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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailTax Treaty Arbitration in Luxembourg - National Report
Chaouche, Fatima UL; Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

Report (in press)

Tax Treaty dispute resolution through the Mutual Assistance Procedure (MAP) is particularly relevant in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has, as of May 2018, 81 Double Tax Convention (henceforth, “DTC”) out of ... [more ▼]

Tax Treaty dispute resolution through the Mutual Assistance Procedure (MAP) is particularly relevant in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has, as of May 2018, 81 Double Tax Convention (henceforth, “DTC”) out of which only 12 provide for arbitration clauses. In contrast, while the Arbitration procedure is also available, it is barely used in practice as the MAP procedure proves to be the most common form of resolution of tax treaty dispute resolutions in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailLerneffekte interaktiver Medien bei Kindern und Jugendlichend
Melzer, André UL; Happ, Christian; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2019)

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See detailA Hybrid Machine Learning and Schedulability Method for the Verification of TSN Networks
Mai, Tieu Long UL; Navet, Nicolas UL; Migge, Jörn

Report (2019)

Machine learning (ML), and supervised learning in particular, can be used to learn what makes it hard for a network to be feasible and try to predict whether a network configuration will be feasible ... [more ▼]

Machine learning (ML), and supervised learning in particular, can be used to learn what makes it hard for a network to be feasible and try to predict whether a network configuration will be feasible without executing a conventional schedulability analysis. A disadvantage of ML-based timing verification with respect to schedulability analysis is the possibility of "false positives": configurations deemed feasible while they are not. In this work, in order to minimize the rate of false positives, we propose the use of a measure of the uncertainty of the prediction to drop it when the uncertainty is too high, and rely instead on schedulability analysis. In this hybrid verification strategy, the clear-cut decisions are taken by ML, while the more difficult ones are taken by a conventional schedulability analysis. Importantly, the trade-off achieved between prediction accuracy and computing time can be controlled. We apply this hybrid verification method to Ethernet TSN networks and obtain, for instance in the case of priority scheduling with 8 traffic classes, a 99% prediction accuracy with a speedup factor of 5.7 with respect to conventional schedulability analysis and a reduction of 46% of the false positives compared to ML alone. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to Isogeometric Analysis
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Lian, Haojie UL; Ding, Chensen UL

Report (2019)

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See detailNetzWerk 2
Böwen, Petra UL

Report (2019)

"NetzWerk-Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro bietet ... [more ▼]

"NetzWerk-Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen Akteuren der Sozialen Arbeit Vernetzung, Plattformen, Veranstaltungen, Informationen aus Luxemburg und der Großregion. Das Schwerpunktthema dieser Ausgabe: "Was sind die Bedürfnisse der Akteure der Sozialen Arbeit?" fußt auf dem 6. Praxis- und Kontakttag 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailReport on political participation of mobile EU citizens: Luxembourg
Scuto, Denis UL; Besch, Sylvain

Report (2019)

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See detailUsing Machine Learning to Speed Up the Design Space Exploration of Ethernet TSN networks
Navet, Nicolas UL; Mai, Tieu Long UL; Migge, Jörn

Report (2019)

In this work, we ask if Machine Learning (ML) can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis to determine whether a real-time Ethernet network meets a set of timing constraints ... [more ▼]

In this work, we ask if Machine Learning (ML) can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis to determine whether a real-time Ethernet network meets a set of timing constraints. Otherwise said, can an algorithm learn what makes it difficult for a system to be feasible and predict whether a configuration will be feasible without executing a schedulability analysis? In this study, we apply standard supervised and unsupervised ML techniques and compare them, in terms of their accuracy and running times, with precise and approximate schedulability analyses in Network-Calculus. We show that ML techniques are efficient at predicting the feasibility of realistic TSN networks and offer new trade-offs between accuracy and computation time especially interesting for design-space exploration algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and retaining international students in the EU (Country report Luxembourg)
Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2018)

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in ... [more ▼]

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in the country. Established by law in 2003, the University of Luxembourg is therefore the main actor in the higher education system and hosts the large majority of international students in Luxembourg. In addition to the University of Luxembourg, two more types of institutions complement the higher education system in Luxembourg and are recognised by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research as higher education institutions (hereafter referred to as ‘HEIs’), namely: 1. Secondary educational institutions offering educational programmes that award an advanced technician’s certificate (‘Brevet de technicien supérieur’ – ‘BTS’); 2. Private foreign universities having infrastructures or campus in Luxembourg. In order to be able to award higher education diplomas as well as to host international students, all HEIs are mandatorily required to be approved by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, with the exception of the University of Luxembourg because it was established by law. The admission conditions for international students to study at a HEI in Luxembourg are twofold: First, the international student must apply and be accepted at an approved HEI or at the University of Luxembourg. Second, once accepted at a HEI, s/he needs to apply for a temporary authorisation of stay, and subsequently, if applicable, a Visa D (valid for 3 months), from his/her country of origin before being authorised to travel to Luxembourg and before being issued a ‘student’ residence permit (valid for minimum 1 year and renewable) in Luxembourg. To conclude, the HEIs in Luxembourg, under the overall auspice of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, as well as the immigration authorities are the main stakeholders in the context of international students studying in Luxembourg. Luxembourg transposed the Directive (EU) 2016/801 by the Law of 1 August 2018, which amended the amended ‘Immigration Law’ and entered into force on 21 September 2018. In this context, the study highlights in particular the introduction of a new residence permit for ‘private reasons’ in view of seeking employment or establishing a business in Luxembourg. This residence permit was newly introduced by the transposition of the Directive and allows international graduates to remain in the country for a maximum duration of nine months in order to find a job or establish a business in relation to their academic training. Prior to the transposition, international students were only able to change their immigration status to ‘salaried worker’ immediately after their graduation. Moreover, the transposition modified a number of legal dispositions, such as the increase of the maximum amount of hours that students are authorised to work, from 10 hours to 15 hours per week. Furthermore, Bachelor students enrolled in their first year of academic studies as well as students enrolled in a study programme awarding them a ‘BTS’ are no longer excluded from exercising a salaried activity as allowed by law. Lastly, the transposition also facilitates the intra-European mobility of international students who follow a European or multilateral programme that contains mobility measures or a convention between two or more HEIs. The attraction and retention of international students are not considered as a national political priority per se by the Luxembourgish authorities, but have to be perceived in an overall national political priority of attracting “talents” to Luxembourg, i.e. (highly) qualified persons, regardless of their nationality and in the interest of the country and its economy. The stakeholders consulted in the context of this study identified several factors that may have positive effects on the attraction and retention of international students. These include, among others: - the geographical position of Luxembourg with an important financial sector and several European institutions - the multilingual environment of the country as well as the University of Luxembourg - the HEI ranking of the University of Luxembourg - the comparatively low levels of tuition fees, particularly of the national public HEIs - the fact that the level tuition fees is the same for every student, no matter his/her nationality, with the exception of examples from private HEIs Furthermore, the consulted stakeholders identified several examples of good practices in the context of this study, such as for example: - A close and diligent collaboration between all stakeholders, in particular between the Directorate of Immigration, the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the University of Luxembourg - Quality management of private HEI (mainly through the approval procedure) in view of the best interest of students - Affordable tuitions fees in the higher education system At the same time, the consulted stakeholders have identified several challenges, such as: - the languages of instruction (with a strong emphasis on French and German especially at the Bachelor/‘BTS’ levels) and the primary working languages (French and Luxembourgish) - socio-economic factors, particularly the high costs of living and the challenge of finding affordable housing - authenticity and veracity of transmitted diplomas in the context of a diploma recognition - a challenging procedure related to the entrance exam for international students who hold a high school diploma issued in a country that is not a signatory country of Paris/Lisbon conventions - potential misuse of the ‘student’ residence permit in view of trying to stay in the country instead of succeeding in the studies. In addition to the major legislative change introduced by the transposition of the Directive and the various factors and challenges mentioned above, the study also highlights a number of initiatives, offered in particular by the University of Luxembourg, aiming to support international students after their graduation and to encourage them to establish and/or maintain a connection to the national labour market. The study concludes with a section on bilateral and multilateral cooperation with third countries, both at the level of the Luxembourgish State as well as at the level of HEIs, particularly of the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailLesegewohnheiten und bilinguale Lesekompetenzen - Zum Zusammenhang zwischen den Deutsch- und Französisch-Lesekompetenzen von Neuntklässlerinnen und Neuntklässlern und ihren außerschulischen Lesegewohnheiten in Luxemburg
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Lesehäufigkeit, der Textsorten, die von Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit rezipiert werden, und der Sprache, in der sie bevorzugt lesen ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Lesehäufigkeit, der Textsorten, die von Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit rezipiert werden, und der Sprache, in der sie bevorzugt lesen, dabei helfen können, ihr Lesekompetenz Niveau im Deutschen und Französischen – jenseits von sozioökonomischem Status, Migrationshintergrund, Muttersprache und Geschlecht – zu erklären. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitudes de lecture et compétences de lecture bilingue
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

La problématique soulevée dans cet article concerne les liens entre d’une part, la fréquence de lecture chez les adolescents en fonction des types de textes lus, et de la langue dans laquelle ils lisent ... [more ▼]

La problématique soulevée dans cet article concerne les liens entre d’une part, la fréquence de lecture chez les adolescents en fonction des types de textes lus, et de la langue dans laquelle ils lisent et, dautre part, leur niveau de compétence de lecture en allemand et en français. En outre, il s’agit d’étudier ces liens en fonction des contextes socio-économique et migratoire, de la langue maternelle, et du sexe des adolescents. À cet effet, les données recueillies dans le cadre des Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) de novembre 2016 permettent d’analyser les compétences de lecture en allemand et en français ainsi que les habitudes de lecture extrascolaire de 5177 élèves du grade 9, fréquentant l’Enseignement Secondaire (ES), l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique (EST) ou la branche Préparatoire de l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique (EST-PRE). Les analyses montrent clairement que, indépendamment du sexe, du type d’enseignement et des caractéristiques socioculturelles des adolescents, principalement la tendance à lire des textes narratifs est positivement corrélée aux compétences en lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailSchülerkompetenzen im Längsschnitt - Die Entwicklung von Deutsch-Leseverstehen und Mathematik in Luxemburg zwischen der 3. und 9. Klasse
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

it der Erhebung der ÉpStan im Herbst 2016 liegt erstmalig ein Datensatz vor, der einen Einblick in die Entwicklung schulischer Kompetenzen zwischen der 3. Schulstufe (Zyklus 3.1) und der 9. Schulstufe (5e ... [more ▼]

it der Erhebung der ÉpStan im Herbst 2016 liegt erstmalig ein Datensatz vor, der einen Einblick in die Entwicklung schulischer Kompetenzen zwischen der 3. Schulstufe (Zyklus 3.1) und der 9. Schulstufe (5e bzw. 9e) erlaubt. Das vorliegende Kapitel gibt nun einen ersten Einblick in die längsschnittliche Kompetenzentwicklung in den Bereichen Deutsch-Leseverstehen und Mathematik. Hierfür werden die Testergebnisse der untersuchten Schülerkohorte aus den ÉpStan 2010 in der 3. Schulstufe (Zyklus 3.1) den Leistungen in der 9. Schulstufe (5e bzw. 9e) im Jahre 2016 gegenübergestellt. [less ▲]

