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See detailWorkers' Housing Estates and their Residents: Constructions of Space and Collective Constitution of the Subject.
Caregari, Laure UL

in Wille, Christian; Reckinger, Rachel; Kmec, Sonja (Eds.) et al Spaces and Identities in Border Regions. Politics – Media – Subjects. (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (7 UL)
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See detailWorking conditions indicative of work-related anger
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL

Scientific Conference (2016, July 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 UL)
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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence
Conway, A; Macnamara, B; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

in Alloway, T; Alloway, R. G. (Eds.) Working Memory the Connected Intelligence (2013)

We are on the cusp of a new revolution in intelligence that affects every aspect of our lives from work and relationships, to our childhood, education, and old age. Working Memory, the ability to remember ... [more ▼]

We are on the cusp of a new revolution in intelligence that affects every aspect of our lives from work and relationships, to our childhood, education, and old age. Working Memory, the ability to remember and mentally process information, is so important that without it we could not function as a society or as individuals. People with superior working memory tend to have better jobs, better relationships, and more happy and fulfilling lives. People with poor working memory struggle in their work, their personal lives, and are more likely to experience trouble with the law. But there is exciting evidence emerging: working memory can be trained, and, as a result, we can change our circumstances. But what works and what doesn’t? And can all of us benefit from working memory training? This book reviews cutting-edge scientific research and examines how working memory influences our lives, as well as the evidence on working memory training. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole; Conway, A

Poster (2009, November)

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and which aspect of working memory span tasks– short-term storage or controlled attention - might ... [more ▼]

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and which aspect of working memory span tasks– short-term storage or controlled attention - might drive the relationship. A sample of 119 children were followed from kindergarten to 2nd grade and completed assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, verbal short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. The results further showed that when the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children the executive demands rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence in young children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S; Conway, A

Scientific Conference (2011, July)

The study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory ... [more ▼]

The study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system - short-term storage or cognitive control - drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. 119 children were followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. When the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children cognitive control mechanisms rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (8 UL)
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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence in young children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Conway, A. R. A.; Gathercole, S. E.

in Intelligence (2010), 38(6), 552-561

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working ... [more ▼]

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system-short-term storage or cognitive control-drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. The results further showed that when the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children cognitive control mechanisms rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence: A multi-mechanism view
Conway, A. R. A.; Macnamara, B.; Getz, S. et al

in Sternberg, R; Kaufman, S (Eds.) Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (2011)

This volume provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date compendium of theory and research in the field of human intelligence. Each of the 42 chapters is written by world-renowned experts in their ... [more ▼]

This volume provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date compendium of theory and research in the field of human intelligence. Each of the 42 chapters is written by world-renowned experts in their respective fields, and collectively, they cover the full range of topics of contemporary interest in the study of intelligence. The handbook is divided into nine parts: Part I covers intelligence and its measurement; Part II deals with the development of intelligence; Part III discusses intelligence and group differences; Part IV concerns the biology of intelligence; Part V is about intelligence and information processing; Part VI discusses different kinds of intelligence; Part VII covers intelligence and society; Part VIII concerns intelligence in relation to allied constructs; and Part IX is the concluding chapter, which reflects on where the field is currently and where it still needs to go. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and language learning: A 4-year longitudinal study
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Poster (2009, October)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two working memory systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to children’s foreign language learning. A sample of 119 ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two working memory systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to children’s foreign language learning. A sample of 119 Luxembourgish children, whose native language is Luxembourgish and who learn German and French as secondary languages in school were assessed longitudinally over a 4-year time period. Children were tested in kindergarten (5 years of age), in first, second, and third grade with a one-year interval between each testing wave. Results indicate that individual differences in phonological loop functioning were causally related to foreign vocabulary development. One particular phonological loop measure - the repetition of low wordlike nonwords - was identified as the single best predictor of the acquisition of an unfamiliar foreign language up to two years later, suggesting that this measure may provide a valuable tool for early screening to identify children who are at present and future risk for foreign language learning difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and language: A latent variable longitudinal study
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S

Poster (2008, November)

The relationship between working memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills was explored longitudinally in children growing up in a multilingual society. A sample of 121 children from ... [more ▼]

