. Außerdem wird geklärt, ob es hinsichtlich demographischer Eigenschaften der Befragten, hinsichtlich der QoW-Skalen oder hinsichtlich verschiedener Well-Being-Maße zu systematischen Ausfällen seit der letzten Welle gekommen ist. Dann werden die Items der QoW- und Well-Being-Skalen auf fehlende Werte untersucht und es erfolgt eine Beschreibung der Items mittels verteilungsbeschreibender Maßzahlen und Balkendiagramme. In einem nächsten Schritt werden die Skalen mittels verschiedener Reliabilitätsstatistiken (Cronbach’s Alpha, Korrelationsanalysen der Items) sowie Koeffizienten zur Beschreibung der Skalenverteilung überprüft. Außerdem werden die Zusammenhänge der Skalen mittels Korrelationsanalysen überprüft. Im Anschluss daran wird die unterstellte Faktorenstruktur mittels konfirmatorischer Faktoren-analysen getestet. Die QoW-Skalen werden außerdem auf verschiedene Well-Being-Skalen regressiert, um deren Relevanz für den QoW-Index zu prüfen. Ebenso werden einige Längsschnitt-Regressionsanalysen durchgeführt, um zu überprüfen ob einige Arbeitsbedingungen längerfristige Effekte auf das Well-Being der Arbeitnehmer aufweisen. Die QoW-Befragung 2018 hat außerdem das Schwerpunktthema „Work-Life-Balance“ behandelt. Die Güte der Skalen zu diesem Thema wird ebenfalls geprüft. Im Anschluss werden dann Korrelationen mit den QoW- und Well-Being-Skalen berechnet. Abschließend wird das gesamte Erhebungsinstrument zusammenfassend diskutiert und Emp-fehlungen bezüglich zukünftiger Befragungen gegeben. [less ▲]

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See detailDéchiffrer le phénomène des travailleurs transfrontaliers en Suisse
Duchêne-Lacroix, Cédric; Wille, Christian UL; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Cross-border workers form a little-known but numerous population in Switzerland. Beyond clichés, this contribution brings together the main characteristics of this population based on official statistics ... [more ▼]

Cross-border workers form a little-known but numerous population in Switzerland. Beyond clichés, this contribution brings together the main characteristics of this population based on official statistics and the latest research. The introduction of the Freedom of Movement Agreement did not change the growth trend of the population that remains to live and work in proximity of the border, mostly in France and near-Switzerland agglomerations. Conversely, the occupational areas and levels have diversified. Generally, cross-border workers have no negative influence on the labour market, except on salary level in some economic sectors in Ticino. The initiation of the “priority to Swiss residents” will not change the situation, which relates above all to the economic evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailles travailleurs frontaliers au Luxembourg et en Suisse : Emploi, Quotidien et Perceptions
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Wille, Christian UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Petits pays ayant d’importants besoins de main-d’œuvre, le Luxembourg et la Suisse attirent tous deux un grand nombre de travailleurs frontaliers. C’est dans une perspective comparative que les 19 auteurs ... [more ▼]

Petits pays ayant d’importants besoins de main-d’œuvre, le Luxembourg et la Suisse attirent tous deux un grand nombre de travailleurs frontaliers. C’est dans une perspective comparative que les 19 auteurs impliqués dans ce Cahier Thématique analysent la situation des travailleurs frontaliers dans les principaux pôles d’emploi transfrontaliers (Luxembourg, Bâle, Genève), mais également au Tessin. En tenant compte des éléments contextuels et méthodologiques, géographes, économistes, sociologues et politologues se focalisent sur les questions d’emploi, le quotidien transfrontalier et les perceptions des frontaliers par la société. Cette approche collective et pluridisciplinaire est résumée par les éditeurs en identifiant des enjeux communs pour le Luxembourg et la Suisse. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Lorrains actifs à l'étranger : une analyse cartographique au niveau communal
Helfer, Malte UL; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

A growing number of people living in Lorraine cross the border for work. Today, there are more than 100 000 commuters, the majority of them working in Luxembourg. The flow of commuters into Luxem-bourg is ... [more ▼]

A growing number of people living in Lorraine cross the border for work. Today, there are more than 100 000 commuters, the majority of them working in Luxembourg. The flow of commuters into Luxem-bourg is on the increase, whereas commuting into Germany continues to shrink. The analysis of com-munes of residence shows a high proportion of cross-border commuters living as the active population in close vicinity to Luxembourg, but many also live in communes further afield; this phenomenon is moving beyond the borders and raises many issues: environmental, social and economic … [less ▲]

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See detailLe travail frontalier au Luxembourg : éléments de contexte et de portrait statistique
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In Luxemburg, 44.4% of employees lives across the border and comes from the three neighboring coun-tries. Cross-border work has historic roots. It is a lasting, growing phenomenon, anchored in local econo ... [more ▼]

In Luxemburg, 44.4% of employees lives across the border and comes from the three neighboring coun-tries. Cross-border work has historic roots. It is a lasting, growing phenomenon, anchored in local econo-mies. This contribution underlines the importance of contextual conditions under which these flows have in-creased. It presents the main characteristics and challenges of cross-border work in Luxembourg, in order to compare with Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailLES IMPACTS ECONOMIQUES ET TERRITORIAUX DU TRAVAIL FRON-TALIER SUR LES TERRITOIRES DE RESIDENCE : L’exemple du bassin de Longwy
Belkacem, Rachid; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This article questions the impacts of cross-border worker mobility on the economic and social devel-opment of their place of residence. We hypothesize that cross-border mobility produces resources for the ... [more ▼]

This article questions the impacts of cross-border worker mobility on the economic and social devel-opment of their place of residence. We hypothesize that cross-border mobility produces resources for the worker, the enterprise and the territory, but it can also be a source of constraints. After a geo-graphical framework of the study, this article analyses the main positive territorial impacts of cross-border mobility. It shows that they contribute to the territorial dynamism of these border regions by attracting new sociological profiles of workers, by revitalizing rural territories (through housing), by limiting the increase of local unemployment and by encouraging a new form of in-place economy. Fi-nally, the paper also shows how such mobility can impede the own development of these border terri-tories, such as via a deeper local social stratification and a lack of highly qualified manpower. [less ▲]

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See detailBORDERS IN THE LIVES OF ASYLUM SEEKERS & REFUGEES IN LUXEMBOURG & METZ
Paraschivescu, Claudia UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailWeshalb wechseln Arbeitnehmer ihren Arbeitgeber?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

4,4% der Befragten des Quality of Work Survey hat zwischen den Erhebungen 2017 und 2018 den Arbeitgeber gewechselt. Vor allem die jüngsten Arbeitnehmer (16 bis 24 Jahre) sowie Arbeitnehmer mit einer ... [more ▼]

4,4% der Befragten des Quality of Work Survey hat zwischen den Erhebungen 2017 und 2018 den Arbeitgeber gewechselt. Vor allem die jüngsten Arbeitnehmer (16 bis 24 Jahre) sowie Arbeitnehmer mit einer befristeten Arbeitsstelle wechselten eher ihren Arbeitgeber. Je geringer Partizipation und Feedback, je höher Mobbing, und je geringer Einkommenszufriedenheit, Ausbildungs- und Beförderungsmöglichkeiten ausfallen, desto höher die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines Arbeitgeberwechsels. Arbeitnehmer, die den Arbeitgeber gewechselt haben, weisen dann im Mittel einen Zuwachs an Wohlbefinden auf. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperideal polyhedra in the 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter space
Chen, Qiyu UL; Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We study hyperideal polyhedra in the 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS3, which are defined as the intersection of the projective model of AdS3 with a convex polyhedron in RP3 whose vertices are all ... [more ▼]

We study hyperideal polyhedra in the 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS3, which are defined as the intersection of the projective model of AdS3 with a convex polyhedron in RP3 whose vertices are all outside of AdS3 and whose edges all meet AdS3. We show that hyperideal polyhedra in AdS3 are uniquely determined by their combinatorics and dihedral angles, as well as by the induced metric on their boundary together with an additional combinatorial data, and describe the possible dihedral angles and the possible induced metrics on the boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-agent approach for in silico simulations of micro-biological systems
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Gallo, Luca; Passalacqua, Barbara et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

A Multi-agent approach forin silicosimulations ofmicro-biological systemsProverbio D., Gallo L., Passalacqua B., Pellegrino J., Maggiora M.AbstractUsing a Multi-agent systems paradigm, the present project ... [more ▼]

A Multi-agent approach forin silicosimulations ofmicro-biological systemsProverbio D., Gallo L., Passalacqua B., Pellegrino J., Maggiora M.AbstractUsing a Multi-agent systems paradigm, the present project develops, validates and exploits a computa-tionaltestbedthat simulates micro-biological complex systems, namely the aggregation patterns of thesocial amoebaDyctiostelium discoideum. We propose a new design and implementation for managingdiscrete simulations with autonomous agents on a microscopic scale, thus focusing on their social be-havior and mutual interactions. Then, the dependence on the main physical variables is tested, namelydensity and number of amoebas; in addition, we analyze the robustness of the dynamics against var-ious noise sources. Along with these results, we suggest a methodology for further studies that makeuse of our validated model. [less ▲]