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See detailLes compétences scolaires des enfants au début du cycle 2 de l'école fondamentale au Luxembourg et leur développement après deux ans.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Ce chapitre présente les résultats de trois collectes de données (2014, 2015, 2016) des ÉpStan au cycle 2.1 et présente avec quelles compétences scolaires les élèves débutent leur scolarité au début du ... [more ▼]

Ce chapitre présente les résultats de trois collectes de données (2014, 2015, 2016) des ÉpStan au cycle 2.1 et présente avec quelles compétences scolaires les élèves débutent leur scolarité au début du cycle 2.1 et comment celles-ci évoluent sur deux ans. De manière générale, nos résultats montrent que les compétences disciplinaires du cycle 1 portant sur les trois domaines d’apprentissage observés (« compréhension de l’oral en luxembourgeois », « compréhension de l’écrit» et « mathématiques ») sont acquises. Au début du cycle 2.1, la majorité des élèves atteint le Niveau Avancé dans l’ensemble des trois domaines d’apprentissage considérés. Deux ans plus tard, au cycle 3.1, la répartition des élèves sur les différents niveaux de compétence est plus négative qu’au cycle 2.1 et ceci dans la mesure où moins d’enfants ont atteint le Niveau Socle dans l’ensemble des trois domaines d’apprentissage observés. Nos résultats montrent également que, dès le début de la scolarité, différents facteurs extrascolaires (tels que le statut socio-économique et le contexte linguistique) ont une influence extrêmement forte sur les résultats des épreuves et que cette influence augmente au fil des années. [less ▲]

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See detailSchulische Kompetenzen von Erstklässlern und ihre Entwicklung nach zwei Jahren.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Dieses Kapitel stellt die Befunde aus drei Datenerhebungen (2014, 2015, 2016) der ÉpStan im Zyklus 2.1 vor und zeigt welche schulischen Kompetenzen Erstklässler am Anfang ihrer Schullaufbahn aufweisen und ... [more ▼]

Dieses Kapitel stellt die Befunde aus drei Datenerhebungen (2014, 2015, 2016) der ÉpStan im Zyklus 2.1 vor und zeigt welche schulischen Kompetenzen Erstklässler am Anfang ihrer Schullaufbahn aufweisen und wie sich diese über zwei Jahre hinweg entwickeln. Allgemein betrachtet, sind die für den Zyklus 1 festgehaltenen Bildungsstandards in den drei überprüften Kernkompetenzen („Luxemburgisch-Hörverstehen“, „Vorläuferfertigkeiten der Schriftsprache“ und „Mathematik“) erfüllt. In allen drei Kompetenzen erreicht die Mehrheit der Schülerinnen und Schüler zu Beginn des Zyklus 2.1 das Niveau Avancé. Zwei Jahre später, im Zyklus 3.1, fällt die Verteilung der Schülerinnen und Schüler auf die verschiedenen Kompetenzränge negativer aus als im Zyklus 2.1. Hier haben vergleichsweise mehr Kinder das Niveau Socle in allen drei Kernkompetenzen noch nicht erreicht. Unsere Befunde zeigen außerdem, dass verschiedene außerschulische Faktoren (wie z. B. sozioökonomische Situation, Sprachhintergrund) bereits sehr früh im Verlauf der Schullaufbahn einen äußerst starken Einfluss auf die Testergebnisse haben und dass sich dieser Einfluss über die Jahre hinweg verstärkt. [less ▲]

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See detailBeneficiaries of international protection travelling to their country of origin: Challenges, Policies and Practices in the EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2018)

The main objectives of this study of the European Migration Network are to provide objective and reliable information about beneficiaries of international protection who travel to their country of origin ... [more ▼]

The main objectives of this study of the European Migration Network are to provide objective and reliable information about beneficiaries of international protection who travel to their country of origin or come into contact with national authorities of their country of origin, and information on cases where international protection statuses were ceased leading to, for example, the status being ended, revoked or not renewed (as per Article 45 and 46 of the recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and, ultimately, the permission to stay withdrawn. For the Luxembourgish case, it is firstly important to note that beneficiaries of the refugee status and of the status of subsidiary protection are not subject to the same restrictions with regard to travel to the country of origin or contact with national authorities. While refugees are in principle not permitted to travel to the country of origin, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are not subject to this restriction. In this context, the phenomenon of beneficiaries of the refugee status travelling to their country of origin is currently not considered a policy priority in Luxembourg. While it does occur, there are no statistics providing information on how many refugees undertake this journey or contact the national authorities, on the reasons for travel to the country of origin, nor is there any case law on the cessation of the refugee status for reasons of travel to the country of origin. Luxembourg’s authorities are not systematically informed of such events by the authorities of other Member States. Luxembourg has no external borders with the exception of the international airport of Luxembourg, from where only an extremely limited number of flights to third countries depart. Thus, it is extremely difficult to capture the extent of the phenomenon in Luxembourg. Luxembourg’s Asylum Law establishes the re-availment of the protection of the country of origin and the voluntary re-establishment in the country of origin as grounds for cessation of the refugee status. Travel to the country of origin or contact with its national authorities are not explicitly forbidden by legislation. In principle, refugees are not permitted to travel back to the country of origin. They are provided with this information on multiple occasions: for instance at the moment of the introduction of their application, as well as when they are issued the decision granting them protection. Their travel document also clearly states the restriction. There is no notification or authorisation procedure that would authorise such travel in Luxembourg. When the Directorate of Immigration has the information that a refugee travelled back to the country of origin, it will proceed to an in-depth analysis of the personal situation of the individual. Determining that this travel is proof of the voluntary re-establishment in the country of origin is however considered extremely difficult, as it is nearly impossible to ascertain the reasons for which the refugee returned. Furthermore, a short stay in the country of origin is not necessarily considered like the (permanent) establishment in the country of origin or a proof thereof. This is also due to the fact that the Luxembourgish authorities cannot contact the authorities of the country of origin and have no tools to undertake an investigation there in order to verify that the refugee has re-established him/herself. The travel and the surrounding circumstances can be taken into account if the minister decides to re-examine the validity of the status, which could potentially lead to a withdrawal. The Directorate of Immigration has never considered ceasing protection because a refugee contacted the authorities of the country of origin. Proving that this contact occurred in the first place, and next, proving that it constitutes a re-availment of the protection of the country of origin, is considered nearly impossible. In addition, it is a fact that certain administrative procedures require the production of official documents and that the substitution of these documents with affidavits are in practice not always feasible. As previously mentioned, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are authorised to travel back to their country of origin and are permitted to contact the authorities of their country of origin. They are even encouraged to contact the national authorities in order to obtain a national passport. These actions can thus not lead to the cessation of the status of subsidiary protection. If the decision to cease the status is taken, the beneficiary is notified of this decision in writing. The decision can be appealed before the First instance Administrative Court. If the decision of the Court is negative, the individual can file an appeal before the Second instance Administrative Court. In principle, the decision to cease international protection carries a return decision. However, the individual can apply for another residence permit if s/he fulfils the conditions established in the Immigration Law. The same is true for family members who got a residence permit through family reunification with the concerned person: the family members will lose their right to stay unless they can gain access to another residence permit under the Immigration Law. [less ▲]

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See detailMedia Pluralism Monitor 2017: Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Schall, Céline UL

Report (2018)

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See detailLa mobilité transfrontalière des travailleurs est-elle une ressource pour la Grande Région?
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

Report (2018)

La Grande Région est l’un des espaces transfrontaliers les plus concernés par les flux de travail frontalier. Face aux nombreux défis (économiques, démographiques, environnementaux, etc.) auxquels elle se ... [more ▼]

La Grande Région est l’un des espaces transfrontaliers les plus concernés par les flux de travail frontalier. Face aux nombreux défis (économiques, démographiques, environnementaux, etc.) auxquels elle se trouve confrontée, peut-on considérer la mobilité transfrontalière comme une ressource pour les territoires frontaliers ? Telle était la question de départ posée aux différents spécialistes présents lors du Forum Grande Région du 7 juin 2018. Cette table ronde a réuni près de 70 participants issus du monde politique, économique, universitaire, mais également des citoyens intéressés par ces questions. Elle a donné lieu à de nombreux échanges et débats, révélant d’intéressantes pistes de recherche futures. [less ▲]

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See detailLabour Market Integration of Third-Country Nationals in EU Member States
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2018)