The relationship between working memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills was explored longitudinally in children growing up in a multilingual society. A sample of 121 children from Luxembourg were followed from kindergarten to first grade, and completed multiple assessments of working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension, and reading. Relations between the measures were best characterized by a model consisting of two related but separable constructs—corresponding to verbal short-term memory and the central executive—that were distinct from phonological awareness. Assessments of verbal short-term memory in kindergarten significantly predicted vocabulary knowledge and comprehension in native and foreign languages 1 year later: Central executive and verbal short-term memory measures in kindergarten were significantly associated with reading in first grade, and phonological awareness did not predict any of the language constructs. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and learning
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Scientific Conference (2010, January)

This study presents the findings of a 3-wave, latent variable longitudinal study, exploring variations of working memory in children and its contributions to key domains of learning. A sample of 119 ... [more ▼]

This study presents the findings of a 3-wave, latent variable longitudinal study, exploring variations of working memory in children and its contributions to key domains of learning. A sample of 119 Luxembourgish children, learning German and French as secondary languages, were followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, phonological awareness, fluid intelligence, vocabulary, language comprehension, foreign language knowledge, reading, spelling, and mathematics. Results indicate that relations between the measures were best characterized by a model consisting of two related but separable constructs - corresponding to short-term storage and a central executive - that were highly stable across the years. Whereas verbal short-term memory was more specifically linked to vocabulary, the central executive supported learning in a wide range of learning domains, including language comprehension, literacy, and mathematics. The findings suggest that verbal short-term memory is one of the main contributors to vocabulary development by supporting the formation of stable phonological representations of new words in longterm memory. The central executive in contrast makes general rather then specific contributions to learning - possibly in terms of an attentional control system that actively maintains crucial information and regulates controlling processes during complex cognitive activities. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and learning
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Presentation (2010, June)

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See detailWorking Memory and Learning A 3-Year Longitudinal Study of Children Growing Up In a Multilingual Environment
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Doctoral thesis (2009)

This thesis presents the findings of a 3-wave, latent variable longitudinal study, exploring variations and the development of working memory in young children and its contributions to learning in the key ... [more ▼]

This thesis presents the findings of a 3-wave, latent variable longitudinal study, exploring variations and the development of working memory in young children and its contributions to learning in the key domains of language, literacy, and mathematics. A sample of 119 Luxembourgish children, learning German and French as secondary languages, were followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, phonological awareness, fluid intelligence, vocabulary, language comprehension, foreign language knowledge, reading, spelling, and mathematics. Results indicate that relations between the measures were best characterized by a model consisting of two related but separable constructs - corresponding to shortterm storage and a central executive - that were highly stable across the years. Whereas verbal short-term memory was more specifically linked to early language development and vocabulary in particular, the central executive appeared to support learning in a wide range of domains, including language comprehension, literacy, and mathematics. The findings reinforce previous evidence indicating that verbal short-term memory is one of the main contributors to vocabulary development by supporting the formation of stable phonological representations of new words in long-term memory. Furthermore, the findings fit well with the position that the central executive makes general rather then specific contributions to learning - possibly in terms of an attentional control system that actively maintains crucial information and regulates controlling processes during complex cognitive activities. In conclusion, the findings indicate that different components of the working memory system can be reliably assessed in children as young as 5; that individual differences in these abilities are highly stable over time; and that working memory assessments are predictive of future learning in key academic domains. This reinforces the value of early screening of working memory abilities to identify children who are at a present and future educational risk. [less ▲]

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See detailWORKING MEMORY AND LEARNING: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF TRILINGUAL CHILDREN
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Scientific Conference (2009, August)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two working memory systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to children’s learning in the areas of vocabulary, language ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two working memory systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to children’s learning in the areas of vocabulary, language comprehension, reading, spelling, mathematical skills, and foreign language acquisition. The term working memory refers to the ability to store and manipulate information in mind for a brief period of time, in the course of ongoing cognitive activities (Baddeley, 2000). A sample of 119 Luxembourgish children, learning German and French as secondary languages were assessed longitudinally over a 3-year time period. In Luxembourg, children learn to speak, read, and write in two languages that are different from their native language Luxembourgish. A battery of working memory, and learning ability tests were administered. Children were tested in kindergarten (5 years of age), in first, and in second grade with a one year interval between each testing wave. Multiple assessments of each construct made it possible to construct latent variables, and apply structural equation modeling techniques to explore the underlying theoretical structure of working memory in young children, and possible links with learning. Results indicate that relations between the working memory measures were best characterized by a model consisting of two related but separable constructs corresponding to the phonological loop and the central executive. Individual differences in phonological loop functioning and the central executive were found to be remarkably stable from kindergarten through second grade. The data further showed that both memory components were differentially associated with learning: Whereas the phonological loop was more specifically linked to early language development and vocabulary in particular, the central executive appeared to make more general contributions to classroom related learning. The findings lend strong support to the position that the phonological loop is one of the main contributors to new word learning in both native and non-native languages by supporting the formation of stable phonological representations of new words in long-term memory. Furthermore the findings fit well with the position that the central executive might play an important role in the monitoring and processing of information during complex and demanding activities present in many classroom situations. In conclusion, the presented evidence of (a) the stability of individual differences in young children’s working memory capacity and, (b) causal relations of working memory with learning reinforces the value of early screening of working memory abilities to identify children who are at risk of poor academic progress over the coming years. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and learning: Evidence from a population of trilingual children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole, S