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See detailRank n swapping algebra for Grassmannian
Sun, Zhe UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The rank n swapping algebra is the Poisson algebra defined on the ordered pairs of points on a circle using the linking numbers, where a subspace of (K^n×K^{n∗})^r/GL(n,K) is its geometric mode. In this ... [more ▼]

The rank n swapping algebra is the Poisson algebra defined on the ordered pairs of points on a circle using the linking numbers, where a subspace of (K^n×K^{n∗})^r/GL(n,K) is its geometric mode. In this paper, we find an injective Poisson homomorphism from the Poisson algebra on Grassmannian G(n,r) arising from boundary measurement map to the rank n swapping fraction algebra. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-cell transcriptomics reveals multiple neuronal cell types in human midbrain-specific organoids
Smits, Lisa UL; Magni, Stefano UL; Grzyb, Kamil UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Human stem cell-derived organoids have great potential for modelling physiological and pathological processes. They recapitulate in vitro the organisation and function of a respective organ or part of an ... [more ▼]

Human stem cell-derived organoids have great potential for modelling physiological and pathological processes. They recapitulate in vitro the organisation and function of a respective organ or part of an organ. Human midbrain organoids (hMOs) have been described to contain midbrain-specific dopaminergic neurons that release the neurotransmitter dopamine. However, the human midbrain contains also additional neuronal cell types, which are functionally interacting with each other. Here, we analysed hMOs at high-resolution by means of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), imaging and electrophysiology to unravel cell heterogeneity. Our findings demonstrate that hMOs show essential neuronal functional properties as spontaneous electrophysiological activity of different neuronal subtypes, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Recapitulating these in vivo features makes hMOs an excellent tool for in vitro disease phenotyping and drug discovery. [less ▲]

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See detailScalable Viewing. Digitale Methoden und die Digital Humanities
Pause, Johannes UL; Walkowski, Niels-Oliver UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailEnergy policies for eco-friendly households in Luxembourg—a study based on the LuxHEI model
Poncin, Stéphane Louis Maxim UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the residential building sector is a major energy consumer and greenhouse gases emitter that is considered key in achieving the country's climate goals. The purpose of ... [more ▼]

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the residential building sector is a major energy consumer and greenhouse gases emitter that is considered key in achieving the country's climate goals. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of the most important policy instruments in achieving savings in the final energy consumption and direct CO2 emissions of Luxembourgish households. Our study is based on the LuxHEI model, which is an enhanced and upgraded version of the well-known French simulation model Res-IRF. This variant has been adjusted to the particular problems of a small country with growing economy and a quickly increasing population. The LuxHEI model goes beyond standard energy-economy models by incorporating global warming as a decision-making factor. The model outcomes reveal that total environmental and economic effectiveness increases if energy policy tools are applied concurrently. In 2060, and compared to the no-policy baseline scenario, the most aspirational policy mix enables energy savings of 42% and an emission mitigation of 60%. From our results we can draw the following policy implications: for a significant improvement of the sector's energy efficiency and sufficiency, (1) the implementation of a remediation duty for existing buildings and (2) the tightening of the performance standards for new constructions, (3) combined with a national carbon tax, are crucial. [less ▲]

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See detailVolumes of quasifuchsian manifolds
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds, or more generally convex co-compact hyperbolic manifolds, have infinite volume, but they have a well-defined ``renormalized'' volume. We outline some relations between ... [more ▼]

Quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds, or more generally convex co-compact hyperbolic manifolds, have infinite volume, but they have a well-defined ``renormalized'' volume. We outline some relations between this renormalized volume and the volume, or more precisely the ``dual volume'', of the convex core. On one hand, there are striking similarities between them, for instance in their variational formulas. On the other, object related to them tend to be within bounded distance. Those analogies and proximities lead to several questions. Both the renormalized volume and the dual volume can be used for instance to bound the volume of the convex core in terms of the Weil-Petersson distance between the conformal metrics at infinity. [less ▲]

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See detail4. Forschungsbericht zur Weiterentwicklung des Arbeitsqualitätsindexes in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Der Survey zu dem „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW), der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambré des Salariés entwickelt wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015 ... [more ▼]

Der Survey zu dem „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW), der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambré des Salariés entwickelt wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015, 2016, 2017), wurde 2017 bereits zum fünften Mal mittels einer telefonischen Befragung durchgeführt. Ziel des Index ist es, die erlebte Arbeitssituation und -qualität luxemburgischer Arbeitnehmer zu erfassen. Der vorliegende Bericht dokumentiert die psychometrische Testung der Güte des aktuellen Erhebungsinstruments. Dazu erfolgt zunächst eine Beschreibung der für die Skalen genutzten Items, die Überprüfung der internen Konsistenz der jeweiligen Skala mittels verschiedener Reliabilitätsstatistiken (Cronbach’s Alpha, Korrelationsanalysen der Items) sowie Koeffizienten zur Beschreibung der Skalenverteilung. Konfirmatorische Faktorenanalysen dienen dazu, zu testen, ob die Items auf den a priori festgelegten Faktoren laden und ob sich die unterstellte Faktorenstruktur auch in den Daten zeigt. Außerdem werden die Zusammenhänge der Skalen mittels Korrelationsanalysen über-prüft. Die QoW-Skalen werden außerdem auf verschiedene Well-Being-Skalen regressiert, um deren Relevanz für den QoW-Index zu prüfen. Da der QoW Survey teilweise als Panelbefragung durchgeführt wird, wird außerdem geklärt, ob es hinsichtlich demographischer Eigenschaften der Befragten, hinsichtlich der QoW-Skalen oder hinsichtlich verschiedener Well-Being-Maße zu systematischen Ausfällen seit der letzten Welle gekommen ist. Ebenso werden einige Längsschnitt-Regressionsanalysen gerechnet, um zu überprüfen, ob einige Arbeitsbedingungen längerfristige Effekte auf das Well-Being der Arbeitnehmer aufweisen. Die QoW-Befragung 2017 hat außerdem das Schwerpunktthema „Digitalisierung“ behandelt. Die Themenblöcke werden mittels Latenter Profile-Analysen untersucht. Im Anschluss wird überprüft ob sich die extrahierten Profile hinsichtlich der QoW- und der Well-Being-Skalen unterscheiden. Abschließend wird das gesamte Erhebungsinstrument zusammenfassend diskutiert und Empfehlungen bezüglich der weiteren Entwicklung der Skalen gegeben. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomobile, sport et tourisme. Le Grand Prix de la Marne dans le calendrier européen (1925-1939)
Moreau, Sebastien UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Depuis le début du xxe siècle, notamment à l’occasion des coupes Gordon-Bennett (1900), c’est sous les projecteurs d’une presse cocardière, complice et friande de modernité technique que les constructeurs ... [more ▼]

Depuis le début du xxe siècle, notamment à l’occasion des coupes Gordon-Bennett (1900), c’est sous les projecteurs d’une presse cocardière, complice et friande de modernité technique que les constructeurs automobiles présentent, sur la scène européenne, les performances de leurs bolides. Au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale, alors que le parc automobile et les flux touristiques croissent de façon vertigineuse, les courses automobiles se multiplient. Un championnat d’Europe est organisé en 1925 par la Commission sportive internationale de l’Association internationale des automobile-clubs reconnus (AIACR) qui s’appuie sur des initiatives locales. Pour les organisateurs locaux de courses, inscrire son circuit dans le calendrier du championnat d’Europe devient un enjeu majeur. Soutenus par les commerçants, industriels et édiles politiques locaux, les organisateurs saisissent l’occasion de la course pour faire de la publicité et stimuler l’économie. Partout en Europe, des acteurs locaux se mobilisent en ce sens pour tirer profit et prestige des circulations plurielles qu’engendre le sport automobile européen. Le cas du Grand Prix de la Marne illustre parfaitement l’enchevêtrement des échelles qui caractérise, du local à l’international, l’émergence d’une scène et d’un public européens pour les spectacles sportifs automobiles [less ▲]

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See detailRank n swapping algebra for PGLn Fock--Goncharov X moduli space
Sun, Zhe UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The rank n swapping algebra is a Poisson algebra defined on the set of ordered pairs of points of the circle using linking numbers, whose geometric model is given by a certain subspace of (K^n×K^{n∗})^r ... [more ▼]

The rank n swapping algebra is a Poisson algebra defined on the set of ordered pairs of points of the circle using linking numbers, whose geometric model is given by a certain subspace of (K^n×K^{n∗})^r/GL(n,K). For any ideal triangulation of D_k---a disk with k points on its boundary, using determinants, we find an injective Poisson algebra homomorphism from the fraction algebra generated by the Fock--Goncharov coordinates for X_{PGL_n,D_k} to the rank n swapping multifraction algebra for r=k⋅(n−1) with respect to the (Atiyah--Bott--)Goldman Poisson bracket and the swapping bracket. This is the building block of the general surface case. Two such injective Poisson algebra homomorphisms related to two ideal triangulations T and T′ are compatible with each other under the flips. [less ▲]