Luxembourg is characterized by a very specific demographic situation with 47,9% of its resident population being non-Luxembourgish nationals as of 1 January 2018. This particular circumstance makes ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is characterized by a very specific demographic situation with 47,9% of its resident population being non-Luxembourgish nationals as of 1 January 2018. This particular circumstance makes Luxembourg the EU Member State with the highest share of non-citizens residing on its territory. At the same time, around 85% of the foreign population are citizens of another EU Member State, leading to the fact that third-country nationals constitute only 7,3% of the total resident population of Luxembourg, the lowest share of foreigners coming from a third-country in the European Union. Integration is defined in national legislation as a ‘two-way process by which the foreigners shows their will to participate on a long-term basis to the host society, which, in turn, takes all the necessary measures at the social, economic, political, and cultural levels, to encourage and facilitate this approach. Integration is a task that the State, municipalities and civil society achieve together’. In addition to this legal provision, several strategic documents, most notably the multi-annual national action plan on integration 2018, or PAN integration, published in July 2018, make reference to integration and its definition. The PAN integration provides the framework for the programs and tools favouring the social cohesion of Luxembourgish and non-Luxembourgish nationals and the overall national integration policy by identifying five priority domains, one of which explicitly relates to the reinforcement of employability of non-Luxembourgish nationals. Generally speaking, employment is viewed as a core element of the overall integration process, making both the access to as well as the integration into the Luxembourgish labour market a key element in becoming a part of society. At the same time, this access to and integration into the labour market pose a challenge, particularly to third-country nationals, as the statistics show that their employment rate is lower than that of Luxembourgish nationals or citizens of another EU Member State. Third-country nationals are predominantly occupied in the accommodation and food service activities sector, followed by the administrative and support service activities sector and the wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles sector. A closer look at the evolution of the sectors employing third-country nationals over the last years, however, indicates that in particular the information and communication technologies sector, the professional, scientific and technical activities sector and the financial and insurance activities sector register the most significant growth rates, leading to a development that seem to indicate a ‘double immigration’ of (highly) skilled migrants on the one hand and less or low skilled migrants in the more traditional economic sectors on the other hand. In regard to the general integration approach as well as the labour market integration policy, this study shows that Luxembourg does have not have a specific policy/strategic document/model in place that only focusses on third-country nationals. All political documents (laws and strategic documents such as the PAN 2010-2014 and the new PAN integration of 2018) and public measures (Welcome and Integration Contract (CAI), linguistic leave, support measures provided by the National Employment Agency (ADEM), measures facilitating school integration, electoral registration campaigns, etc.) are aimed at all foreign nationals without distinguishing between EU nationals and third-country nationals. It is the Immigration Law that provides the legal framework regarding the various grounds of migration for economic purposes. Additionally, the legislator aims to be attractive for certain categories of migrants coming to Luxembourg for economic purposes in order to meet the needs of the country’s economic development (via legislative measures such as the European Blue Card, the ‘investor’ residence permit or the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde). This being said, this study will present examples of practices that have been identified as good practices in the context of the topic of labour market integration of third-country nationals, despite the fact that they, for the most part, do not fit 100% into the pre-set structure of the study template at hand. In section 2.2, three Member State measure are presented, the first of which is the linguistic leave, a specific form of additional special leave that is accessible for salaried and independent workers of all nationalities, resident or non-resident, to learn or perfect the command of the Luxembourgish language. This legislative measure was introduced by law in 2009 with the intention to facilitate the integration of the beneficiaries into society through the labour market. The second measure is the AMIF-project ‘InSitu JOBS’ by the non-governmental organisation CLAE asbl (with co-financing from the Luxembourgish State). This project, which ended in April 2018 was targeted at third-country nationals within the scope of this study as well as at beneficiaries of international protection by providing them information and counselling in the context of access and integration into the Luxembourgish labour market. The third measure was also an AMIF-project and consists of a practical guide that was developed and drafted by IMS Luxembourg, a network of Luxembourgish companies, in order to provide information on how to hire and integrate third-country nationals. As for the private sector measures in section 2.3. of this study, research of secondary resources as well as consultations with various relevant stakeholders proved to be rather difficult in terms of finding private sector initiatives that specifically target at supporting or facilitating the labour market integration of third-country nationals within the scope of this study. Two measures were selected in this context, the first consisting of a specific recruitment method (simulation-based recruitment method) by a large international company which allows them to evaluate various different profiles of people that are not necessarily detectable through the classic CV-based recruitment methods. The second measure is a business guide developed by the American Chamber of Commerce Luxembourg and aims to promote and facilitate the establishment of new business in Luxembourg by providing information on everything that entrepreneurs and international companies need to know in this context. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual report on migration and asylum (2017)
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Adao Do Carmo, Kelly UL; Petry, David UL et al

Report (2018)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2017 (2.322 applications) compared to the levels registered pre- ‘migration crisis’ (1.091 in 2014). However, the number of registrations remained relatively stable if compared to the two preceding years (2.447 in 2015 and 2.035 in 2016). This relative stability in numbers also reflected on the general public and policy debate in the field of migration and asylum. Since 2016, its focus has continuously shifted from an ‘emergency’ discourse axed on the implementation of reception measures and conditions towards discussions on longer-term integration measures and policies. In this regard, the newly introduced Guided Integration Trail (parcours d’intégration accompagné - PIA) can be considered a flagship project of OLAI, the national agency responsible for the reception and integration of foreigners. This multidisciplinary package of measures aims to empower applicants and beneficiaries of international protection and to support them in developing their life project. The trail, compulsory for all adult applicants for international protection, consists of a linguistic component and a civic component and is split into three phases. Although increasing housing capacities for the reception of applicants for international protection was high on national authorities’ agenda, housing remained a challenging aspect of the asylum system and triggered debate on a national scale. Alongside access to training, problems related to housing were among the issues most frequently raised by applicants for international protection in 2017. The lack of affordable housing on the private market, an increasing number of family reunifications as well as the increasing number of beneficiaries and persons who have been issued a return decision who remain housed in structures of OLAI were all identified as interplaying barriers for finding available accommodation for applicants for international protection. The difficulties with the construction of modular housing structures also persisted in 2017. A certain reticence of the population towards the construction of these so-called ‘container villages, planned in response to the increasing influx that started in August 2015, was visible in the appeals introduced into Luxembourg’s First Instance Administrative Courts to annul the land-use plans related to the projects. Living conditions in the various reception facilities were also one of the subjects of discussion in 2017. This included a debate on the (lack of) kitchen infrastructure in reception facilities and the varying systems for provision of food, the types of food available, as well as the availability of internet. As an answer to the resurgence of an increased influx of applicants of international protection from the Western Balkans in early 2017, a new ‘ultra-accelerated procedure’ was put in place for applicants of international protection stemming from the Western Balkans. According to the state authorities, the ultra-accelerated procedure was set up to take pressure off the reception facilities, but also as a deterrent to avoid creating false hopes for long-term stay. In April 2017, a ‘semi-open return structure’ (Structure d’hébergement d’urgence au Kirchberg – SHUK) was put in place, from which people are transferred to states applying the Dublin regulation. Due to home custody (assignation à résidence), the SHUK is considered to be an alternative to detention by national authorities. The newly created structure as well as the related conditions for assignment, were nevertheless criticised by civil society. The outcry among civil society was equally high during and after the adoption the Law of 8 March 2017, which endorses the extension of the permitted period of detention of adults or families with children from 72 hours to 7 days, in order to improve the organisation of the return and ensures that it is carried out successfully. A commission in charge of determining the best interests of unaccompanied minors applying for international protection was decided at the end of 2017. The commission is in charge of carrying out individual assessments regarding the best interest of the child with the aim of delivering an authorisation of stay or a return decision. Among the elements taken into consideration when the best interest of the child is evaluated in the context of a potential return decision is information provided by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The latter made an agreement with the Directorate of Immigration in 2017 to search for the parents of UAMs in the country of origin. With the focus of debates having slowly shifted towards long-term integration issues, the Council of Government also approved the elaboration of a new multiannual national action plan on integration. The plan will be based on two axes: (1) the reception and follow-up of applicants for international protection and (2) the integration of Luxembourg’s non-Luxembourgish residents. Luxembourg’s National Employment Agency (ADEM) set up a “cellule BPI” (beneficiaries of international protection cell) in its Employer Service in early 2017. This cell provides employers with information regarding job applications and evaluations of the competences of beneficiaries of international protection. A new law on the Luxembourgish nationality entered into force on 1 April 2017. Given the particular demographic situation of Luxembourg characterised by a significant increase in the total population and a decrease in the proportion of Luxembourgers in the total population, the reform intends to promote the societal and political integration of non-Luxembourgish citizens and to strengthen cohesion within the national community. The main changes introduced by the law include a decreased length of residence requirement for naturalisation (from 7 to 5 years), the right of birthplace (jus soli) of the first generation, a simplified way of acquiring Luxembourgish nationality by ‘option’, as well as new scenarios to avoid cases of statelessness. The law maintains previous linguistic requirements but makes some adjustments in order to prevent the language condition from becoming an insurmountable obstacle. Ahead of the local elections held on 8 October 2017, the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Region launched a national information and awareness-raising campaign titled “Je peux voter” (I can vote) in January 2017. This campaign aimed to motivate Luxembourg’s foreign population to register on the electoral roll for the local elections. The government’s intention to legislate face concealment was arguably one of the most debated topics in the field related to community life and integration in the broader sense, both in parliament as well as in the media and public sphere. Bill n°7179 aims to modify article 563 of the Penal Code and to create the prohibition of face concealment in certain public spaces. The bill defines face concealment as the action of covering part of or all of the face in a way of rendering the identification of the person impossible and provides a wide variety of examples, such as the wearing of a motor cycle helmet, a balaclava or a full-face veil. Opposing views among stakeholders, whether political parties, public institutions, civil society or the media, emerged with regard to the necessity to legislate in the matter and if so, on the basis of which grounds and to what extent. The phenomenon of migration has also led to a more heterogeneous population in Luxembourg’s schools. To face this situation, the education authorities continued to diversify Luxembourg’s offer in education and training, creating for instance a bigger offer for youngsters and adults who do not master any of Luxembourg’s vehicular languages, offering more alphabetisation courses or basic instruction courses. The Minister for National Education continued to develop and adapt the school offer to the increased heterogeneity by increasing the international and European school offer, introducing of a new mediation service and putting in place a plurilingual education programme. In the area of legal migration, the most significant changes concerned admission policies of specific categories of third-country nationals. In this respect, bill n°7188 mainly aims to transpose Directive (EU) 2016/801 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 May 2016 on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, training, voluntary service, pupil exchange schemes or educational projects and au pairing. The directive aims to make the European Union a world centre of excellence for studies and training, while favouring contacts between people and favouring their mobility, these two being important elements of the European Union’s external policy. Bill N°7188 intends to facilitate and simplify the procedures for intra-European mobility of TCN researchers and students. Moreover, the proposed changes include incentive mechanisms to retain students and researchers. To this end, it proposes that students and researchers, once they have completed their studies/research, can be issued a residence permit for “private reasons” for a duration of 9 months at most in view of finding employment or creating a business. Finally, bill n°7188 also foresees provisions to regulate the family reunification of a researcher staying in Luxembourg in the context of short- and long-term mobility with his/her nuclear family. The legislator furthermore transposed Directive 2014/36 on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66 on temporary intragroup transfer into national law, and adapted Luxembourg’s immigration law to the needs to the economy, by introducing, amongst other things, and authorisation of stay for investors. Organising the admission of stay and the issuance of authorisations of stay was also a key component within the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde on the concerted management of migratory flows and solidary development. Other objectives of the agreement include the promotion of the movement of people, detailing readmission procedures, fighting against irregular migration, strengthening the legal establishment and integration of the concerned nationals, as well as the mobilisation of skills and resources of migrants in favour of solidary development. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel sur les migrations et l'asile (2017)
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Adao Do Carmo, Kelly UL; Petry, David UL et al

