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See detailVariation der Intonation im luxemburgisch-moselfränkischen Grenzgebiet
Gilles, Peter UL

in Elmentaler, Michael; Hundt, Markus; Schmidt, Jürgen-Erich (Eds.) Deutsche Dialekte. Konzepte, Probleme, Handlungsfelder (2015)

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See detailVariation in GP decisions on antihypertensive treatment in oldest-old and frail individuals across 29 countries
Streit, Sven; Verschoor, Marjolein; Rodondi, Nicolas et al

in BMC Geriatrics (2017)

Background In oldest-old patients (>80), few trials showed efficacy of treating hypertension and they included mostly the healthiest elderly. The resulting lack of knowledge has led to inconsistent ... [more ▼]

Background In oldest-old patients (>80), few trials showed efficacy of treating hypertension and they included mostly the healthiest elderly. The resulting lack of knowledge has led to inconsistent guidelines, mainly based on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular disease (CVD) but not on frailty despite the high prevalence in oldest-old. This may lead to variation how General Practitioners (GPs) treat hypertension. Our aim was to investigate treatment variation of GPs in oldest-olds across countries and to identify the role of frailty in that decision. Methods Using a survey, we compared treatment decisions in cases of oldest-old varying in SBP, CVD, and frailty. GPs were asked if they would start antihypertensive treatment in each case. In 2016, we invited GPs in Europe, Brazil, Israel, and New Zealand. We compared the percentage of cases that would be treated per countries. A logistic mixed-effects model was used to derive odds ratio (OR) for frailty with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for SBP, CVD, and GP characteristics (sex, location and prevalence of oldest-old per GP office, and years of experience). The mixed-effects model was used to account for the multiple assessments per GP. Results The 29 countries yielded 2543 participating GPs: 52% were female, 51% located in a city, 71% reported a high prevalence of oldest-old in their offices, 38% and had >20 years of experience. Across countries, considerable variation was found in the decision to start antihypertensive treatment in the oldest-old ranging from 34 to 88%. In 24/29 (83%) countries, frailty was associated with GPs’ decision not to start treatment even after adjustment for SBP, CVD, and GP characteristics (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0.48–0.59; ORs per country 0.11–1.78). Conclusions Across countries, we found considerable variation in starting antihypertensive medication in oldest-old. The frail oldest-old had an odds ratio of 0.53 of receiving antihypertensive treatment. Future hypertension trials should also include frail patients to acquire evidence on the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment in oldest-old patients with frailty, with the aim to get evidence-based data for clinical decision-making. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation und Wandel im Blickpunkt. Beiträge aus dem Forum Sprachvariation
Purschke, Christoph UL; Ganswindt, Brigitte

Book published by Olms (2018)

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See detailVariation, Wandel, Wissen : Studien zum Hochdeutschen und Niederdeutschen
Hettler, Yvonne; Jürgens, Carolin; Langhanke, Robert et al

Book published by Peter Lang (2013)

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See detailA variational formulation of dissipative quasicontinuum methods
Rokos, Ondrej; Beex, Lars UL; Peerlings, Ron et al

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2016), 102-103

Lattice systems and discrete networks with dissipative interactions are successfully employed as meso-scale models of heterogeneous solids. As the application scale generally is much larger than that of ... [more ▼]

Lattice systems and discrete networks with dissipative interactions are successfully employed as meso-scale models of heterogeneous solids. As the application scale generally is much larger than that of the discrete links, physically relevant simulations are computationally expensive. The QuasiContinuum (QC) method is a multiscale approach that reduces the computational cost of direct numerical simulations by fully resolving complex phenomena only in regions of interest while coarsening elsewhere. In previous work (Beex et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 64, 154-169, 2014), the originally conservative QC methodology was generalized to a virtual-power-based QC approach that includes local dissipative mechanisms. In this contribution, the virtual-power-based QC method is reformulated from a variational point of view, by employing the energy-based variational framework for rate-independent processes (Mielke and Roub cek, Rate-Independent Systems: Theory and Application, Springer-Verlag, 2015). By construction it is shown that the QC method with dissipative interactions can be expressed as a minimization problem of a properly built energy potential, providing solutions equivalent to those of the virtual-power-based QC formulation. The theoretical considerations are demonstrated on three simple examples. For them we verify energy consistency, quantify relative errors in energies, and discuss errors in internal variables obtained for different meshes and two summation rules. [less ▲]