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See detailThe induced metric on the boundary of the convex hull of a quasicircle in hyperbolic and anti de Sitter geometry
Bonsante, Francesco; Danciger, Jeff; Maloni, Sara et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Celebrated work of Alexandrov and Pogorelov determines exactly which metrics on the sphere are induced on the boundary of a compact convex subset of hyperbolic three-space. As a step toward a ... [more ▼]

Celebrated work of Alexandrov and Pogorelov determines exactly which metrics on the sphere are induced on the boundary of a compact convex subset of hyperbolic three-space. As a step toward a generalization for unbounded convex subsets, we consider convex regions of hyperbolic three-space bounded by two properly embedded disks which meet at infinity along a Jordan curve in the ideal boundary. In this setting, it is natural to augment the notion of induced metric on the boundary of the convex set to include a gluing map at infinity which records how the asymptotic geometry of the two surfaces compares near points of the limiting Jordan curve. Restricting further to the case in which the induced metrics on the two bounding surfaces have constant curvature K∈[−1,0) and the Jordan curve at infinity is a quasicircle, the gluing map is naturally a quasisymmetric homeomorphism of the circle. The main result is that for each value of K, every quasisymmetric map is achieved as the gluing map at infinity along some quasicircle. We also prove analogous results in the setting of three-dimensional anti de Sitter geometry. Our results may be viewed as universal versions of the conjectures of Thurston and Mess about prescribing the induced metric on the boundary of the convex core of quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds and globally hyperbolic anti de Sitter spacetimes. [less ▲]

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See detailCOP 24 and Climate Finance: A Stepping Stone or a Blurred Line?
Alexandraki, Chrysa UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In December 2018, the 24th Conference of the Parties (COP 24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), took place in Katowice, Poland. The main objective of those ... [more ▼]

In December 2018, the 24th Conference of the Parties (COP 24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), took place in Katowice, Poland. The main objective of those negotiations was to finalize the so called ‘Paris Rulebook’ [the Paris Agreement Work Programme (PAWP)], which would constitute a set of rules to implement and operationalize the Paris Agreement. The issues at stakes varied from mitigation, adaptation and loss and damage, to more technical issues, such as transparency, climate finance and carbon market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. This post focuses on the progress made on the issue of climate finance based on an analysis of the COP 24 decision on the relevant issues. [less ▲]

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See detailFollow the Money, If You Can - Possible Solutions for Enhanced FIU Cooperation Under Improved Data Protection Rules
Quintel, Teresa Alegra UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Financial information can play a key role in tackling Money Laundering (ML), Terrorist Financing (TF) and combatting serious crime more generally. Preventing and fighting ML and the financing of terrorism ... [more ▼]

Financial information can play a key role in tackling Money Laundering (ML), Terrorist Financing (TF) and combatting serious crime more generally. Preventing and fighting ML and the financing of terrorism were top priorities of the European Agenda on Security, which might explain the fast developments regarding the regulation of Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Counter Terrorism Financing (CTF). During the past years, the European Commission (Commission) proposed several legal texts to reform the current AML framework and to facilitate timely law enforcement (LE) access to financial data for the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of serious crime. The line between administrative sanctions and criminal law measures seems to become increasingly blurred, as the latest proposals are no longer based on an internal market provision, but on police and judicial cooperation legal bases. Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) play a crucial role in analysing and exchanging information concerning suspicious transactions, serving as intermediaries between the private sector and Law Enforcement Authorities (LEAs). Because of the international nature of financial crime, cooperation between FIUs is of paramount importance. Yet, due to different organizational settings in the EU Member States, FIUs are not always able to exchange data effectively, which leads to information gaps. One of the reasons why the data exchange between FIUs is impeded are data protection rules that apply differently depending on the organizational structure of the FIUs in the 28 Member States. Whereas some FIUs must adhere to the stricter data protection rules under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), others may exchange data more flexibly within the scope of the data protection Directive for police and criminal justice authorities (LED). Therefore, the counter-argument to granting broader LE-access rights to financial data by LEAs could be to enable a more effective exchange of data between FIUs. This article argues that FIUs should be able to process personal data within the scope of the LED, in order to have more flexibility to receive, analyse and exchange data: On the one hand, the LED provides sufficiently high data protection standards and adequate safeguards for data subjects while allowing FIUs to carry out their tasks effectively under harmonized rules. On the other hand, this would be an argument to strengthening the role of FIUs as neutral intermediaries instead of granting additional access to personal data by LEAs. [less ▲]

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See detailConformal actions of higher-rank lattices on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds
Pecastaing, Vincent UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We investigate conformal actions of cocompact lattices in higher-rank simple Lie groups on compact pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. Our main result gives a general bound on the real-rank of the lattice, which ... [more ▼]

We investigate conformal actions of cocompact lattices in higher-rank simple Lie groups on compact pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. Our main result gives a general bound on the real-rank of the lattice, which was already known for the action of the full Lie group ([33]). When the real-rank is maximal, we prove that the manifold is conformally flat. This indicates that a global conclusion similar to that of [1] and [17] in the case of a Lie group action might be obtained. We also give better estimates for actions of cocompact lattices in exceptional groups. Our work is strongly inspired by the recent breakthrough of Brown, Fisher and Hurtado on Zimmer’s conjecture [7]. [less ▲]

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See detailMcShane identities for Higher Teichmüller theory and the Goncharov-Shen potential
Sun, Zhe UL; Huang, Yi

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In [GS15], Goncharov and Shen introduce a family of mapping class group invariant regular functions on their A-moduli space to explicitly formulate a particular homological mirror symmetry conjecture ... [more ▼]

In [GS15], Goncharov and Shen introduce a family of mapping class group invariant regular functions on their A-moduli space to explicitly formulate a particular homological mirror symmetry conjecture. Using these regular functions, we obtain McShane identities general rank positive surface group representations with loxodromic boundary monodromy and (non-strict) McShane-type inequalities for general rank positive representations with unipotent boundary monodromy. Our identities are expressed in terms of projective invariants, and we study these invariants: we establish boundedness and Fuchsian rigidity results for triple ratios. Moreover, we obtain McShane identities for finite-area cusped convex real projective surfaces by generalizing the Birman--Series geodesic scarcity theorem. We apply our identities to derive the simple spectral discreteness of unipotent bordered positive representations, collar lemmas, and generalizations of the Thurston metric. [less ▲]

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See detailHousehold credit and growth: International evidence
Leon, Florian UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper has two main objectives. First, it attempts to distinguish the effects of household and enterprise credit on economic growth for a large sample of developing and developed countries. Second, it ... [more ▼]

This paper has two main objectives. First, it attempts to distinguish the effects of household and enterprise credit on economic growth for a large sample of developing and developed countries. Second, it investigates the channels through which household credit affects economic growth. To do so, a new database covering 143 countries over the period 1995-2014 is employed. Econometric results show that household credit has a negative effect on growth, while business credit has a positive, albeit non significant, impact on growth. The literature provide two possible explanations to justify the negative effect of household credit. On the one hand, household credit expansion can induce more financial fragility. On the other hand, the negative impact of household credit could be explained by its effect on saving behaviors. Results provide some evidence indicating that the negative effect of household credit is more driven by the latter than the former. [less ▲]

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See detailLes pratiques du quotidien transfrontalières dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Wille, Christian UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper analyses everyday practices carried out by the residents of the Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia in the neighbouring regions abroad. The key assumption is the ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses everyday practices carried out by the residents of the Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia in the neighbouring regions abroad. The key assumption is the consider-ation that the inhabitants of the Greater Region SaarLorLux define the transborder reality of life of this region through their cross-border performance of everyday practices. Such a socio-constructivist perspective is not interested in what the Greater Region SaarLorLux actually is, but in what ways it is constituted or how it manifests itself in the daily lives of its inhabitants. Therefor the most common cross-border everyday prac-tices, such as shopping for everyday needs, leisure-time shopping, outdoor recreation / tourism, cultural events, as well as visiting friends and family are looked at in greater detail. These observations are based on selected findings from three recent empirical studies of the study region, which have been linked to each other as well as socio-culturally and socioeconomically mapped in order to carve out the spatial organiza-tion, the motives and other contextual factors of cross-border everyday practices in the Greater Region SaarLorLux. This approach allows reconstructing mobility flows and spatial emphases in the context of everyday practices and gives insights into the nature of cross-border living realities in the Greater Region SaarLorLux. [less ▲]

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See detailGrenzüberschreitende Zusammenarbeit als Praxisformation. Perspektiven für eine alternative Kooperationsforschung
Wille, Christian UL; Connor, Ulla UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The paper presents a practice-sociological approach to the description and analysis of cross-border cooperation. For this purpose, the development of cooperation research, its characteristic orientations ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a practice-sociological approach to the description and analysis of cross-border cooperation. For this purpose, the development of cooperation research, its characteristic orientations as well as the fundamentals of practical theoretical thinking will be outlined. Based on this, the heuristic figure of thought of cross-border practice formation is developed, which breaks with the premises of conventional cooperation research. It will be further differentiated on the basis of four challenges of cross-border cooperation, in order to arrive at an alternative perspective on cross-border cooperation. The following is an outlook, which deals with the research-specific features of the approach presented, with a view to a future practice-sociological and multidisciplinary cooperation research. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear system identification from ensemble snapshot observations
Aalto, Atte UL; Goncalves, Jorge UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Developments in transcriptomics techniques have caused a large demand in tailored computational methods for modelling gene expression dynamics from experimental data. Recently, so-called single-cell ... [more ▼]

