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See detailSynthesis and magnetic properties of Ta/NdFeB-based composite microwires
Szary, Philipp; Luciu, Ioana; Duday, David et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2015), 117

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See detailSynthesis of a nanorod ferrofluid and characterisation by magnetic-field-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering
Döbrich, Frank UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Birringer, R.

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2007), 316(e), 779-782

Compared to conventional ferrofluids, which contain mostly spherical particles, a dispersion of highly anisometric particles such as rods or chains is expected to give rise to an enhancement or ... [more ▼]

Compared to conventional ferrofluids, which contain mostly spherical particles, a dispersion of highly anisometric particles such as rods or chains is expected to give rise to an enhancement or modification of well-known ferrofluid properties. This contribution reports on the synthesis of a ferrofluid containing stable chains of iron nanoparticles and on its microstructural characterisation by means of transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS measurements develop a pronounced anisotropy of the scattering pattern as a function of an increasing external magnetic field. Evaluation of the radially averaged SAXS curves in terms of basic scattering functions is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of folate- pegylated polyester nanoparticles encapsulating ixabepilone for targeting folate receptor overexpressing breast cancer cells
Siafaka, P.; Betsiou, M.; Tsolou, A. et al

in Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (2015), 26(12), 1-14

Abstract: The aim of this study was the preparation of novel polyester nanoparticles based on folic acid (FA)–functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(propylene succinate) (PEG–PPSu) copolymer and loaded ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The aim of this study was the preparation of novel polyester nanoparticles based on folic acid (FA)–functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(propylene succinate) (PEG–PPSu) copolymer and loaded with the new anticancer drug ixabepilone (IXA). These nanoparticles may serve as a more selective (targeted) treatment of breast cancer tumors overexpressing the folate receptor. The synthesized materials were characterized by 1H-NMR, FTIR, XRD and DSC. The nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsification and solvent evaporation method and characterized with regard to their morphology by scanning electron microscopy, drug loading with HPLC–UV and size by dynamic light scattering. An average size of 195 nm and satisfactory drug loading efficiency (3.5 %) were observed. XRD data indicated that IXA was incorporated into nanoparticles in amorphous form. The nanoparticles exhibited sustained drug release properties in vitro. Based on in vitro cytotoxicity studies, the blank FA–PEG–PPSu nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic to the cells. Fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by conjugating Rhodanine B to PEG–PPSu, and live cell, fluorescence, confocal microscopy was applied in order to demonstrate the ability of FA–PEG–PPSu nanoparticles to enter into human breast cancer cells expressing the folate receptor. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of trigonal selenium nanorods by electrodeposition from an ionic liquid at high temperature
Steichen, Marc UL; Dale, Phillip UL

in Electrochemistry Communications (2011), 13(8), 865-868

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See detailSynthesis, biological activity, and X-ray crystal structural analysis of diaryl ether inhibitors of malarial enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase. Part 1: 4'-substituted triclosan derivatives.
Freundlich, Joel S.; Anderson, John W.; Sarantakis, Dimitri et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2005), 15(23), 5247-52

A structure-based approach has been taken to develop 4'-substituted analogs of triclosan that target the key malarial enzyme Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR). Many of ... [more ▼]

A structure-based approach has been taken to develop 4'-substituted analogs of triclosan that target the key malarial enzyme Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR). Many of these compounds exhibit nanomolar potency against purified PfENR enzyme and modest (2-10microM) potency against in vitro cultures of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of the P. falciparum parasite. X-ray crystal structures of nitro 29, aniline 30, methylamide 37, and urea 46 demonstrate the presence of hydrogen-bonding interactions with residues in the active site and point to future rounds of optimization to improve compound potency against purified enzyme and intracellular parasites. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation of a magnetic cisplatin delivery nanosystem based on PMAA-graft-PEG copolymers
Voulgari, E.; Bakandritsos, A.; Galtsidis, Sotirios UL et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016), 243

The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We ... [more ▼]