Report (2018)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2017 (2.322 applications) compared to the levels registered pre- ‘migration crisis’ (1.091 in 2014). However, the number of registrations remained relatively stable if compared to the two preceding years (2.447 in 2015 and 2.035 in 2016). This relative stability in numbers also reflected on the general public and policy debate in the field of migration and asylum. Since 2016, its focus has continuously shifted from an ‘emergency’ discourse axed on the implementation of reception measures and conditions towards discussions on longer-term integration measures and policies. In this regard, the newly introduced Guided Integration Trail (parcours d’intégration accompagné - PIA) can be considered a flagship project of OLAI, the national agency responsible for the reception and integration of foreigners. This multidisciplinary package of measures aims to empower applicants and beneficiaries of international protection and to support them in developing their life project. The trail, compulsory for all adult applicants for international protection, consists of a linguistic component and a civic component and is split into three phases. Although increasing housing capacities for the reception of applicants for international protection was high on national authorities’ agenda, housing remained a challenging aspect of the asylum system and triggered debate on a national scale. Alongside access to training, problems related to housing were among the issues most frequently raised by applicants for international protection in 2017. The lack of affordable housing on the private market, an increasing number of family reunifications as well as the increasing number of beneficiaries and persons who have been issued a return decision who remain housed in structures of OLAI were all identified as interplaying barriers for finding available accommodation for applicants for international protection. The difficulties with the construction of modular housing structures also persisted in 2017. A certain reticence of the population towards the construction of these so-called ‘container villages, planned in response to the increasing influx that started in August 2015, was visible in the appeals introduced into Luxembourg’s First Instance Administrative Courts to annul the land-use plans related to the projects. Living conditions in the various reception facilities were also one of the subjects of discussion in 2017. This included a debate on the (lack of) kitchen infrastructure in reception facilities and the varying systems for provision of food, the types of food available, as well as the availability of internet. As an answer to the resurgence of an increased influx of applicants of international protection from the Western Balkans in early 2017, a new ‘ultra-accelerated procedure’ was put in place for applicants of international protection stemming from the Western Balkans. According to the state authorities, the ultra-accelerated procedure was set up to take pressure off the reception facilities, but also as a deterrent to avoid creating false hopes for long-term stay. In April 2017, a ‘semi-open return structure’ (Structure d’hébergement d’urgence au Kirchberg – SHUK) was put in place, from which people are transferred to states applying the Dublin regulation. Due to home custody (assignation à résidence), the SHUK is considered to be an alternative to detention by national authorities. The newly created structure as well as the related conditions for assignment, were nevertheless criticised by civil society. The outcry among civil society was equally high during and after the adoption the Law of 8 March 2017, which endorses the extension of the permitted period of detention of adults or families with children from 72 hours to 7 days, in order to improve the organisation of the return and ensures that it is carried out successfully. A commission in charge of determining the best interests of unaccompanied minors applying for international protection was decided at the end of 2017. The commission is in charge of carrying out individual assessments regarding the best interest of the child with the aim of delivering an authorisation of stay or a return decision. Among the elements taken into consideration when the best interest of the child is evaluated in the context of a potential return decision is information provided by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The latter made an agreement with the Directorate of Immigration in 2017 to search for the parents of UAMs in the country of origin. With the focus of debates having slowly shifted towards long-term integration issues, the Council of Government also approved the elaboration of a new multiannual national action plan on integration. The plan will be based on two axes: (1) the reception and follow-up of applicants for international protection and (2) the integration of Luxembourg’s non-Luxembourgish residents. Luxembourg’s National Employment Agency (ADEM) set up a “cellule BPI” (beneficiaries of international protection cell) in its Employer Service in early 2017. This cell provides employers with information regarding job applications and evaluations of the competences of beneficiaries of international protection. A new law on the Luxembourgish nationality entered into force on 1 April 2017. Given the particular demographic situation of Luxembourg characterised by a significant increase in the total population and a decrease in the proportion of Luxembourgers in the total population, the reform intends to promote the societal and political integration of non-Luxembourgish citizens and to strengthen cohesion within the national community. The main changes introduced by the law include a decreased length of residence requirement for naturalisation (from 7 to 5 years), the right of birthplace (jus soli) of the first generation, a simplified way of acquiring Luxembourgish nationality by ‘option’, as well as new scenarios to avoid cases of statelessness. The law maintains previous linguistic requirements but makes some adjustments in order to prevent the language condition from becoming an insurmountable obstacle. Ahead of the local elections held on 8 October 2017, the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Region launched a national information and awareness-raising campaign titled “Je peux voter” (I can vote) in January 2017. This campaign aimed to motivate Luxembourg’s foreign population to register on the electoral roll for the local elections. The government’s intention to legislate face concealment was arguably one of the most debated topics in the field related to community life and integration in the broader sense, both in parliament as well as in the media and public sphere. Bill n°7179 aims to modify article 563 of the Penal Code and to create the prohibition of face concealment in certain public spaces. The bill defines face concealment as the action of covering part of or all of the face in a way of rendering the identification of the person impossible and provides a wide variety of examples, such as the wearing of a motor cycle helmet, a balaclava or a full-face veil. Opposing views among stakeholders, whether political parties, public institutions, civil society or the media, emerged with regard to the necessity to legislate in the matter and if so, on the basis of which grounds and to what extent. The phenomenon of migration has also led to a more heterogeneous population in Luxembourg’s schools. To face this situation, the education authorities continued to diversify Luxembourg’s offer in education and training, creating for instance a bigger offer for youngsters and adults who do not master any of Luxembourg’s vehicular languages, offering more alphabetisation courses or basic instruction courses. The Minister for National Education continued to develop and adapt the school offer to the increased heterogeneity by increasing the international and European school offer, introducing of a new mediation service and putting in place a plurilingual education programme. In the area of legal migration, the most significant changes concerned admission policies of specific categories of third-country nationals. In this respect, bill n°7188 mainly aims to transpose Directive (EU) 2016/801 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 May 2016 on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, training, voluntary service, pupil exchange schemes or educational projects and au pairing. The directive aims to make the European Union a world centre of excellence for studies and training, while favouring contacts between people and favouring their mobility, these two being important elements of the European Union’s external policy. Bill N°7188 intends to facilitate and simplify the procedures for intra-European mobility of TCN researchers and students. Moreover, the proposed changes include incentive mechanisms to retain students and researchers. To this end, it proposes that students and researchers, once they have completed their studies/research, can be issued a residence permit for “private reasons” for a duration of 9 months at most in view of finding employment or creating a business. Finally, bill n°7188 also foresees provisions to regulate the family reunification of a researcher staying in Luxembourg in the context of short- and long-term mobility with his/her nuclear family. The legislator furthermore transposed Directive 2014/36 on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66 on temporary intragroup transfer into national law, and adapted Luxembourg’s immigration law to the needs to the economy, by introducing, amongst other things, and authorisation of stay for investors. Organising the admission of stay and the issuance of authorisations of stay was also a key component within the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde on the concerted management of migratory flows and solidary development. Other objectives of the agreement include the promotion of the movement of people, detailing readmission procedures, fighting against irregular migration, strengthening the legal establishment and integration of the concerned nationals, as well as the mobilisation of skills and resources of migrants in favour of solidary development. [less ▲]

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See detailA Dynamic Approach for Combining Abstract Argumentation Semantics – Technical Report
Dauphin, Jérémie UL; Cramer, Marcos UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2018)

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise ... [more ▼]

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise update relations on argumentation frameworks whose fixpoints represent the labeling functions on the arguments. We make use of this dynamic approach in order to study novel ways of combining abstract argumentation semantics. In particular, we introduce the notion of a merge of two argumentation semantics, which is defined in such a way that the merge of the preferred and the grounded semantics is the complete semantics. Finally we consider how to define new semantics using the merge operator, in particular how meaningfully combine features of naive-based and complete-based semantics. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of visa liberalisation on countries of destination
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2018)

Historically, Luxembourg has developed during the last 68 years strong links with the Western Balkan countries. In 1970, a labour agreement was signed between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Former ... [more ▼]

Historically, Luxembourg has developed during the last 68 years strong links with the Western Balkan countries. In 1970, a labour agreement was signed between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Former Republic of Yugoslavia to provide for workers to come to work in Luxembourg. This bilateral agreement created a diaspora from the Western Balkans in Luxembourg. Montenegrin nationals represent the largest third-country national population while the Serbians and the Bosnians represents the 3rd and 4th largest nationality groups. There has been a significant number of naturalisations from the West Balkan countries during the last 10 years. This diaspora was a significant “pull factor” during the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) and the economic crisis of 2008. This study was unable to verify direct and automatic links between the entering into force of the visa liberalisation agreements with the West Balkans countries and Eastern Partnership countries and an impact for Luxembourg. The large majority of increases, independently if it is legal migration, irregular migration or international protection did not occur during the next year following the entering into force of the agreements. These increases occurred generally during the second year or later. Concerning visa liberalisation agreements with the Western Balkan countries, the first findings are a dramatic increase of international protection applicants from those countries since the agreements came into force. In the international protection field and in the framework of the return decisions, the visa liberalisation agreement had a negative impact generating stress for all the public administrations during 2011 and 2012, which have to deal with international protection and the return mechanism. During 2011, there was a significant increase of applicants from Macedonia and Serbia and in 2012 from Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina. This situation placed the Luxembourgish authorities under significant stress to deal with this significant inflow of applicants, whose applications were, in the large majority of cases (80%), rejected. However, this situation obliged the Luxembourgish government to take measures in order to deal in a very efficient manner with these inflows of international protection applicants as well as to overhaul the entire international protection procedure. These measures can be divided into two different: procedural measures and implementation measures. The most significant procedural measures are: a) the introduction of the fast track procedure and the implementation of the ultra-expedite procedure; b) the introduction of these countries in the list of safe countries of origin. These measures allow the authorities to deal more efficiently with the massive influx of international protection applicants coming from the region. The implementation measures are: a) No access to social aid for the applicant benefiting from a commitment to cover all expenses by a Luxembourg national, EU citizen or TCN residing in Luxembourg; b) substantial decrease in monthly cash amounts of social aid for adult individuals and households; c) Recruitment and reallocation of staff in the Directorate of Immigration and the Luxembourg Reception and Integration office; d) implementing the Assisted voluntary return Balkans (AVR Balkans) which only covers the return bus ticket; and e) strengthen cooperation with the authorities of the Western Balkan countries. During 2017, there was an increase in the number of international protection applicants from Georgia and Ukraine, even though both countries are included in the list of safe countries of origin. As Luxembourg does not have external borders with the exception of the International Airport, it is not possible to obtain pertinent information concerning the detection of irregular entries in the territory. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that some individuals from these countries have taken advantage of the visa liberalisation agreements to come to work irregularly in Luxembourg, even if it is not possible to quantify the scale of the phenomenon. The findings of this study do not show an increase in the number of applications for authorisation of stay or residence permits (remunerated and study activities), so the EU visa liberalisation agreements did not have any impact in the legal migration field. The increase of application was visible after the second year of entering into force of these agreements but the numbers were not significant in regard with number of applications made by third-country nationals during the same period. However, the short-stay visits (i.e. friends, family, tourism, etc.) seem not only to have been facilitated, but also increased. In some cases, these short-visits have also been used not only to visit family and friends but also to be familiarized with the Luxembourgish society and to explore job opportunities and look for housing. This is probably the only positive impact that the visa liberalization agreements have had. Seen that the visa liberalisation agreements only allow travelling without a visa, but they do not allow working and staying in the country, and based on the data collected there is not possible to establish a link between them and any significant impact with regard to economy and to criminality (especially related to traffic of human beings or smuggling, where the numbers are very low and not directly related in most cases to nationals concerned by this study). [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting Document Fraud
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2018)