Developments in transcriptomics techniques have caused a large demand in tailored computational methods for modelling gene expression dynamics from experimental data. Recently, so-called single-cell experiments have revolutionised genetic studies. These experiments yield gene expression data in single cell resolution for a large number of cells at a time. However, the cells are destroyed in the measurement process, and so the data consist of snapshots of an ensemble evolving over time, instead of time series. The problem studied in this article is how such data can be used in modelling gene regulatory dynamics. Two different paradigms are studied for linear system identification. The first is based on tracking the evolution of the distribution of cells over time. The second is based on the so-called pseudotime concept, identifying a common trajectory through the state space, along which cells propagate with different rates. Therefore, at any given time, the population contains cells in different stages of the trajectory. Resulting methods are compared in numerical experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailGalois families of modular forms and application to weight one
Arias-de-Reyna, Sara; Legrand, François; Wiese, Gabor UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We introduce Galois families of modular forms. They are a new kind of family coming from Galois representations of the absolute Galois groups of rational function fields over the rational field. We ... [more ▼]

We introduce Galois families of modular forms. They are a new kind of family coming from Galois representations of the absolute Galois groups of rational function fields over the rational field. We exhibit some examples and provide an infinite Galois family of non-liftable weight one Katz modular eigenforms over an algebraic closure of F_p for p in {3,5,7,11}. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting Functional Effects of Missense Variants in Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels
Heyne, Henrike O.; Baez-Nieto, David; Iqbal, Sumaiya et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Malfunctions of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels (SCN and CACNA1 genes) have been associated with severe neurologic, psychiatric, cardiac and other diseases. Altered channel activity is ... [more ▼]

Malfunctions of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels (SCN and CACNA1 genes) have been associated with severe neurologic, psychiatric, cardiac and other diseases. Altered channel activity is frequently grouped into gain or loss of ion channel function (GOF or LOF, respectively) which is not only corresponding to clinical disease manifestations, but also to differences in drug response. Experimental studies of channel function are therefore important, but laborious and usually focus only on a few variants at a time. Based on known gene-disease-mechanisms, we here infer LOF (518 variants) and GOF (309 variants) of likely pathogenic variants from disease phenotypes of variant carriers. We show regional clustering of inferred GOF and LOF variants, respectively, across the alignment of the entire gene family, suggesting shared pathomechanisms in the SCN/CACNA1 genes. By training a machine learning model on sequence- and structure-based features we predict LOF- or GOF- associated disease phenotypes (ROC = 0.85) of likely pathogenic missense variants. We then successfully validate the GOF versus LOF prediction on 87 functionally tested variants in SCN1/2/8A and CACNA1I (ROC = 0.73) and in exome-wide data from > 100.000 cases and controls. Ultimately, functional prediction of missense variants in clinically relevant genes will facilitate precision medicine in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEphemeral persistence modules and distance comparison
Berkouk, Nicolas; Petit, François UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We provide a definition of ephemeral multi-persistent modules and prove that the quotient of persistent modules by the ephemeral ones is equivalent to the category of γ-sheaves. In the case of one ... [more ▼]

We provide a definition of ephemeral multi-persistent modules and prove that the quotient of persistent modules by the ephemeral ones is equivalent to the category of γ-sheaves. In the case of one-dimensional persistence, our definition agrees with the usual one showing that the observable category and the category of γ-sheaves are equivalent. We also establish isometry theorems between the category of persistent modules and γ-sheaves both endowed with their interleaving distance. Finally, we compare the interleaving and convolution distances. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the best constants associated with n-distances
Kiss, Gergely; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We pursue the investigation of the concept of n-distance, an n-variable version of the classical concept of distance recently introduced and investigated by Kiss, Marichal, and Teheux. We especially focus ... [more ▼]

We pursue the investigation of the concept of n-distance, an n-variable version of the classical concept of distance recently introduced and investigated by Kiss, Marichal, and Teheux. We especially focus on the challenging problem of computing the best constant associated with a given n-distance. In particular, we define and investigate the best constants related to partial simplex inequalities. We also introduce and discuss some subclasses of n-distances defined by considering some properties. Finally, we discuss an interesting link between the concepts of n-distance and multidistance. [less ▲]

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See detailPractical bounds on the error of Bayesian posterior approximations: A nonasymptotic approach
Huggins, Jonathan; Kasprzak, Mikolaj UL; Campbell, Trevor et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailDynamical strategies for obstacle avoidance during Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation: a Multi-agent system model
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Maggiora, Marco

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Chemotaxis, the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus, is a typical feature of many microbiological systems. In particular, the social amoeba Disctyostelium discoideum is widely used ... [more ▼]

Chemotaxis, the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus, is a typical feature of many microbiological systems. In particular, the social amoeba Disctyostelium discoideum is widely used as a model organism, but it is not still clear how it behaves in heterogeneous environments. A few models focused on mechanical features have already addressed the question; however, we propose that phenomenological models focusing on the dynamics may provide new meaningful data. Consequently, by means of a specific Multi-agent system model, we studied the dynamical features emerging from complex social interactions among individuals belonging to amoeboids colonies. After defining an appropriate metric to perform meaningful measurements, we found that: a) obstacles play the role of local topological perturbation, as they alter the flux of chemical signals; b) that obstacle that physically block the cellular motion as well as the chemicals elicit dynamical evolutions that are not statistically distinguishable from the case where obstacles that do not interfere physically with said motion; c) that fluctuations of the dynamics can lead to better exploration of the physical space, thus preventing multiple stable aggregates. From previous results, we may speculate about the fact that chemotactic cells, in many cases, can avoid obstacles by simply following the altered chemical gradient: social interactions seem to be sufficient to guarantee the aggregation of the whole colony past numerous obstacles. It is then unlikely that cells have developed special mechanisms to cope with the presence of topological perturbation sources. Nevertheless, we suggest that further studies can provide better understanding and that, in order to gain deeper knowledge, mechanical models should be coupled with phenomenological, system-oriented ones. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade and Vertical Differentiation
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tampieri, Alessandro

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper discusses a trade model with many countries, many goods produced in multiple quality versions, and non-homothetic preferences. It embeds in the same model a series of results that have been ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses a trade model with many countries, many goods produced in multiple quality versions, and non-homothetic preferences. It embeds in the same model a series of results that have been empirically confirmed: high-income countries specialize in the production of high-quality goods and trade more of those. Richer countries purchase more high-quality varieties. They import more high-quality products from the most productive exporters. The paper then studies the impact of productivity and population changes on the quality composition of exports. It finally explains why countries import higher quality goods from more distant countries. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen Urban Areas
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tran, Thi Thu Huyen UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper studies the size and location of urban green areas across city spaces. Urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the size and location of urban green areas across city spaces. Urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses the socially optimal sizes and locations of urban green areas within a city and their decentralized allocation through land markets. The main result is that the share of land dedicated to urban green areas is a concave function of the distance to the city center. This result is confirmed by the empirical study of urban structures in the 305 largest EU cities. The importance of urban green areas is finally assessed by a counterfactual analysis, where 50% of urban green areas are removed in each city. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Crowdsourced Replication Initiative: Investigating Immigration and Social Policy Preferences. Executive Report.
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social ... [more ▼]

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social solidarity? Comparative cross-national research, relying mostly on secondary data, has findings in different directions. There is a threat of selective model reporting and lack of replicability. The heterogeneity of countries obscures attempts to clearly define data-generating models. P-hacking and HARKing lurk among standard research practices in this area.This project employs crowdsourcing to address these issues. It draws on replication, deliberation, meta-analysis and harnessing the power of many minds at once. The Crowdsourced Replication Initiative carries two main goals, (a) to better investigate the linkage between immigration and social policy preferences across countries, and (b) to develop crowdsourcing as a social science method. The Executive Report provides short reviews of the area of social policy preferences and immigration, and the methods and impetus behind crowdsourcing plus a description of the entire project. Three main areas of findings will appear in three papers, that are registered as PAPs or in process. [less ▲]

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See detailWorin liegen die Chancen und Risiken der verstärkten Nutzung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien außerhalb des Arbeitsplatzes?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Rund 11% der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg können der Gruppe zugeordnet werden, die häufig Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien nutzt, um fern von ihrer organisationalen Arbeitsstelle zu arbeiten ... [more ▼]