The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We investigated different poly(methacrylic acid)-g-poly(ethyleneglycol methacrylate) polymers as in situ coating agents for magnetite nanocrystallites. The obtained magnetic nano-assemblies were in turn thoroughly characterized for their structural, colloidal and physicochemical properties (drug loading capacity/release, magnetic field triggered drug release, cell uptake and localization) in order to select the best performing system. With the focus on in vivo validation of such magnetic drug delivery systems for first time, we selected cisplatin as the drug, since it is a potent anticancer agent which exhibits serious side effects due to lack of selectivity. In addition, cisplatin would offer facile determination of the metal content in the animal tissues for biodistribution studies. Alongside post-mortem Pt determination in the tissues, the biodistribution of the drug nanocarriers was also monitored in real time with PET-CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) with and without the presence of magnetic field gradients; using a novel chelator-free method, the nanoparticles were radiolabeled with 68Ga without having to alter their structure with chemical modifications for conjugation of radiochelators. The ability to be radiolabeled in such a straightforward but very robust way, along with their measured high MRI response, renders them attractive for dual imaging, which is an important functionality for translational investigations. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo, in a cisplatin resistant HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma model, with and without the presence of magnetic field gradients. Enhanced anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity was recorded for the cisplatin-loaded nanocarriers in comparison to the free cisplatin, particularly when a magnetic field gradient was applied at the tumor site. Post mortem and real-time tissue distribution studies did not reveal increased cisplatin concentration in the tumor site, suggesting that the enhanced anticancer efficacy of the cisplatin-loaded nanocarriers is driven by mechanisms other than increased cisplatin accumulation in the tumors. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, Characterization, and Electronic Structure of Single-Crystal SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2
Burton, Lee A.; Colombara, Diego UL; Abellon, Ruben D. et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2013), 25(24), 4908-4916

Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization ... [more ▼]

Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization of the single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material. We show that the coexistence of the Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states would limit the performance of SnS in photovoltaic devices due to the valence band alignment of the respective phases and the ''asymmetry'' in the underlying point defect behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that Sn2S3, in addition to SnS, is a candidate material for low-cost thin-film solar cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, theoretical and experimental characterisation of thin film Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 ternary alloys (x = 0 to 1): Homogeneous intermixing of Sn and Ge
Robert, Erika UL; Gunder, René; De Wild, Jessica UL et al

in Acta Materialia (2018), 151

Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin ... [more ▼]

Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin film form in order to establish relationships between group IV composition and structural, vibrational and opto-electronic properties. Seven single phase Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 films are prepared from x ¼ 0 to 1, showing a uniform distribution of Ge and Sn laterally and in depth. The films all show a monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice parameters are extracted using Le Bail refinement and show a linear decrease with increasing Ge content. Using density-functional theory with hybrid functionals, we calculate the Raman active phonon frequencies of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2GeS3. For the alloyed compounds, we use a virtual atom approximation. The shift of the main Raman peak from x ¼ 0 to x ¼ 1 can be explained as being half due to the change in atomic masses and half being due to the different bond strength. The bandgaps of the alloys are extracted from photoluminescence measurements and increase linearly from about 0.90 to 1.56 eV with increasing Ge. The net acceptor density of all films is around 1018 cm 3. These analyses have established that the alloy forms a solid solution over the entire composition range meaning that intentional band gap grading should be possible for future absorber layers. The linear variation of the unit cell parameters and the band gap with group IV content allows composition determination by scattering or optical measurements. Further research is required to reduce the doping density by two orders of magnitude in order to improve the current collection within a solar cell device structure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe synthetic cannabinoids phenomenon
Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, L et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2016), 22(42), 6420-6425

« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids ... [more ▼]

« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at this period Health professionals should take into account that limited scientific evidence is available regarding the effect of synthetic cannabinoids use in humans. It thus urges to launch more systematic epidemiological studies, to develop and validate screening procedures, and to investigate the neurobiological and psychological correlates and risk factors associated to synthetic cannabinoids use and misuse. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthetic Data Generation for Statistical Testing
Soltana, Ghanem UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 32nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE'17) (2017)

Usage-based statistical testing employs knowledge about the actual or anticipated usage profile of the system under test for estimating system reliability. For many systems, usage-based statistical ... [more ▼]

Usage-based statistical testing employs knowledge about the actual or anticipated usage profile of the system under test for estimating system reliability. For many systems, usage-based statistical testing involves generating synthetic test data. Such data must possess the same statistical characteristics as the actual data that the system will process during operation. Synthetic test data must further satisfy any logical validity constraints that the actual data is subject to. Targeting data-intensive systems, we propose an approach for generating synthetic test data that is both statistically representative and logically valid. The approach works by first generating a data sample that meets the desired statistical characteristics, without taking into account the logical constraints. Subsequently, the approach tweaks the generated sample to fix any logical constraint violations. The tweaking process is iterative and continuously guided toward achieving the desired statistical characteristics. We report on a realistic evaluation of the approach, where we generate a synthetic population of citizens' records for testing a public administration IT system. Results suggest that our approach is scalable and capable o [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 167 (14 UL)
See detailSyriana.
Pause, Johannes UL

in Wulff, Hans Jürgen; Koebner, Thomas (Eds.) Filmgenres: Thriller. (2013)