The high numbers and mixed flows of migrants entering the EU during the migration crisis in recent years has meant that the effective identification of third-country nationals has become a concern of ... [more ▼]

The high numbers and mixed flows of migrants entering the EU during the migration crisis in recent years has meant that the effective identification of third-country nationals has become a concern of increasing importance. One of the main issues around the use of documents to establish identity has been the risk of document fraud. This includes the production and use by third-country nationals of false documents, as well as the use of fraudulently obtained genuine documents (‘FOG’s) in procedures relating to entry and stay in Member States. The examination of documents such as passports and other travel documents are only part of identification procedures; however, given that they may contain biometric information such as facial image and iris data, the role they play in identification is significant. Where third-country nationals are unable to fulfil the criteria for legal entry using legitimate documents and channels, or seek to disguise or assume a different identity, document fraud can open alternative channels to entering Member States. In terms of understanding the scale of and trends in document fraud, according to Frontex’s Risk Analysis Report 2018, Member States reported some 6 700 third-country nationals presenting false documents at the EU / Schengen borders in 2017, and identified this as the lowest number of detections since 2013.1 The decreasing trend at the border, however, contrasts with an increase of 9% in detections within the EU/Schengen area, the second highest number of detections since 2013.2 This Inform aims to establish the current state of play in detecting document fraud perpetrated by third-country nationals intending to enter and stay in the EU Member States and Norway, including in the context of asylum procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailCriminal procedural laws across the Union Italian report
Allegrezza, Silvia UL

Report (2018)

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See detail(Member) States' Approaches to Unaccompanied Minors Following Status Determination
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Adao Do Carmo, Kelly UL et al

Report (2018)

The legal framework in Luxembourg does not provide a specific legal status for unaccompanied minors (hereafter UAM), which is why the large majority of them apply for international protection. This allows ... [more ▼]

The legal framework in Luxembourg does not provide a specific legal status for unaccompanied minors (hereafter UAM), which is why the large majority of them apply for international protection. This allows them to stay in the country and to benefit from social and legal assistance, as well as from accommodation. Cases of UAMs presumed or identified victims of human trafficking are rare in Luxembourg. Overall, specific legal frameworks exist according to the status of the UAM: The Law on Asylum, the Law on Immigration and the Law on victims of trafficking in human beings. This framework is completed by general provisions of the Youth Protection Law, which applies to all minors independent of their immigration or legal status. Until the influx of applicants for international protection in 2015 and 2016, the phenomenon of unaccompanied minors has been relatively small in Luxembourg. Particularly 2015 was marked by a high number of UAMs applying for international protection, with 102 introductions of applications compared to 31 applications in 2014. Since, the number of applications has stabilised over the last two years, with 51 applications in 2016 and 50 applications in 2017. In 2015, Afghanistan and Albania were the leading countries of origin of UAMs. In 2016, Afghanistan was still the leading country of origin, followed by Morocco. In 2017, the profiles of the UAMs changed again, with Albania and Morocco as leading countries of origin. In Luxembourg, UAMs are predominantly boys and a large majority is close to the age of majority, or have already reached the age of majority, when a final decision on their application for international protection is issued. However, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they were confronted with a new phenomenon in 2017, namely the arrival of very young UAMs aged between 12 and 14. Every UAM, whether s/he files an application for international protection or not, will be assigned an ad-hoc administrator as soon as possible in order to assist him/her in all legal proceedings. In addition to the designation of an ad-hoc administrator, the organisations that accommodate the UAMs applying for international protection usually request the guardianship (either institutional or personal guardianship) of the UAM who has introduced his application. Different from the ad-hoc administrator, the guardian is assisting and supporting the UAM in all daily life affairs, such as social guidance, integration, education, medical care, acquisition of language skills, leisure activities, etc. In regard to education, the overall aim in Luxembourg is to integrate migrant children, independent of their immigration status, into the general educational system as soon as possible. The latter has experienced a diversification of its offer with a number of specialised measures and services. Together with leisure and extracurricular activities, school is considered to be one of the main contributors to the overall well-being and integration of UAMs into the Luxembourgish society. There are no integration measures that specifically target UAMs. There are no specific transition measures or procedures for UAMs who are approaching their majority, neither in regard to the accommodation and guardianship arrangements, nor in the general context of integration. The organisations responsible for the accommodation and care of the UAMs provide them with a supervision and support according to their specific individual needs. This is also true for the respective legal framework of the UAM, including eventual extensions of residence permits. The return of UAMs is considered to be rare in the Luxembourgish context. As mentioned earlier, this is related to the fact that the large majority of UAMs applying for international protection are close to the age of majority or have already reached majority when a final decision on their application is issued. Furthermore, although foreseen by the Immigration Law, Luxembourg does not carry out forced returns of persons considered to be unaccompanied minors. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM), responsible for (assisted) voluntary returns, reported that they have approximately one voluntary return of an UAM every two years. In 2017, following the recommendation of the evaluation of the Schengen acquis in the area of return in Luxembourg, the government adopted the creation of a new commission with the function of assessing the best interest of the child in the context of return of UAMs. This commission entered into force at the beginning of 2018 and is composed of members of the prosecution service, the National Childhood Office (ONE), the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI), and finally the Directorate of Immigration, which is chairing the commission. In addition, the ad-hoc administrator is invited to attend the commission meeting for the minor s/he represents. Based on the elements of his/her application, an individual opinion assessing the best interest of the child, in the context of his/her return, will be given for each minor. One of the major reported challenges is the appointment of legal representatives of UAMs (ad-hoc administrator and guardian), as well as the lack of precision of the legal provisions in this context. In the context of return, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they are faced with challenges in regard to getting in contact with the respective countries of origin as well as in regard to cases of applicants not telling the truth. One of the main good practices that has been identified by a number of stakeholders are the new care and accommodation arrangements, allowing to house UAMs in specifically dedicated reception facilities with a 24/7 supervision, depending on the availability of these facilities. In the same context, it was reported that it is of great importance to provide the minors with an environment of trust and support, to listen to them and to reassure them in order to be able to understand their current situation. Particularly the approach of supporting them in elaborating a life plan or life project (“projet de vie”) is considered as being very important for the stability and general well-being as well as for the integration of the UAMs. In addition, it is also important to support them in other matters of integration, such as education, acquisition of language skills, extracurricular activities, etc. In the context of return, Directorate of Immigration reported the newly concluded agreement with IOM in order to conduct family assessments of UAMs in the countries of origin as a good practice. On the one hand, this assessment is one element that will be taken into consideration in the examination of the application of the minor. On the other hand, it helps in assessing the best interest of the child in the event of a return if the application is rejected. [less ▲]

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See detailThe D²Rwanda Study: March 2018 Report
Kallestrup, Per; Vögele, Claus UL; Uwizihiwe, JeanPaul et al

Report (2018)

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed ... [more ▼]

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed in collaboration with Aarhus University (AU) and the University of Luxembourg (UL), and under the auspices of the University of Rwanda and Rwanda Biomedical Centre. The project involves two PhD students, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe (enrolled at AU) and Charilaos Lygidakis (enrolled at UL), and is kindly sponsored by the Karen Elise Jensens Foundation, alongside AU and UL. In this report we wished to narrate what we had been working on for the past two years: from the first steps to understanding better the context and mapping the territory; from obtaining the necessary authorisations to developing the app and translating the questionnaires. [less ▲]

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See detailNetzWerk
Böwen, Petra UL

Report (2018)

"NetzWerk- Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen ... [more ▼]

"NetzWerk- Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen Akteuren der Sozialen Arbeit Vernetzung, Plattformen, Veranstaltungen, Informationen aus Luxemburg und der Großregion. Das Schwerpunktthema dieser Ausgabe: "Die Bedeutung der Sozialen Arbeit für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft- Stand der Dinge, Herausforderungen, Perspektiven" fußt auf dem 5. Praxis- und Kontakttag 2017. Es werden u.a. Ergebnisse der Arbeitsmarktbeobachtung in den Feldern der Sozialen Arbeit und Diskussionen mit Akteuren aus Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik zur Thematik dargestellt. [less ▲]

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See detailFaithful Semantical Embedding of a Dyadic Deontic Logic in HOL
Benzmüller, Christoph UL; Farjami, Ali UL; Parent, Xavier UL

Report (2018)

A shallow semantical embedding of a dyadic deontic logic by Carmo and Jones in classical higher-order logic is presented. This embedding is proven sound and complete, that is, faithful. The work presented ... [more ▼]

A shallow semantical embedding of a dyadic deontic logic by Carmo and Jones in classical higher-order logic is presented. This embedding is proven sound and complete, that is, faithful. The work presented here provides the theoretical foundation for the implementation and automation of dyadic deontic logic within off-the-shelf higher-order theorem provers and proof assistants. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversity of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES) Fall 2017 Newsletter
Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley; Paravantis, Spero UL

Report (2018)

The Fall 2017 newsletter of the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES). I was a Visiting Scholar at IES from August 2017 to Feb 2018, and from March 1st 2018, I will ... [more ▼]

The Fall 2017 newsletter of the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES). I was a Visiting Scholar at IES from August 2017 to Feb 2018, and from March 1st 2018, I will become an IES Senior Fellow. My bio is on page 8, and summaries of my lectures are on page 30 (Migration) and 31 (WWI and WWII Reparations and European Integration). [less ▲]