Rund 11% der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg können der Gruppe zugeordnet werden, die häufig Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien nutzt, um fern von ihrer organisationalen Arbeitsstelle zu arbeiten. Insbesondere bei männlichen und höher gebildeten Arbeitnehmern sowie bei Managern und Arbeitnehmern in akademischen Berufen ist dieser Anteil an Nutzern stärker ausgeprägt. Diese Arbeitsplatz fernen Nutzer von Informationstechnologien geben im Durchschnitt ein höheres Maß an Autonomie und Partizipation bei der Arbeit an, sind jedoch verstärkt von problematischen psychosozialen Arbeitsbedingungen (z.B. Mobbing, Work-Life-Konflikte) sowie Burnout betroffen. [less ▲]

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See detailBowditch's Q-conditions and Minsky's primitive stability
Lee, Jaejeong; Xu, Binbin UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

For the action of the outer automorphism group of the rank two free group on the corresponding variety of PSL(2,C) characters, two domains of discontinuity have been known to exist that are strictly ... [more ▼]

For the action of the outer automorphism group of the rank two free group on the corresponding variety of PSL(2,C) characters, two domains of discontinuity have been known to exist that are strictly larger than the set of Schottky characters. One is introduced by Bowditch in 1998 (followed by Tan, Wong and Zhang in 2008) and the other by Minsky in 2013. We prove that these two domains are equal. We then show that they are contained in the set of characters having what we call the bounded intersection property. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEmploi et développement économique au sein de la Grande Région : développement économique différencié et impacts de l’emploi transfrontalier
Belkacem, Rachid; Dörrenbächer, Peter; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Axé sur le thème du développement économique et de l’emploi, ce rapport se consacrera plus spécifiquement au développement économique différencié (entre les diverses composantes de la Grande Région) et ... [more ▼]

Axé sur le thème du développement économique et de l’emploi, ce rapport se consacrera plus spécifiquement au développement économique différencié (entre les diverses composantes de la Grande Région) et aux impacts de l’emploi transfrontalier. Il se base sur l’expertise géographique et socioéconomique de ses auteurs, intéressés aux questions transfrontalières et plus particulièrement au phénomène de travail frontalier. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Bachelor ind Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder
Dujardin, Céline UL; Böwen, Petra UL; Flammang, Manou Laure UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Der Newsletter ist eine Fortführung der Publikation "Der Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder". Er wird vervollständigt durch die Daten neuen berufsbegleitenden ... [more ▼]

Der Newsletter ist eine Fortführung der Publikation "Der Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder". Er wird vervollständigt durch die Daten neuen berufsbegleitenden BSSE. Der Newsletter bilanziert die Bewerber- sowie die Studienverlaufsdaten mit den Praxisfeldern und den Bachelorarbeiten des Jahres 2017-2018 [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTNFS Resistant Families of Pairing-Friendly Elliptic Curves
Fotiadis, Georgios UL; Konstantinou, Elisavet

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (9 UL)
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See detailOptimal TNFS-secure pairings on elliptic curves with even embedding degree
Fotiadis, Georgios UL; Martindale, Chloe

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 UL)
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See detailThe dual Bonahon-Schläfli formula
Mazzoli, Filippo UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Given a differentiable deformation of geometrically finite hyperbolic 3-manifolds (M_t)_t, the Bonahon-Schläfli formula expresses the derivative of the volume of the convex cores (CM_t)_t in terms of the ... [more ▼]

Given a differentiable deformation of geometrically finite hyperbolic 3-manifolds (M_t)_t, the Bonahon-Schläfli formula expresses the derivative of the volume of the convex cores (CM_t)_t in terms of the variation of the geometry of its boundary, as the classical Schläfli formula does for the volume of hyperbolic polyhedra. Here we study the analogous problem for the dual volume, a notion that arises from the polarity relation between the hyperbolic space H^3 and the de Sitter space dS^3. The corresponding dual Bonahon-Schläfli formula has been originally deduced from Bonahon's work by Krasnov and Schlenker. Here, making use of the differential Schläfli formula and the properties of the dual volume, we give a (almost) self-contained proof of the dual Bonahon-Schläfli formula, without making use of Bonahon's original result. [less ▲]

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See detailMicromechanical model for sintering and damage in viscoelastic porous ice and snow. Part I: Theory
Kabore, Brice Wendlassida UL; Peters, Bernhard UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Ice and snow have sometime been classified as a viscoelastic or viscoplastic mate- rial according to temperature, strain rate, pressure and time scale. Throughout experimental studies presented in the ... [more ▼]

Ice and snow have sometime been classified as a viscoelastic or viscoplastic mate- rial according to temperature, strain rate, pressure and time scale. Throughout experimental studies presented in the literature, it has been observed that at very low temperatures or high strain rate, porous ice and snow exhibit brittle behavior, but experience high viscous and plastic flow at temperatures closed to the melting point and low rates. At the macroscopic level nonlinearity is not necessarily attributed to material level permanent changes or yielding but mainly to micro cracks, porosity collapse and crack propagation. This paper attempts to address this complex behavior with a full microstructure based model. [less ▲]

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See detailPortability of Student Benefits in the European Union - The Luxembourg System
Silga, Janine UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Since its creation, Luxembourg’s system of financial aid for higher (university) studies has set as its primary objective the increase of the proportion of its resident population holding a higher ... [more ▼]

Since its creation, Luxembourg’s system of financial aid for higher (university) studies has set as its primary objective the increase of the proportion of its resident population holding a higher education degree. However, the fact that Luxembourg did not have its own university system until 2003 made this country even more dependent on other European countries to fulfil this policy objective. This explains why the portability of national financial assistance for higher education was crucial to achieve it. In the European Union (EU) context, the portability – or exportability – of student grants or loans may be defined as the faculty for students to ‘export’ such benefits to a Member State that is different from the one which allocates them. Portability is also the reason why the Luxembourg system falls into the scope of EU law, since it may interfere with equal treatment between workers all the more so, as frontier workers account for more than 45% of the country’s labour force. These peculiarities provide the background for the three decisions of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) on the portability of financial aid for higher studies for children of frontier workers that lie at the heart of this paper. It will start by briefly highlighting the evolution of Luxembourg’s system of financial aid for higher education and present its main features. Then, it will show that despite the recent clarifications given by the CJEU in the last two cases of 2016, several issues remain unanswered, both from an EU and national law perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailA Proof of Entropy Minimization for Outputs in Deletion Channels via Hidden Word Statistics
Atashpendar, Arash UL; Mestel, David UL; Roscoe, A.W. (Bill) et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

From the output produced by a memoryless deletion channel from a uniformly random input of known length n, one obtains a posterior distribution on the channel input. The difference between the Shannon ... [more ▼]

From the output produced by a memoryless deletion channel from a uniformly random input of known length n, one obtains a posterior distribution on the channel input. The difference between the Shannon entropy of this distribution and that of the uniform prior measures the amount of information about the channel input which is conveyed by the output of length m, and it is natural to ask for which outputs this is extremized. This question was posed in a previous work, where it was conjectured on the basis of experimental data that the entropy of the posterior is minimized and maximized by the constant strings 𝟶𝟶𝟶… and 𝟷𝟷𝟷… and the alternating strings 𝟶𝟷𝟶𝟷… and 𝟷𝟶𝟷𝟶… respectively. In the present work we confirm the minimization conjecture in the asymptotic limit using results from hidden word statistics. We show how the analytic-combinatorial methods of Flajolet, Szpankowski and Vall\'ee for dealing with the hidden pattern matching problem can be applied to resolve the case of fixed output length and n→∞, by obtaining estimates for the entropy in terms of the moments of the posterior distribution and establishing its minimization via a measure of autocorrelation. [less ▲]

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See detailCARRIER GRAPHS FOR REPRESENTATIONS OF THE RANK TWO FREE GROUP INTO ISOMETRIES OF HYPERBOLIC THREE SPACE
Tan, Ser Peow; Xu, Binbin UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Carrier graphs were first introduced for closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds by White. In this paper, we first generalize this definition to carrier graphs for representations of a rank two free group into the ... [more ▼]

Carrier graphs were first introduced for closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds by White. In this paper, we first generalize this definition to carrier graphs for representations of a rank two free group into the isometry group of hyperbolic three space. Then we prove the existence and the finiteness of minimal carrier graphs for those representations which are discrete, faithful and geometrically finite, and more generally, those that satisfy certain finiteness conditions first introduced by Bowditch. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailBetween European Precaution and National Compensation : The Disourses of Risk Management A Critical Analysis of Giovanni Pesce and Others v. Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri – Dipartimento della Protezione Civile and Others
Dufour, Pascale UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Contemporary society can undisputably be characterized, following Ulrich Beck, as a risk society. Indeed, catastrophic risks multiply themselves, and hence also need to be managed. This paper addresses ... [more ▼]