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See detailA variational principle for computing nonequilibrium fluxes and potentials in genome-scale biochemical networks
Fleming, Ronan MT UL; Maes, C. M.; Saunders, M. A. et al

in Journal of Theoretical Biology (2012), 292

We derive a convex optimization problem on a steady-state no nequilibrium network of biochemical reactions, with the property that energy conservation and the second law of thermodynamics both hold at the ... [more ▼]

We derive a convex optimization problem on a steady-state no nequilibrium network of biochemical reactions, with the property that energy conservation and the second law of thermodynamics both hold at the problem solution. This suggests a new variational principle for biochemical networks that can be implemented in a computationally tractable manner. We derive the Lagrange dual of the optimization problem and use strong duality to demonstrate that a biochemical analogue of Tellegen’s theorem holds at optimality. Each optimal flux is dependent on a free parameter that we relate to an elementary kinetic parameter when mass action kinetics is assumed. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations in the work function of doped single- and few-layer graphene assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy and density functional theory
Ziegler, D.; Gava, P.; Guettinger, J. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2011), 83(23),

We present Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements of single-and few-layer graphene resting on SiO2 substrates. We compare the layer thickness dependency of the measured surface potential with ab ... [more ▼]

We present Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements of single-and few-layer graphene resting on SiO2 substrates. We compare the layer thickness dependency of the measured surface potential with ab initio density functional theory calculations of the work function for substrate-doped graphene. The ab initio calculations show that the work function of single-and bilayer graphene is mainly given by a variation of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point energy as a function of doping, and that electrostatic interlayer screening only becomes relevant for thicker multilayer graphene. From the Raman G-line shift and the comparison of the Kelvin probe data with the ab initio calculations, we independently find an interlayer screening length in the order of four to five layers. Furthermore, we describe in-plane variations of the work function, which can be attributed to partial screening of charge impurities in the substrate, and result in a nonuniform charge density in single-layer graphene. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of cervical vertebrae after expression of a Hox-1.1 transgene in mice.
Kessel, M.; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P.

in Cell (1990), 61(2), 301-8

To understand the function of murine homeobox genes, a genetic analysis is mandatory. We generated gain-of-function mutants by introducing genomic sequences of the Hox-1.1 gene under the control of a ... [more ▼]

To understand the function of murine homeobox genes, a genetic analysis is mandatory. We generated gain-of-function mutants by introducing genomic sequences of the Hox-1.1 gene under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter into mice. Our previous data had shown that these transgenic mice are nonviable after birth and are born with craniofacial abnormalities. In a subsequent detailed analysis of severely affected animals, malformations of the basioccipital bone, the atlas, and the axis were observed. Manifestation of an additional vertebra, a proatlas, occurred at the craniocervical transition. The dominant interference of the Hox-1.1 transgene with developmental programs seems to occur around day 9 of gestation, the time of neural crest migration and somite differentiation. We discuss the resulting phenotype with respect to a developmental control function of Hox-1.1. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of the stratification of health in more and less equal societies: The role of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2015)

Full paper in press at International Journal for Equity in Health: Chauvel, L., & Leist, A. K. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins

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See detailVariétés lorentziennes plates vues comme limites de variétés anti-de Sitter, d'après Danciger, Guéritaud et Kassel
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

in Astérisque (2016), 380

A survey on the recent work of Danciger, Gu\'eritaud and Kassel on Margulis space-times and complete anti-de Sitter space-times. Margulis space-times are quotients of the 3-dimensional Minkowski space by ... [more ▼]