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See detailAdministration parlementaire, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2018)

Administration parlementaire, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg dans une démarche néo-institutionnaliste

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See detailProceedings - 2017 ILILAS Distinguished Lectures
Bouvry, Pascal UL; Bisdorff, Raymond; Schommer, Christoph UL et al

Report (2018)

The Proceedings summarizes the 12 lectures that have taken place within the ILIAS Dinstguished Lecture series 2017. It contains a brief abstract of the talks as well as some additional information about ... [more ▼]

The Proceedings summarizes the 12 lectures that have taken place within the ILIAS Dinstguished Lecture series 2017. It contains a brief abstract of the talks as well as some additional information about each speaker. [less ▲]

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See detailParlements et Gouvernance économique européenne: Comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2018)

Gouvernance économique européenne : Comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg, dans une perspective ... [more ▼]

Gouvernance économique européenne : Comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg, dans une perspective néo-institutionnaliste [less ▲]

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See detailTutorial Big Data Analytics: Overview and Practical Examples
Varrette, Sébastien UL

Report (2018)

This tutorial will offer a synthetic view of Big Data Analytics challenges, the tools permitting to address these challenges and focus on one of these tool through a practical session with a set of ... [more ▼]

This tutorial will offer a synthetic view of Big Data Analytics challenges, the tools permitting to address these challenges and focus on one of these tool through a practical session with a set of concrete examples. Level: beginner - advanced [less ▲]

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See detail8. výroční konference centra vizuální historie malach
Bronec, Jakub UL

Report (2018)

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See detailThere is no one human scale - Reflections on urban development practice in Luxembourg
Carr, Constance UL; Lutz, Rebecca; Schutz, Kevin

Report (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (8 UL)
See detailThe Hague Conference on Private International Law "Judgments Convention"
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; de Miguel Asensio, Miguel; Franzina, Pietro et al

Report (2018)

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, provides an assessment of the ongoing work of ... [more ▼]

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, provides an assessment of the ongoing work of the Hague Conference on the Judgments Convention. The analysis focuses on the November 2017 Draft Convention, its interplay with international and Union instruments in the field, as well as its potential future impact on the regulation of civil and commercial cross-border disputes. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvolution en compréhension écrite en allemand et en mathématiques entre la classe de 3e et la classe de 9e
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Avec les tests ÉpStan de l’automne 2016, une série de données qui donne une vue de l’évolution des compétences scolaires entre le grade 3 (cycle 3.1) et le grade 9 (5e ou 9e) est disponible pour la ... [more ▼]

Avec les tests ÉpStan de l’automne 2016, une série de données qui donne une vue de l’évolution des compétences scolaires entre le grade 3 (cycle 3.1) et le grade 9 (5e ou 9e) est disponible pour la première fois. Le présent chapitre donne de premiers éléments sur l’évolution longitudinale des compétences dans les domaines de la compréhension écrite en allemand et des mathématiques. Pour cela, les résultats des tests des cohortes d’élèves des ÉpStan 2010 du grade 3 (cycle 3.1) seront comparés aux performances au grade 9 (5e ou 9e) au cours de l’année 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailData Visualisation
During, Marten UL

Report (2018)

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See detailEvaluation kognitiver Fähigkeiten im luxemburgischen Schulsystem
Muller, Claire UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ... [more ▼]

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ausgelegt. Nicht alle Schüler sind dieser Herausforderung gewachsen. Daten aus dem luxemburgischen Schulmonitoring (Épreuves standardisées) zeigen, dass vor allem Grundschüler, die zuhause keine der Landessprachen nutzen, Probleme haben eine richtige Erstsprache zu entwickeln. In diesem Fall ist es nicht weiter verwunderlich, wenn auch andere Kompetenzen nur schleppend ausgebildet werden. Leider wird die Sprachenvielfalt – so sinnvoll und nützlich sie für den Einen auch ist – für so Manche zum Hindernis. Das System produziert unweigerlich Schüler, deren akademische Leistungen unter ihrem Potential bleiben: die sogenannten „Underachiever“. Bevor wir uns allerdings überlegen können wie diesem Problem zu begegnen ist, muss kognitives Potential überhaupt evaluiert werden können. Bislang existieren jedoch keine Tests, die an die Luxemburgische Schülerpopulation angepasst sind. Um diesen Mangel zu beheben, wurde am LUCET der Test of Cognitive Potential (TCP) entwickelt. Der TCP ermöglicht es, kognitive Kompetenzen weitestgehend sprach- und kulturfrei zu erfassen, womit er den Bedürfnissen des luxemburgischen Schulsystems optimal entspricht. Im Verlauf des Kapitels wird der TCP kurz vorgestellt, um folgend erste Beobachtungen hinsichtlich der Problematik des „Underachievements“ anzustellen. Anschließend wird aufgezeigt, wie universal der Nutzen einer systematischen Evaluation von kognitiven Fähigkeiten im schulischen Kontext ist: von der Diagnose spezifischer Lernschwierigkeiten auf Individualniveau bis hin zur Beurteilung der Passung von Lernprogrammen und Fördermaßnahmen auf Systemniveau. [less ▲]

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See detailAbstract and Concrete Decision Graphs for Choosing Extensions of Argumentation Frameworks - Technical Report
Dauphin, Jérémie UL; Cramer, Marcos UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2018)

Most argumentation semantics allow for multiple extensions, which raises the question of how to choose among extensions. We propose to study this question as a decision problem. Inspired by decision trees ... [more ▼]

Most argumentation semantics allow for multiple extensions, which raises the question of how to choose among extensions. We propose to study this question as a decision problem. Inspired by decision trees commonly used in economics, we introduce the notion of a decision graph for deciding between the multiple extensions of a given AF in a given semantics. We distinguish between abstract decision graphs and concrete instantiations thereof. Inspired by the principle-based approach to argumentation, we formulate two principles that mappings from argumentation frameworks to decision graphs should satisfy, the principle of decision-graph directionality and the one of directional decision-making. We then propose a concrete instantiation of decision graphs, which satisfies one of these principles. Finally, we discuss the potential for further research based on this novel methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des capacités cognitives dans le système scolaire luxembourgeois
Muller, Claire UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ... [more ▼]

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ausgelegt. Nicht alle Schüler sind dieser Herausforderung gewachsen. Daten aus dem luxemburgischen Schulmonitoring (Épreuves standardisées) zeigen, dass vor allem Grundschüler, die zuhause keine der Landessprachen nutzen, Probleme haben eine richtige Erstsprache zu entwickeln. In diesem Fall ist es nicht weiter verwunderlich, wenn auch andere Kompetenzen nur schleppend ausgebildet werden. Leider wird die Sprachenvielfalt – so sinnvoll und nützlich sie für den Einen auch ist – für so Manche zum Hindernis. Das System produziert unweigerlich Schüler, deren akademische Leistungen unter ihrem Potential bleiben: die sogenannten „Underachiever“. Bevor wir uns allerdings überlegen können wie diesem Problem zu begegnen ist, muss kognitives Potential überhaupt evaluiert werden können. Bislang existieren jedoch keine Tests, die an die Luxemburgische Schülerpopulation angepasst sind. Um diesen Mangel zu beheben, wurde am LUCET der Test of Cognitive Potential (TCP) entwickelt. Der TCP ermöglicht es, kognitive Kompetenzen weitestgehend sprach- und kulturfrei zu erfassen, womit er den Bedürfnissen des luxemburgischen Schulsystems optimal entspricht. Im Verlauf des Kapitels wird der TCP kurz vorgestellt, um folgend erste Beobachtungen hinsichtlich der Problematik des „Underachievements“ anzustellen. Anschließend wird aufgezeigt, wie universal der Nutzen einer systematischen Evaluation von kognitiven Fähigkeiten im schulischen Kontext ist: von der Diagnose spezifischer Lernschwierigkeiten auf Individualniveau bis hin zur Beurteilung der Passung von Lernprogrammen und Fördermaßnahmen auf Systemniveau. [less ▲]

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See detailClass, Race and Inequality in Northern Towns
Barbulescu, Roxana; Favell, Adrian; Paraschivescu, Claudia UL et al

Report (2018)

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See detailInternational preconference and conference report
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL; Walker, Jessica

Report (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 UL)
See detailAudit report
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Ugen, Sonja UL

Report (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (7 UL)
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See detailOn Rational Entailment for Propositional Typicality Logic
Casini, Giovanni UL; Meyer, Thomas; Varzinczak, Ivan et al

Report (2018)

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, obtained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator capturing the most typical (alias normal or conventional ... [more ▼]

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, obtained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator capturing the most typical (alias normal or conventional) situations in which a given sentence holds. The semantics of PTL is in terms of ranked models as studied in the well-known KLM approach to preferential reasoning and therefore KLM-style rational consequence relations can be embedded in PTL. In spite of the non-monotonic features introduced by the semantics adopted for the typicality operator, the obvious Tarskian definition of entailment for PTL remains monotonic and is therefore not appropriate in many contexts. Our first important result is an impossibility theorem showing that a set of proposed postulates that at first all seem appropriate for a notion of entailment with regard to typicality cannot be satisfied simultaneously. Closer inspection reveals that this result is best interpreted as an argument for advocating the development of more than one type of PTL entailment. In the spirit of this interpretation, we investigate three different (semantic) versions of entailment for PTL, each one based on the definition of rational closure as introduced by Lehmann and Magidor for KLM-style conditionals, and constructed using different notions of minimality. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop on Supergeometry and Applications
Bruce, Andrew UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

Report (2017)

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See detailModelling argumentation on Axiom of Choice in ASPIC-END -- Technical report
Cramer, Marcos UL

Report (2017)

In this technical report, we present an application of the structured argumentation methodology to a debate in the foundations of mathematics. We work with ASPIC-END, a recently proposed adaptation of the ... [more ▼]

In this technical report, we present an application of the structured argumentation methodology to a debate in the foundations of mathematics. We work with ASPIC-END, a recently proposed adaptation of the structured argumentation framework ASPIC+ which can incorporate debates about logical principles, natural deduction style arguments and explanations. We apply this framework to build a preliminary formal model of parts of the debate that mathematicians had about the Axiom of Choice in the early 20th century. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the insight into the strengths and drawbacks of the modeling capacities of ASPIC-END that we have gained from producing this model. [less ▲]

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See detailSozialbericht Esch sur Alzette
Heinz, Andreas UL; Dahmen, Clarissa UL; Ferring, Dieter UL et al

Report (2017)

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See detailMigration internationale au Luxembourg - SOPEMI Report 2017
Tüske, Annamaria UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