Contemporary society can undisputably be characterized, following Ulrich Beck, as a risk society. Indeed, catastrophic risks multiply themselves, and hence also need to be managed. This paper addresses more generally the question of how and by whom decision making regarding risk management is made in the European Union. More precisely, it provides a critical analysis of the legal discourse, on the one hand, on the use of the precautionary principle in risk management, and, on the other hand, on compensation of individuals that suffer financial losses related to decisions that are taken on the behalf of this principle. This critic will here be illustrated through an analysis of the Giovanni Pesce and Others v. Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri – Dipartimento della Protezione Civile and Others case. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 UL)
See detailWozu Mittelalterforschung? Zum 30. Jubiläum des CLUDEM
Pauly, Michel UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 UL)
See detailProperness for circle packings and Delaunay circle patterns on complex projective structures
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL; Yarmola, Andrew UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We consider circle packings and, more generally, Delaunay circle patterns - arrangements of circles arising from a Delaunay decomposition of a finite set of points - on surfaces equipped with a complex ... [more ▼]

We consider circle packings and, more generally, Delaunay circle patterns - arrangements of circles arising from a Delaunay decomposition of a finite set of points - on surfaces equipped with a complex projective structure. Motivated by a conjecture of Kojima, Mizushima and Tan, we prove that the forgetful map sending a complex projective structure admitting a circle packing with given nerve (resp. a Delaunay circle pattern with given nerve and intersection angles) to the underlying complex structure is proper. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailWWI: Kosakenmütze und roter Stern: Russische Gefangene in Luxemburg 1918
Ganschow, Inna UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Die vorliegende Teiluntersuchung beschäftigt sich mit den 3.100 russischen Kriegsgefangenen, die 1918 Luxemburg passierten. Etwa 300 blieben nachweislich in Luxemburg, da die sowjetische Ideologie in ... [more ▼]

Die vorliegende Teiluntersuchung beschäftigt sich mit den 3.100 russischen Kriegsgefangenen, die 1918 Luxemburg passierten. Etwa 300 blieben nachweislich in Luxemburg, da die sowjetische Ideologie in ihrer neuen Heimat, die nun Russische Sowjetische Föderative Sozialistische Republik hieß, sie nicht ansprach. In einer mikrohistorischen Perspektive werden mehrere Schicksale vorgeführt, anhand derer man zum einen die Bedingungen dieser Emigration versteht, die sich zwar auf neutralen Boden vollzog, jedoch unter der stetigen Verfolgung durch die deutsche Armee, die die Unabhängigkeit Luxemburgs wenig kümmerte. Zum anderen wird gezeigt, wie “Russisch” immer mehr mit “Kommunistisch” assoziiert wurde und alle Russen unter Verdacht standen, “rot” zu sein. [less ▲]

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See detailComposable, Unconditionally Secure Message Authentication without any Secret Key
Ostrev, Dimiter UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We consider a setup in which the channel from Alice to Bob is less noisy than the channel from Eve to Bob. We show that there exist encoding and decoding which accomplish error correction and ... [more ▼]

We consider a setup in which the channel from Alice to Bob is less noisy than the channel from Eve to Bob. We show that there exist encoding and decoding which accomplish error correction and authentication simultaneously; that is, Bob is able to correctly decode a message coming from Alice and reject a message coming from Eve with high probability. The system does not require any secret key shared between Alice and Bob, provides information theoretic security, and can safely be composed with other protocols in an arbitrary context. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 UL)
See detailThe Paradoxical Case Against Interest Rate Caps for Microfinance – And: How FinTech and RegTech Resolve the Dilemma
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Dewi, Tsany Ratna UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Since 2010 approximately 40 developing countries and transitional economies imposed interest rate caps. This article analyses the impact of these interest rate caps on microfinance institutions ... [more ▼]

Since 2010 approximately 40 developing countries and transitional economies imposed interest rate caps. This article analyses the impact of these interest rate caps on microfinance institutions. Introducing the taxonomy of soft, mezzo and hard interest rate caps we take a stance against hard interest rate caps arguing that the downsides of such hard caps outweight the benefits. Our article is structured as follows: In Pt. II we show that regulatory materials published in the context of cap implementation reveals four justifications for imposing interest rate caps, including consumer and client protection, fraud prevention and exploitation by deceptive credit providers, support for a particular strategic industry or sector, and combating anti-competitive behavior where the costs of credit exceed the actual cost of lending plus a reasonable profit margin. In Pt. III. to V. we argue that these arguments do not justify the imposition of hard interest rate caps: In Pt. III. we challenge each of the four arguments, arguing that hard interest rate caps, as one-size-fits-all solutions are too blunt an instrument to distinguish between the different service levels and industry environments in which microfinance institutions operate. In Pt IV. we outline that hard interest rate caps prompt two unwanted consequences instead: increasing the importance of the informal credit sector, and furthering the microfinance institution's mission drift. In Pt. V. we also show that the comparison with Northern low-interest economies is flawed. Drawing on financial and regulatory technologies we develop alternative solutions in Part VI. First, the most adequate way to reduce too high interest rates is furthering competition among all institutions that could provide credit. Rather than distinguishing between regulated banks, microfinance institutions and mobile money and lending providers all of these three groups constitute the respective credit market, and competition between the three branches of credit markets is, in principle, desirable, if the policy objective is competition on the merits. This requires the development of well function credit registers, disclosure of effective interest rates and the facilitation of digital financial services. Pt. VII. concludes. [less ▲]

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See detailMore Necessary and Less Sufficient: An Age-Period-Cohort Approach to Overeducation in Comparative Perspective
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

In many countries, the skilled labor market has lagged behind educational expansion. As a result of increased competition, younger cohorts of the highly educated face decreasing returns to education or ... [more ▼]

In many countries, the skilled labor market has lagged behind educational expansion. As a result of increased competition, younger cohorts of the highly educated face decreasing returns to education or overeducation. Surprisingly, decreasing occupational outcomes do not coincide empirically with the economic returns among those with tertiary education. Regarding the process of changes in economic returns to education based on cohort transformations, we expect that the expansion of tertiary education affects specific cohorts, which find themselves facing more labor market competition. As a result, the economic returns to education should decrease over cohorts even though they remain stable and even increase during the same period. To study this process, we model economic returns with a new Age-Period- Cohort-Trended-Lag (APCTLAG) method, which allows comparing the gap in economic returns between tertiary and less than tertiary education over cohorts. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we analyze trends over three decades in 12 countries. Our results confirm that educational returns for tertiary education have declined over time, even though the gap between the educated and the less educated has remained similar in most of the countries. For younger cohorts, tertiary education has become more necessary to survive in the competitive labor market, but the actual economic returns to it have decreased - making tertiary education less sufficient than before. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (7 UL)
See detailLe régime d’Etat providence joue un rôle dans le bien-être
Samuel, Robin UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Brunel, Valentin

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (7 UL)
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See detailThe Global Triumph of the Research University: A Driving Force of Science Production
Baker, David P.; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The demand for higher education in countries around the world has never been higher. This increase in education levels has generated many benefits to society, including more knowledgeable citizens ... [more ▼]

The demand for higher education in countries around the world has never been higher. This increase in education levels has generated many benefits to society, including more knowledgeable citizens, advanced economies, and enhanced longevity. We have also seen countries and universities invest heavily in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), including health (STEM+) research and scientific output. This has resulted in unexpected pure exponential growth in science production around the world. Increased competition, as well as boundary-spanning collaborations, drive unprecedented scientific advancement and technological innovation. In a book entitled The Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University, we explore global scientific developments from the early 20th century to today. University-based research, especially, has risen globally to become the driving force of science production in STEM+ fields. Universities, with their multiple missions of research, teaching, and public service, are uniquely positioned to contribute to scientific output while simultaneously producing the next generation of scientists. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 114 (17 UL)
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See detailDelaunay Triangulations of Points on Circles
despré, vincent; devillers, olivier; Parlier, Hugo UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Delaunay triangulations of a point set in the Euclidean plane are ubiquitous in a number of computational sciences, including computational geometry. Delaunay triangulations are not well defined as soon ... [more ▼]

Delaunay triangulations of a point set in the Euclidean plane are ubiquitous in a number of computational sciences, including computational geometry. Delaunay triangulations are not well defined as soon as 4 or more points are concyclic but since it is not a generic situation, this difficulty is usually handled by using a (symbolic or explicit) perturbation. As an alternative, we propose to define a canonical triangulation for a set of concyclic points by using a max-min angle characterization of Delaunay triangulations. This point of view leads to a well defined and unique triangulation as long as there are no symmetric quadruples of points. This unique triangulation can be computed in quasi-linear time by a very simple algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailHolomorphic Frobenius actions for DQ-modules
Petit, François UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Given a complex manifold endowed with a Gm-action and a DQ-algebra equipped with a compatible holomorphic Frobenius action (F-action), we prove that if the Gm-action is free and proper, then the category ... [more ▼]

Given a complex manifold endowed with a Gm-action and a DQ-algebra equipped with a compatible holomorphic Frobenius action (F-action), we prove that if the Gm-action is free and proper, then the category of F-equivariant DQ-modules is equivalent to the category of modules over the sheaf of invariant sections of the DQ-algebra. As an application, we deduce the codimension three conjecture for formal microdifferential modules from the one for DQ-modules on a symplectic manifold. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailConnecting Personal Data of Third Country Nationals: Interoperability of EU Databases in the Light of the CJEU's Case Law on Data Retention
Quintel, Teresa Alegra UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