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See detailSYSGENET: a meeting report from a new European network for systems genetics
Schughart, K.; Arends, D.; Andreux, P. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (2010), 21(7-8), 331-6

The first scientific meeting of the newly established European SYSGENET network took place at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig, April 7-9, 2010. About 50 researchers ... [more ▼]

The first scientific meeting of the newly established European SYSGENET network took place at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig, April 7-9, 2010. About 50 researchers working in the field of systems genetics using mouse genetic reference populations (GRP) participated in the meeting and exchanged their results, phenotyping approaches, and data analysis tools for studying systems genetics. In addition, the future of GRP resources and phenotyping in Europe was discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA SysML-based Integration Framework for the Engineering of Mechatronic Systems
Chami, Muhammad; Seemüller, Holger; Voos, Holger UL

in IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronics and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA), Qingdao, China, 2010 (2010)

The engineering discipline mechatronics is one of the main innovation leader in industry nowadays. With the need for an optimal synergetic integration of the involved disciplines, the engineering process ... [more ▼]

The engineering discipline mechatronics is one of the main innovation leader in industry nowadays. With the need for an optimal synergetic integration of the involved disciplines, the engineering process of mechatronic systems is faced with an increasing complexity and the interdisciplinary nature of these systems. New methods and techniques have to be developed to deal with these challenges. This document presents an approach of a SysML-based integration framework that shall deal with the complexity and bring the different disciplines together for a better cooperation and collaboration. Therefore, SysML shall be used for the overall interdisciplinary system design and simultaniously act as a link between the heterogenous model data of the discipline specific tools. [less ▲]

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See detailSystem Design and Implementation Decisions for ParaMoise Organizational Model
Guzek, Mateusz UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proceedings of the 2013 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (2013, September)

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See detailSystem Evaluation of Optimal Downlink Beamforming in Wireless Communication
Stridh, Rickard; Bengtsson, Mats; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2001. VTC 2001 Fall. IEEE VTS 54th (2001)

We investigate the use of joint optimal downlink beamforming, power control and access point allocation, in a multicell SDMA system. Smart antennas are used at the access points and single antennas are ... [more ▼]

We investigate the use of joint optimal downlink beamforming, power control and access point allocation, in a multicell SDMA system. Smart antennas are used at the access points and single antennas are used at the terminals. The possibility to send messages to multiple terminals on the same frequency in the same time slot is exploited. An algorithm for removing users from a congested system, in order to avoid outage is proposed and evaluated Results show that the proposed algorithm gives substantial increase of the system performance compared to random removal of users. [less ▲]

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See detailSystem for navigating a planned procedure within a body
Gielen, F. L. H.; Hertel, Frank UL; Gemmar, P. et al

Report (2012)

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See detailThe System of Flows and the Re-Structuring of Space. Elements of a Geography of Distribution.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Erdkunde - wiss. Archiv für Geographie (2007), 61(1), 1-12

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See detailSystem reliability and weighted lattice polynomials
Dukhovny, Alexander; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences (2008), 22(3), 373-388

The lifetime of a system of connected units under some natural assumptions can be represented as a random variable Y defined as a weighted lattice polynomial of random lifetimes of its components. As such ... [more ▼]

The lifetime of a system of connected units under some natural assumptions can be represented as a random variable Y defined as a weighted lattice polynomial of random lifetimes of its components. As such, the concept of a random variable Y defined by a weighted lattice polynomial of (lattice-valued) random variables is considered in general and in some special cases. The central object of interest is the cumulative distribution function of Y. In particular, numerous results are obtained for lattice polynomials and weighted lattice polynomials in case of independent arguments and in general. For the general case, the technique consists in considering the joint probability generating function of "indicator" variables. A connection is studied between Y and order statistics of the set of arguments. [less ▲]

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See detailSystem Testing of Timing Requirements based on Use Cases and Timed Automata
Wang, Chunhui UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST 2017), Tokyo 13-18 March 2017 (2017, March 13)

In the context of use-case centric development and requirements-driven testing, this paper addresses the problem of automatically deriving system test cases to verify timing requirements. Inspired by ... [more ▼]

In the context of use-case centric development and requirements-driven testing, this paper addresses the problem of automatically deriving system test cases to verify timing requirements. Inspired by engineering practice in an automotive software development context, we rely on an analyzable form of use case specifications and augment such functional descriptions with timed automata, capturing timing requirements, following a methodology aiming at minimizing modeling overhead. We automate the generation of executable test cases using a test strategy based on maximizing test suite diversity and building over the UPPAAL model checker. Initial empirical results based on an industrial case study provide evidence of the effectiveness of the approach. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 293 (38 UL)