Suite au pic constaté en 2015, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale a légèrement diminué en 2016, passant de 2 447 en 2015 à 2 035 en 2016 (soit une baisse de 16,8 %). Malgré le ... [more ▼]

Suite au pic constaté en 2015, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale a légèrement diminué en 2016, passant de 2 447 en 2015 à 2 035 en 2016 (soit une baisse de 16,8 %). Malgré le ralentissement de la tendance, ces chiffres restent supérieurs aux niveaux de 2013-2014. Les ressortissants syriens sont toujours la première nationalité de demandeurs de protection internationale (14,3 %), les ressortissants irakiens chutent à la 4ème place (7,9 %), après les ressortissants albanais (11,2 %) et kosovars (10,2 %). Le Luxembourg continue d’occuper la 4ème place parmi les Etats membres en termes d’accueil de demandeurs de protection internationale par rapport à sa population nationale. Le taux de reconnaissance de protection internationale est passé de 228 (200 statuts de réfugiés et 28 protections subsidiaires) en 2015 à 790 (764 statuts de réfugiés et 26 protections subsidiaires) en 2016. Ces chiffres représentent une augmentation de 246,5 % des décisions positives par rapport à 2015. Le Luxembourg continue de démontrer sa solidarité à l’égard de la relocalisation et de la réinstallation des demandeurs de protection internationale. En 2015, le Luxembourg s’est engagé à relocaliser 557 personnes sur son territoire dans le cadre de la décision du Conseil européen de relocaliser 160 000 demandeurs de protection internationale depuis la Grèce et l’Italie. Dans ce contexte, 197 réfugiés ont été relocalisés fin 2016. Entre janvier 2017 et août 2017, le Luxembourg a relocalisé 186 personnes. Sur le plan de la réinstallation, 52 réfugiés ont été réinstallés depuis la Turquie en 2016, suite à l’engagement du Luxembourg de réinstaller 194 réfugiés en provenance de Turquie dans le cadre de l’accord UE-Turquie du mois de mars 2016. 115 personnes ont été réinstallées entre le 1er janvier 2017 et le 18 août 2017. De nouvelles lois sont entrées en vigueur en 2016/2017 qui concernent la situation migratoire du Luxembourg. Des évolutions politiques d’envergure ont porté sur la mise en œuvre de changements apportés à la législation et aux procédures d’asile, à l’éducation et à la réforme linguistique ainsi que sur des mesures d’intégration révisées en réponse à l’évolution des profils de migration au Luxembourg. L’accent mis sur la migration économique a permis de promouvoir la diversification économique et le repositionnement du centre financier. [less ▲]

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See detailL’IDENTIFICATION DES VICTIMES DE LA TRAITE DES ÊTRES HUMAINS LORS DES PROCÉDURES DE PROTECTION INTERNATIONALE ET DE RETOUR FORCÉ
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2013 et actualisée en 2017 par le point de contact luxembourgeois du European Migration Network sur «L’identification des ... [more ▼]

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2013 et actualisée en 2017 par le point de contact luxembourgeois du European Migration Network sur «L’identification des victimes de la traite des êtres humains lors des procédures de protection internationale et de retour forcé». [less ▲]

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See detailCEN/TC250/SC4.T1: Second Generation of Eurocode 4: Introduction and Amendments to Final Draft October 2017
Banfi, Mike; Mensinger, Martin; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

Report (2017)

Development of second Generation of Eurocode 4, Projectteam CEN/TC250/SC4/T1, Reports for final Draft October 2017

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See detailTowards a Plug-and-Play and Holistic Data Mining Framework for Understanding and Facilitating Operations in Smart Buildings
Li, Daoyuan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Klein, Jacques UL et al

Report (2017)

Nowadays, a significant portion of the total energy consumption is attributed to the buildings sector. In order to save energy and protect the environment, energy consumption in buildings must be more ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, a significant portion of the total energy consumption is attributed to the buildings sector. In order to save energy and protect the environment, energy consumption in buildings must be more efficient. At the same time, buildings should offer the same (if not more) comfort to their occupants. Consequently, modern buildings have been equipped with various sensors and actuators and interconnected control systems to meet occupants’ requirements. Unfortunately, so far, Building Automation Systems data have not been well-exploited due to technical and cost limitations. Yet, it can be exceptionally beneficial to take full advantage of the data flowing inside buildings in order to diagnose issues, explore solutions and improve occupant-building interactions. This paper presents a plug-and-play and holistic data mining framework named PHoliData for smart buildings to collect, store, visualize and mine useful information and domain knowledge from data in smart buildings. PHoliData allows non technical experts to easily explore and understand their buildings with minimum IT support. An architecture of this framework has been introduced and a prototype has been implemented and tested against real-world settings. Discussions with industry experts have suggested the system to be extremely helpful for understanding buildings, since it can provide hints about energy efficiency improvements. Finally, extensive experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of such a framework in practice and its advantage and potential for buildings operators. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Migration in Luxembourg - SOPEMI Report 2017
Tüske, Annamaria UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

While the proportion of Luxembourgish nationals among the resident working population was above 50.3% in 2015, it dropped below 50% in the first quarter of 2017. Some 44% of the working population were ... [more ▼]

While the proportion of Luxembourgish nationals among the resident working population was above 50.3% in 2015, it dropped below 50% in the first quarter of 2017. Some 44% of the working population were EU28 nationals and 6% non-EU nationals. Luxembourg’s economy is reliant on its employment of cross-border workers. In 2016, French nationals maintained and increased their proportion of over 50% of the cross-border working population, reaching 51.4% in Q1 2017, at the expense of both Belgian (24.4%) and German (24.2%) cross-border workers. They mainly work in sectors such as construction, administrative/support service, accommodation/food service, as well as in the financial/insurance sector or professional, scientific and technical activities. Between 2010 and 2017, the number of foreign salaried workers showed the greatest continuous increase in sectors such as professional, scientific and technical activities, administrative and support services, and financial and insurance services. Regarding specific permits, nationals of China (119 permits), India (70 permits) and Montenegro (40 permits) accounted for 31% of all first issues of residence permits for salaried workers. Indian nationals were the single largest nationality group receiving their first issue of EU Blue Cards, with 90 issued during 2016. This was followed by US nationals (58 permits) and Russian nationals (36 permits). After reaching a peak in 2015, the number of applications for international protection slightly decreased in 2016, from 2447 in 2015 to 2035 in 2016 (decrease of 16.8%). Even if the trend slowed down, it remains higher than the levels of 2013-2015. Syrian nationals remain the first nationality of applicants for international protection (14.3%), Iraqi nationals dropping to 4th place (7.9%) after Albanian nationals (11.2%) and Kosovars (10.2%). Luxembourg remains the Member State hosting the 4th highest number of applicants for international protection applicants in relation to the national population. The international protection recognition rate increased from 228 (200 refugee status and 28 subsidiary protection) in 2015 to 790 (764 refugee status and 26 subsidiary protection) in 2016. This represents an increase of 246.5% of positive decisions year-on-year. Luxembourg continues to demonstrate its solidarity in respect of the relocation and resettlement of international protection applicants. In 2015, Luxembourg pledged to relocate 557 individuals to Luxembourg in the framework of the EU Council decision to relocate 160,000 international protection applicants from Greece and Italy. Within this framework, 197 refugees had been relocated by the end of 2016. From January 2017 to 18 August 2017, Luxembourg relocated 186 people. With regards to resettlement, 52 refugees were resettled from Turkey in 2016 as a result of Luxembourg’s pledge to resettle 194 refugees from Turkey in the context of the EU-Turkey agreement of March 2016. 115 people were resettled between 1st January 2017 and 18th August 2017. New pieces of legislation were enacted during 2016/2017 to assist with the specific migration situation in Luxembourg. Major policy developments related to the implementation of changes to asylum legislation and procedures, education and language reform, and revised integration measures in response to changing migration profiles within Luxembourg. A focus on economic migration took place to promote economic diversification, start-ups and the repositioning of the financial centre. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effectiveness of return in EU Member States: challenges and good practices linked to EU rules and standards
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, David UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

The impact of EU rules on Luxembourg’s return policies and practices is substantial. This is not least a result of the transposition of Directive 2008/115/EC on return into national law by the Law of 1 ... [more ▼]

The impact of EU rules on Luxembourg’s return policies and practices is substantial. This is not least a result of the transposition of Directive 2008/115/EC on return into national law by the Law of 1 July 2011, which was then further developed through amendments in 2014 following the conclusions of the European Commission that Luxembourg was not fully in line with the directive. With regards to the European Commission Recommendation of 7th March 2017 ‘on making returns more effective when implementing the Directive 2008/115/EC’, Luxembourg did not introduce any specific legal or policy change. Most of the referenced provisions already form part of the national legal and/or policy framework. The government’s efforts to conclude and apply readmission agreements with third-countries to better organise returns have continued throughout 2016. The Benelux Member States concluded a readmission agreement and a protocol of implementation with the Republic of Kazakhstan on 2 March 2015, which was approved by Law of 31 August 2016. As a result of the relatively high influx of asylum-seekers in 2015/2016, a backlog in the processing of applications for international protection occurred and could only be properly addressed by the Refugees and Return Department of the Directorate of Immigration through an increase and a reorganisation of its administrative staff. On the other side, the impact of the migration situation 2015/2016 did not significantly affect the functioning of the Detention Centre nor its maximum occupation limits. However, the Detention Centre took over the management of the SHUK (Structure d’hébergement d’urgence Kirchberg) a new semi-open facility established for Dublin cases (single men) with a view of transferring them to the responsible Member State. Although vulnerable groups are generally not detained in Luxembourg, the permitted period of detention of families with children was recently (March 2017) extended from 72 hours to 7 days with a view to enhancing the organisation of their return. The controversial extension through law amendment was largely criticised by civil society organisations and hence debated in parliament. The definition of guarantees to avoid the risk of absconding remains a major challenge in the field of return and (alternatives to) detention. In most cases, the applicant fails to provide evidence enabling the reversal of the legal presumption of the existence of a risk of absconding, allowing the Minister to use a detention measure instead of another less coercive measure. As long as the concerned third-country national is unable to indicate a fixed address of stay (reception facilities are not taken into account), the competent authorities cannot rule out the existence of a risk of absconding. The practical implementation of ‘home custody’ as an alternative to detention is therefore considered problematic, with most potential candidates not having a fixed address in Luxembourg. The substantial amount of the financial guarantee, 5.000€, make it also difficult to practically implement release on bail as an alternative. Although the Law foresees the possibility of combining home custody with electronic surveillance, the electronic tag has not yet been implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Security and Privacy Requirements for Mobile Applications: a Use Case-driven Approach
Mai, Xuan Phu UL; Göknil, Arda UL; Shar, Lwin Khin UL et al