On 12 December 2017, the EU Commission presented a proposal on the interoperability of EU large-scale Information Systems. The proposal seeks to enable all centralised EU databases for security, border ... [more ▼]

On 12 December 2017, the EU Commission presented a proposal on the interoperability of EU large-scale Information Systems. The proposal seeks to enable all centralised EU databases for security, border and migration management to be interconnected by 2020. The underlying IT systems retain data of Third Country Nationals (TCNs), namely travellers, applicants for international protection, information relating to visa applications or data on missing persons and criminals. With the proposal, the Commission seeks to create new possibilities to exchange information, manage migration challenges and to enhance the Union’s internal security. The interconnectivity of databases would introduce fundamental changes to the current structure of EU IT-systems and requires careful consideration and assessment of compliance with EU data protection standards. This also means that access to information in an interoperable system must be strictly aligned to the access rights of the underlying databases and that requesting authorities only obtain the data that they are authorized to access. With interoperability, data once held in silos would be retained in three new centralized databases and would be more easily accessible, also for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of crime. Where criminal investigations previously required multiple searches in separate databases, this cascading safeguard shall progressively be abandoned to streamline access to personal data by law enforcement authorities. Despite simplified access conditions, this would require new types of processing operations for which the interoperability proposal does not provide a legal basis. During recent years, several judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) have highlighted the difficulty of striking a proper balance between the fundamental rights to privacy and data protection, enshrined in Article 7 and 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU Charter) with an increased demand for security and the surveillance of potential criminals. The Court repeatedly pointed out the need to strike a fair balance between these (allegedly) competing interests and emphasised that law enforcement authorities should not be granted access to personal data without prior authorization. Using the CJEU’s judgments as vehicle and considering the assumption that TCNs risk to become subject to data retention measures in a disproportionate manner, the following analysis seeks to assess both existing EU databases and their foreseen interoperability against the requirements established by the Court in order to evaluate their (in)-compatibility with the fundamental rights standards enshrined in the EU Charter. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (14 UL)
See detailBayesian variable selection in linear dynamical systems
Aalto, Atte UL; Goncalves, Jorge UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We develop a method for reconstructing regulatory interconnection networks between variables evolving according to a linear dynamical system. The work is motivated by the problem of gene regulatory ... [more ▼]

We develop a method for reconstructing regulatory interconnection networks between variables evolving according to a linear dynamical system. The work is motivated by the problem of gene regulatory network inference, that is, finding causal effects between genes from gene expression time series data. In biological applications, the typical problem is that the sampling frequency is low, and consequentially the system identification problem is ill-posed. The low sampling frequency also makes it impossible to estimate derivatives directly from the data. We take a Bayesian approach to the problem, as it offers a natural way to incorporate prior information to deal with the ill-posedness, through the introduction of sparsity promoting prior for the underlying dynamics matrix. It also provides a framework for modelling both the process and measurement noises. We develop Markov Chain Monte Carlo samplers for the discrete-valued zero-structure of the dynamics matrix, and for the continuous-time trajectory of the system. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (10 UL)
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See detailFrom Clustering Supersequences to Entropy Minimizing Subsequences for Single and Double Deletions
Atashpendar, Arash UL; Beunardeau, Marc; Connolly, Aisling et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

A binary string transmitted via a memoryless i.i.d. deletion channel is received as a subsequence of the original input. From this, one obtains a posterior distribution on the channel input, corresponding ... [more ▼]

A binary string transmitted via a memoryless i.i.d. deletion channel is received as a subsequence of the original input. From this, one obtains a posterior distribution on the channel input, corresponding to a set of candidate supersequences weighted by the number of times the received subsequence can be embedded in them. In a previous work it is conjectured on the basis of experimental data that the entropy of the posterior is minimized and maximized by the constant and the alternating strings, respectively. In this work, in addition to revisiting the entropy minimization conjecture, we also address several related combinatorial problems. We present an algorithm for counting the number of subsequence embeddings using a run-length encoding of strings. We then describe methods for clustering the space of supersequences such that the cardinality of the resulting sets depends only on the length of the received subsequence and its Hamming weight, but not its exact form. Then, we consider supersequences that contain a single embedding of a fixed subsequence, referred to as singletons, and provide a closed form expression for enumerating them using the same run-length encoding. We prove an analogous result for the minimization and maximization of the number of singletons, by the alternating and the uniform strings, respectively. Next, we prove the original minimal entropy conjecture for the special cases of single and double deletions using similar clustering techniques and the same run-length encoding, which allow us to characterize the distribution of the number of subsequence embeddings in the space of compatible supersequences to demonstrate the effect of an entropy decreasing operation. [less ▲]

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See detailLimit theorems for symmetric U-statistics using contractions
Döbler, Christian UL; Peccati, Giovanni UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (3 UL)
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See detailDigitalisierung der Arbeit in Luxemburg - Teil 3
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Arbeitnehmer unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich dem Grad durch den ihre Arbeit von der Digitalisierung betroffen ist sowie durch die Auswirkungen, die die Digitalisierung auf ihre Arbeit und ihr Arbeits(er ... [more ▼]

Arbeitnehmer unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich dem Grad durch den ihre Arbeit von der Digitalisierung betroffen ist sowie durch die Auswirkungen, die die Digitalisierung auf ihre Arbeit und ihr Arbeits(er)leben haben. Arbeitnehmer, deren Arbeit stärker durch die Digitalisierung beeinflusst ist, erleben tendenziell mehr Partizipation, Feedback und Autonomie auf ihrer Arbeit. Gleichzeitig weisen sie auch mehr emotionale und mentale Anforderungen, sowie mehr Zeitdruck auf. Arbeitnehmer, deren Arbeit nur in geringem Maß von der Digitalisierung betroffen ist, sind dagegen weniger von emotionalen und mentalen Anforderungen, sowie von Zeitdruck, Konkurrenz und Mobbing betroffen. Insbesondere die geringere Planbarkeit von Arbeitszeit und Freizeit sowie die stärkere Überwachung und Kontrolle der Arbeitsleistung sind negative Konsequenzen der Digitalisierung, die zu einem verstärkten Erleben von emotionalen und mentalen Anforderungen sowie von Zeitdruck, Konkurrenz und Mobbing führt. Die Möglichkeit durch die Digitalisierung auch von zuhause oder von unterwegs arbeiten zu können führt einerseits zu mehr wahrgenommener Autonomie, andererseits ist dieses Potenzial der Digitalisierung auch mit negativen Konsequenzen verknüpft (z.B. erhöhter Zeitdruck). [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung der Arbeit in Luxemburg - Teil 2
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Arbeitnehmer mit höherer formaler Bildung sowie Arbeitnehmer, die als Manager und Führungskräfte, in akademischen Berufen, als Techniker und als Bürokräfte arbeiten, berichten eher von einer gestiegenen ... [more ▼]

Arbeitnehmer mit höherer formaler Bildung sowie Arbeitnehmer, die als Manager und Führungskräfte, in akademischen Berufen, als Techniker und als Bürokräfte arbeiten, berichten eher von einer gestiegenen Entscheidungsfreiheit, von geringerer körperlicher Belastung, von mehr Aufgaben, von der Notwendigkeit ständiger Weiterentwicklung der eigenen Fähigkeiten sowie einer erhöhten Arbeitsleistung durch die Digitalisierung. Insbesondere Hilfsarbeitskräfte geben seltener an sowohl von den Vorteilen aus auch von den Nachteilen der Digitalisierung betroffen zu sein. Differenziert nach Geschlecht oder nach Alter ergeben sich oft nur geringfügige Unterschiede. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung der Arbeit in Luxemburg - Teil 1
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Die Digitalisierung steht derzeit im Fokus der öffentlichen und politischen Debatte. Im Folgenden wird dargestellt, wie Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg ihre Arbeit durch die Digitalisierung beeinflusst sehen ... [more ▼]

Die Digitalisierung steht derzeit im Fokus der öffentlichen und politischen Debatte. Im Folgenden wird dargestellt, wie Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg ihre Arbeit durch die Digitalisierung beeinflusst sehen. Hierbei werden die verschiedenen Formen der Digitalisierung sowie die Angst durch den technischen Fortschritt seinen Arbeitsplatz zu verlieren näher beleuchtet. Manager und Führungskräfte, Arbeitnehmer in akademischen Berufen, Techniker sowie Bürokräfte konstatieren einen starken Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf ihre Arbeit. Diese Einschätzung fällt für Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungs- und in Handwerksberufen sowie für Bedienern von Anlagen und Hilfsarbeitskräfte moderater aus. Während Manager und Führungskräfte, sowie Arbeitnehmer in akademischen Berufen vor allem die Bedeutung von elektronischer Kommunikation und unterstützender elektronischer Geräte hervorheben, kommt für Techniker und Arbeitnehmer in Handwerksberufen auch noch das Arbeiten mit computergesteuerten Maschinen oder Robotern hinzu. Die mit der Digitalisierung und dem technischen Fortschritt häufig debattierte Angst vor Arbeitsplatzverlust ist insgesamt moderat ausgeprägt. Etwas stärker ist diese bei Arbeitnehmern der Altersgruppe ab 35 Jahren sowie bei Bedienern von Anlagen und Bürokräften ausgeprägt. [less ▲]