A survey on the recent work of Danciger, Gu\'eritaud and Kassel on Margulis space-times and complete anti-de Sitter space-times. Margulis space-times are quotients of the 3-dimensional Minkowski space by (non-abelian) free groups acting propertly discontinuously. Goldman, Labourie and Margulis have shown that they are determined by a convex co-compact hyperbolic surface S along with a first-order deformation of the metric which uniformly decreases the lengths of closed geodesics. Danciger, Gu\'eritaud and Kassel show that those space-times are principal ℝ-bundles over S with time-like geodesics as fibers, that they are homeomorphic to the interior of a handlebody, and that they admit a fundamental domain bounded by crooked planes. To obtain those results they show that those Margulis space-times are "infinitesimal" versions of 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter manifolds, and are lead to introduce a new parameterization of the space of deformations of a hyperbolic surface that increase the lengths of all closed geodesics. [less ▲]

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See detailVarying the number of bidders in the first-price sealed-bid auction: experimental evidence for the one-shot game
Neugebauer, Tibor UL; Füllbrunn, Sascha

in Theory and Decision (2013), 75(3)

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See detailVascular reactions correlated with pain due to cold
Kreh, Albrecht; Anton, Fernand UL; Gilly, Hermann et al

in Experimental Neurology (1984), 85(3), 533-546

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See detailVAT Neutrality
Prüm, André UL

in VAT Neutrality (2015)

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See detailVAT neutrality
Herbain, Charlene Adline UL

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Most major economies use a value added tax (VAT) which is a derivation of the French 1954 taxe sur la valeur ajoutée. The initial imposition of VAT in France and its spread around the world have been ... [more ▼]

Most major economies use a value added tax (VAT) which is a derivation of the French 1954 taxe sur la valeur ajoutée. The initial imposition of VAT in France and its spread around the world have been driven by economic reasons. This thesis focuses on one of these economic triggers: the neutrality of VAT as regards the functioning of the economy. It demonstrates that the reason VAT was chosen in France and why thereafter it spread around the world was because it offered the possibility to collect governmental revenue while allowing the economic forces of the market to interplay without being adversely affected. The prerequisite conditions for the existence of VAT neutrality are therefore identified herein along with an overview of the VAT mechanism, demonstrating that the concept of neutrality is built into the VAT system in a manner that allows for the preservation of the natural functioning of the market. After the definition of VAT neutrality is set forth, the elements that comprise VAT neutrality are tested against the realities on the ground and the issues that infringe the neutrality of VAT are identified and analysed. In conclusion, remedies for these issues are being sought by a review of the causes of infringement of VAT neutrality in the perspective of selected proposals for modified VAT systems. These proposals include redesignating the place where VAT is levied and improving VAT collection. Ultimately, the proposed solution has recourse to the roots of VAT together with the most advanced technological tools available to give back to VAT the power to levy revenue while letting the economic forces of the market interplay without instigating any adverse influence. [less ▲]

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See detailVaterschaftswunsch und -absicht schwuler Männer
Niepel, Christoph UL; Kranz, Dirk

Scientific Conference (2014, September)

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See detailVCL, a Visual Language for abstract Specification of Software Systems Formally and Modularly
Amalio, Nuno UL; Kelsen, Pierre UL

in Diagrams 2010 (2010)

This paper overviews design of VCL, a new visual language for abstract specification of software systems at level of requirements. VCL is designed to be visual, formal and modular, and aims at expressing ... [more ▼]

This paper overviews design of VCL, a new visual language for abstract specification of software systems at level of requirements. VCL is designed to be visual, formal and modular, and aims at expressing precisely structural and behavioural properties of software systems. Novelty of VCL design lies in its emphasis on modularity. [less ▲]

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See detailVeblen im Warenhaus. Theorien der "reaktionären Modernisierung" als Erklärungsansatz für die Warenhaus-Debatte im deutschen Kaiserreich.
Lenz, Thomas UL

in Weiss-Sussex, Godela; Zitzelsperger, Ulrike (Eds.) Das Berliner Warenhaus. Geschichte und Diskurse/ The Berlin Department Store. History and Discourse (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (6 UL)