Report (2017)

Defining and addressing security and privacy requirements in mobile apps is a significant challenge due to the high level of transparency regarding users' (private) information. In this paper, we propose ... [more ▼]

Defining and addressing security and privacy requirements in mobile apps is a significant challenge due to the high level of transparency regarding users' (private) information. In this paper, we propose, apply, and assess a modeling method that supports the specification of security and privacy requirements of mobile apps in a structured and analyzable form. Our motivation is that, in many contexts including mobile app development, use cases are common practice for the elicitation and analysis of functional requirements and should also be adapted for describing security requirements. We integrate and adapt an existing approach for modeling security and privacy requirements in terms of security threats, their mitigations, and their relations to use cases in a misuse case diagram. We introduce new security-related templates, i.e., a mitigation template and a misuse case template for specifying mitigation schemes and misuse case specifications in a structured and analyzable manner. Natural language processing can then be used to automatically detect and report inconsistencies among artifacts and between the templates and specifications. Since our approach supports stakeholders in precisely specifying and checking security threats, threat scenarios and their mitigations, it is expected to help with decision making and compliance with standards for improving security. We successfully applied our approach to industrial mobile apps and report lessons learned and results from structured interviews with engineers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Protection of the Procedural Rights of Persons Concerned by OLAF Administrative Investigations and the Admissibility of OLAF Final Reports as Criminal Evidence
Ligeti, Katalin UL

Report (2017)

This paper provides an analysis of two crucial and interconnected aspects of the current legal framework on the investigations conducted by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF): the procedural safeguards ... [more ▼]

This paper provides an analysis of two crucial and interconnected aspects of the current legal framework on the investigations conducted by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF): the procedural safeguards for the individuals subject to the administrative investigations conducted by OLAF and the admissibility in evidence of OLAF Final Reports in national criminal proceedings. The state of the art and its shortcomings are analysed in the double perspective of the coherent protection of the EU’s financial interests and of the respect of fundamental rights provided by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. [less ▲]

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See detailGuru: Universal Reputation Module for Distributed Consensus Protocols
Biryukov, Alex UL; Feher, Daniel UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

Report (2017)

In this paper we describe how to couple reputation systems with distributed consensus protocols to provide high-throughput highly-scalable consensus for large peer-to-peer networks of untrusted validators ... [more ▼]

In this paper we describe how to couple reputation systems with distributed consensus protocols to provide high-throughput highly-scalable consensus for large peer-to-peer networks of untrusted validators. We introduce reputation module Guru, which can be laid on top of various consensus protocols such as PBFT or HoneyBadger. It ranks nodes based on the outcomes of consensus rounds run by a small committee, and adaptively selects the committee based on the current reputation. The protocol can also take external reputation ranking as input. Guru can tolerate larger threshold of malicious nodes (up to slightly above 1/2) compared to the 1/3 limit of BFT consensus algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges and practices for establishing applicants’ identity in the migration process
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

In Luxembourg, the procedure for identity verification/establishment in the context of international protection is separated from the decision-making procedure as such. While the authority for granting ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourg, the procedure for identity verification/establishment in the context of international protection is separated from the decision-making procedure as such. While the authority for granting international protection status lies with the Ministry in charge of Immigration (Directorate of Immigration), the Judicial Police is in charge of identity verification/establishment. For this means, the applicant will be interviewed with regard to his/her travel itinerary, including questions on border crossing and used means of transports to arrive in Luxembourg. During the last few years, the large majority of international protection applications in Luxembourg have come from persons originating from the Western Balkan countries (in 2016 they represent 35% of the applicants). Concerning these applicants, most of them (85% to 90%) have presented valid identity documents to the authorities in Luxembourg. However, with the migration crisis there is a growing number of international protection applicants coming from the Middle East and North Africa and who cannot produce valid identity documents. National authorities have always been confronted with lacking identity documents, predominantly observable among applicants from African countries. In some cases, identity documents were intentionally destroyed or withheld from the authorities in order to avoid being identified. If credible identity documents are lacking, the identification procedure can become complicated and resource consuming, and the responsible authorities, especially the Police, have a limited set of methods and means available (provided for in the Asylum Law). [less ▲]

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See detailIncompatibilités, disciplines & déontologies parlementaires, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2017)

Incompatibilités, disciplines & déontologies parlementaires, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg dans une démarche néo-institutionnaliste

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See detailCEN/TC250/SC4.T1: Second Generation of Eurocode 4: Introduction and Amendments to Second Draft April 2017
Banfi, Mike; Mensinger, Martin; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

Report (2017)

Development of second Generation of Eurocode 4, Projectteam CEN/TC250/SC4/T1, Reports for second Draft April 2017

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See detailNew Luxembourg Nationality Law came into force on 1 April
Scuto, Denis UL

Report (2017)

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See detailEconomic Aspects of Old Age Exclusion: A Scoping Review
Myck, Michal; Ogg, Jim; Aigner-Walder, Birgit et al

Report (2017)

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See detailBackground Report to EN 1994 - Plastic moment resistance of composite beams
Schäfer, Markus UL; Banfi, Mike

Report (2017)

As part of the development of the second generation of Eurocodes and harmonization of the different European Codes, some clarifications deal with the design value of concrete compression strength and the ... [more ▼]

As part of the development of the second generation of Eurocodes and harmonization of the different European Codes, some clarifications deal with the design value of concrete compression strength and the bending design of steel-composite sections. The following background document describes the issues in design and confusions between Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures and Eurocode 4 for the design of composite structures in steel and concrete. The first part is concentrated on the background information and the accentuation of limits for plastic bending design. While the second part represents the results of multiple comparisons between plastic and strain limited design leading to a new design approach. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder
Böwen, Petra UL; Dujardin, Céline UL

Report (2017)

Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht „Der Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder“ beschäftigt sich mit dem Studiengang des BSSE und stellt seine Bedeutung für die ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht „Der Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder“ beschäftigt sich mit dem Studiengang des BSSE und stellt seine Bedeutung für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft im Allgemeinen und für den Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit im Besonderen dar. Er zeigt die Vernetzung der vielfältigen Praxisfelder und der verschiedenen politischen Bereiche auf. Letztere werden durch Beiträge der jeweiligen Minister von den acht zuständigen Ministerien verdeutlicht. Mit diesem Projekt möchte das PraxisBüro auf die Soziale Arbeit als wesentliche Säule für das Funktionieren unserer Gesellschaft hinweisen und weitere Brücken zwischen den unterschiedlichen Akteuren der verschiedenen Praxisfelder schaffen. Durch den BSSE-Studiengang wird seit über 11 Jahren eine Ausbildung in Sozialarbeit/Sozialpädagogik an der Universität Luxemburg angeboten, die den bestehenden Ausbildungstraditionen aus dem Ausland gegenübertritt. Es ist der einzige Studiengang dieser Art in Luxemburg. Das Diplom ermöglicht die Arbeit als éducateur gradué und/oder assistant social und den Zugang zu der Gehaltsgruppe A2 (Bachelorebene) beim Staat. Die Entwicklung und Bedeutung des Studiengangs wird durch die Anzahl der Absolventen und deren Berufsabschlüsse illustriert, wobei auch die wachsende starke Nachfrage bei den Studienplätzen erstmals systematisch aufgearbeitet wird. Die Argumentation einer Typologie der Praxisfelder gibt den sehr vielfältigen sozialen Bereichen eine Ordnung und ermöglicht somit die Analyse der Praktikumsstellen, der Studienabschlussarbeiten und der beruflichen Praxis der BSSE-Studierenden bzw. BSSE-Absolventen. Der Arbeitsmarkt und die Arbeitsmarktchancen der BSSE-Absolventen werden sowohl durch die existierende Fachliteratur und Informationen der Arbeitsmarktverwaltung als auch durch systematische Arbeitsmarktbeobachtungen (hierbei handelt es sich um ein weiteres Forschungsprojekt des PraxisBüros) untersucht. Die konkreten Praxisfelder werden durch die vorausgegangene Typologie und durch BSSEAbsolventen im Beruf selbst vorgestellt. In diesen Beiträgen finden auch die Absolventen, die sich für ein weiterführendes Master-Studium entschieden haben, ihren Platz. Abschließend unterstreichen Fazit und Ausblick die Bedeutung des Studiengangs für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft und laden zu Kooperations-, Netzwerk- und Weiterbildungsmöglichkeiten ein, die die Brücken zwischen Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik weiter ausbauen und festigen. [less ▲]

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See detailAbschlussbericht zum Forschungsprojekt "Bewegter Unterricht in Luxemburg"
Bund, Andreas UL; Scheuer, Claude

Report (2017)

Das Konzept der Bewegten Schule geht auf den Schweizer Pädagogen Urs Illi zurück, der es Mitte der achtziger Jahre vor allem für den Primarbereich entwickelte (Illi, 1995). Ausgehend von einer medizinisch ... [more ▼]

Das Konzept der Bewegten Schule geht auf den Schweizer Pädagogen Urs Illi zurück, der es Mitte der achtziger Jahre vor allem für den Primarbereich entwickelte (Illi, 1995). Ausgehend von einer medizinisch-gesundheitlichen (Bewegung als Gesundheitsressource) und entwick-lungs- und lerntheoretischen (Bewegung als zentrales Element der Kindesentwicklung, Bewe-gung als zusätzlicher Sinnes- und Erfahrungskanal) Begründung, geht es in diesem Konzept grundsätzlich darum, mehr Bewegung in die traditionelle „Sitzschule“ zu bringen. Am Projekt „Bewegter Unterricht in Luxemburg“ nahmen die SchülerInnen und Lehrkräfte der Grundschulen in Angelsberg, Larochette, Nommern, Lintgen und Vichten teil. An den Schulen Angelsberg, Larochette und Nommern fand im Untersuchungszeitraum von September 2014 bis Juni 2016 durchgehend Bewegter Unterricht statt. Diese Schulen werden im Weiteren als „Projektschulen“ bezeichnet. An den Schulen in Lintgen und Vichten wurde nicht „bewegt“ unterrichtet; diese Schulen dienten somit als Kontrollschulen. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Groupes parlementaires, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2017)

Les Groupes parlementaires, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg dans une perspective néo ... [more ▼]

Les Groupes parlementaires, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg dans une perspective néo-institutionnaliste [less ▲]

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