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See detailBrexit Seen from Luxembourg
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailDe novo Variants in Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Epilepsy
Heyne, Henrike O.; EuroEPINOMICS RES Consortium; Abou Jamra, Rami et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) with epilepsy constitute a complex and heterogeneous phenotypic spectrum of largely unclear genetic architecture. We conducted exome-wide enrichment analyses for protein ... [more ▼]

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) with epilepsy constitute a complex and heterogeneous phenotypic spectrum of largely unclear genetic architecture. We conducted exome-wide enrichment analyses for protein-altering de novo variants (DNV) in 7088 parent-offspring trios with NDD of which 2151 were comorbid with epilepsy. In this cohort, the genetic spectrum of epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and nonspecific NDD with epilepsy were markedly similar. We identified 33 genes significantly enriched for DNV in NDD with epilepsy, of which 27.3 were associated with therapeutic consequences. These 33 DNV-enriched genes were more often associated with synaptic transmission but less with chromatin modification when compared to NDD without epilepsy. On average, only 53 of the DNV-enriched genes were represented on available diagnostic sequencing panels, so our findings should drive significant improvements of genetic testing approaches. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailFragebogen HBSC 2018 (enseignement fondamental)
Heinz, Andreas UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailDemographics and FDI: Lessons from China's One-Child Policy
Donaldson, John B.; Koulovatianos, Christos UL; Li, Jian et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Lucas (1990) argues that the neoclassical adjustment process fails to explain the relative paucity of FDI inflows from rich to poor countries. In this paper we consider a natural experiment: using China ... [more ▼]

Lucas (1990) argues that the neoclassical adjustment process fails to explain the relative paucity of FDI inflows from rich to poor countries. In this paper we consider a natural experiment: using China as the treated country and India as the control, we show that the dynamics of the relative FDI flows subsequent to the implementation of China's one-child policy, as seen in the data, are consistent with neoclassical fundamentals. In particular, following the introduction of the one-child policy in China, the capital-labor (K/L) ratio of China increased relative to that of India, and, simultaneously, relative FDI inflows into China vs. India declined. These observations are explained in the context of a simple neoclassical OLG paradigm. The adjustment mechanism works as follows: the reduction in the (urban) labor force due to the one-child policy increases the savings per capita. This increases the K/L ratio and reduces the marginal product of capital (MPK). The reduction in MPK (relative to India) reduces the relative attractiveness of investment in China and is thus associated with lower FDI/GDP ratios. Our paper contributes to the nascent literature exploring demographic transitions and their effects on FDI flows. [less ▲]

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See detailAlonso and the scaling of urban profiles
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Urban characteristics scaling with total population has become an important urban research field since one needs to better understand the benefits and disadvantages of urban growth and fur- ther ... [more ▼]

Urban characteristics scaling with total population has become an important urban research field since one needs to better understand the benefits and disadvantages of urban growth and fur- ther population concentration. Urban scaling research, however, is largely disconnected from the empirics and theory of intra-urban structure for it considers averaged attributes and ignores resi- dential choice trade-offs between transport and housing costs within cities. Using this fundamental trade-off, the monocentric model of Alonso provides theory to urban density profiles. However, it is silent about how these profiles scale with population, thus preventing empirical scaling studies to anchor in a strong micro-economic theory. This paper fixes this gap by introducing power laws for land and for population density in the Alonso model. From an augmented model with land use, we derive the conditions at which equilibrium profiles match recent empirical findings about the scaling of urban land and population density profiles in European cities. We find that the Alonso model is theoretically compatible with the observed scaling of population density profiles and leads to a satisfactory representation of European cities. The conditions for this compatibility refine current understanding of wage and transport costs elasticities with population. Although they require a scaling power of the profile of the share of urbanised land that is different from what is observed, it is argued that alternatives specifications of transport cost functions could solve this issue. Thus our results call for revisiting theories about land development and housing processes as well as the empirics of agglomeration benefits and transport costs. [less ▲]

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See detailFragebogen HBSC 2018 (enseignement secondaire)
Heinz, Andreas UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailToo Much Unity in the European Union’s External Migration Policy?
Gatti, Mauro UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailCorruption and tax compliance: Evidence from small retailers in Bamako, Mali
Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Bourgain, Arnaud UL; Leon, Florian UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We investigate the impact of corruption on tax compliance using a sample of 700 small business in Bamako, Mali. Our results show that paying bribes reduced tax compliance by almost ten percentage points.

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See detailHeterogeneity in Conformism, Firm Selection, and Home Bias
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kichko, Sergey

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This paper discusses the impact of conformism on product quality, firm selection, and trade patterns. It shows that when consumers have a higher degree of conformism and/or their distribution of ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the impact of conformism on product quality, firm selection, and trade patterns. It shows that when consumers have a higher degree of conformism and/or their distribution of conformism becomes more concentrated, the equilibrium average demand falls while product quality rises in a closed economy. In an international trade context, this strengthens the home consumption bias when consumers conform to the behavior of local people. The home bias is mitigated under globalization where individuals tend to conform to people worldwide. The paper also discusses the conditions under which conformism and conspicuousness are reconciled. [less ▲]

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See detailStein's method for asymmetric alpha-stable distributions, with application to the stable CLT
Chen, Peng; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Xu, Lihu

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailTechnological Progress, the Supply ofHours Worked, and the Consumption-Leisure Complementarity
Irmen, Andreas UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

At least since 1870 hours worked per worker declined and real wages increased in many of today’s industrialized countries. The dual nature of technological progress in conjunction with a consumption ... [more ▼]

At least since 1870 hours worked per worker declined and real wages increased in many of today’s industrialized countries. The dual nature of technological progress in conjunction with a consumption-leisure complementarity explains these stylized facts. Technological progress drives real wages up and expands the amount of available consumption goods. Enjoying consumption goods increases the value of leisure. Therefore, individuals demand more leisure and supply less labor. This mechanism appears in an OLG-model with two-period lived individuals equipped with per-period utility functions of the generalized log-log type proposed by Boppart-Krusell (2016). The optimal plan is piecewise defined and hinges on the wage level. Technological progress moves a poor economy out of a regime with low wages and an inelastic supply of hours worked into a regime where wages increase further and hours worked continuously decline. [less ▲]

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See detailDemographie und Migration: Anziehung versus Schrumpfung
Nienaber, Birte UL; Hamez, Grégory; Mangels, Kirsten

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This working paper includes analyses of demography and migration in the Greater region. It has a special view on cross-border mobility, ageing and health infrastructure in rural areas.

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See detailAccounting for Differences in Income Inequality across Countries: Ireland and the United Kingdom
Sologon, Denisa M.; Van Kerm, Philippe UL; Li, Jinjing et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This paper proposes a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis it ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis it quantifies the role of tax-benefit systems, employment and occupational structures, labour prices and market returns, and demographic composition in accounting for differences in income inequality across countries. Building upon EUROMOD (the European tax-benefit calculator) and its harmonized datasets, the model is portable and can be implemented for any cross-country comparisons within the EU. An application to the UK and Ireland--two countries that have much in common while displaying different levels of inequality--shows that differences in tax-benefit rules between the two countries account for roughly half of the observed difference in disposable household income inequality. Demographic differences play negligible roles. The Irish tax-benefit system is more redistributive than UK's due to a higher tax progressivity and higher average transfer rates. These are largely attributable to policy parameter differences, but also to differences in pre-tax, pre-transfer income distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa réponse au défi migratoire : «Europe souveraine» ou «souverainisme de repli» ?
Gatti, Mauro UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

La migration est probablement le « défi majeur » de l’Europe, aujourd’hui et dans les années qui viennent, comme le reconnaît Emmanuel Macron dans son discours de la Sorbonne de septembre 2017. On peut ... [more ▼]

La migration est probablement le « défi majeur » de l’Europe, aujourd’hui et dans les années qui viennent, comme le reconnaît Emmanuel Macron dans son discours de la Sorbonne de septembre 2017. On peut noter, par ailleurs, que la gestion de ce défi est à présent inadéquate : si 285.000 migrants ont été sauvés par des opérations coordonnées par l’Union européenne, 3.139 sont morts en 2017 ; en outre, l’état des droits des migrants dans l’Union et, surtout, dans les pays partenaires, reste problématique. Le « souverainisme de repli » n’assure aucune solution : « l’Europe seule peut, en un mot, assurer une souveraineté réelle » (Macron). Et la souveraineté de l’Europe – conçue comme la « capacité à exister dans le monde actuel pour y défendre nos valeurs et nos intérêts » – ne peut que s’assurer par la « solidarité » entre les Etats membres. Emmanuel Macron propose deux solutions au défi de la migration, qui paraissent toutefois insuffisantes ou illusoires : la création d’un « espace commun des frontières » vis-à- vis de l’extérieur et une gestion plus efficace de l’asile à l’intérieur de l’Union. [less ▲]

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