Poster (2009, April)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two working memory systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to children’s learning in the areas of vocabulary, language ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two working memory systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to children’s learning in the areas of vocabulary, language comprehension, reading, writing, mathematical skills, and foreign language acquisition. The term working memory refers to the ability to store and manipulate information in mind for a brief period of time, in the course of ongoing cognitive activities (Baddeley, 2000). A sample of 119 Luxembourgish children, learning German and French as secondary languages were assessed longitudinally over a 3-year time period. In Luxembourg, children learn to speak, read, and write in 2 languages that are different from their native language Luxembourgish. A battery of working memory, native and foreign language tests was administered. Mathematical ability was assessed via a teacher assessment questionnaire. Children were tested in Kindergarten (5 years of age), in 1st, and in 2nd grade with a one year interval between each testing wave. Multiple assessments of each construct made it possible to construct latent variables, and apply structural equation modeling techniques to explore the underlying theoretical structure of working memory in young children, and possible links with learning. Results indicate that relations between the working memory measures were best characterized by a model consisting of two related but separable constructs – corresponding to the phonological loop and the central executive. Examination of the correlation estimates between each construct with itself across the three measurement occasions revealed that individual differences in phonological loop and central executive are remarkably stable from Kindergarten through second grade. The data further showed that assessments of the phonological loop in Kindergarten were strongly associated with vocabulary knowledge and comprehension in native and foreign languages in 1st and 2nd grade and manifested a weaker, but significant, relationship with reading, writing, and mathematics up to two years later. Central executive in Kindergarten significantly predicted reading in 1st grade. The findings lend strong support to the position that the phonological loop is one of the main contributors to new word learning in both native and non-native languages by supporting the formation of stable phonological representations of new words in longterm memory. Phonological loop processing also seems to play a significant role in the syntactic comprehension of sentences. The heard material might be kept active in the phonological loop while the child is listening to the sentence and processing it for comprehension. Finally, working memory appears to make significant contributions to reading, writing, and mathematic skills. Literacy and math classroom activities often impose heavy demands on working memory, the capacity of which therefore might have a direct effect on the frequency of task failure or success in these classroom activities. In conclusion, the presented evidence of (a) the stability of individual differences in young children’s working memory capacity and, (b) causal relations of working memory with learning reinforces the value of early screening of working memory abilities to identify children who are at risk of poor academic progress over the coming years. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (1 UL)
See detailWorking memory in 5-to-7 year-old children: Its structure and relationship to fluid intelligence
Hornung, Caroline; Brunner, Martin UL; Reuter, Bob UL et al

Scientific Conference (2011, August 24)

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on how strongly WM components are related to higher order thinking skills such as fluid intelligence (GF). However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the theories and findings derived from adult data generalize to children. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate WM in 5-to-7-year-old children (N = 161). Specifically, we examined different structural models of WM and how its components, as defined in these models, are related to GF. Our results suggest that children draw on both domain- general and domain-specific processes when performing memory span. Crucially, our findings indicate that domain-general processes result in a core storage capacity that primarily explains the relationship between WM and GF. Based on these observations we discuss the theoretical and methodological issues that arise when children’s WM is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory in multilingual children: Is there a bilingual effect?
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

in Memory (2011), 19(5), 529-537

This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that bilinguals might exhibit more efficient working memory abilities than monolinguals, potentially via the opportunity a bilingual environment provides to train cognitive control by combating interference and intrusions from the non-target language. A total of 44 bilingual and monolingual children, matched on age, sex, and socioeconomic status, completed assessments of working memory (simple span and complex span tasks), fluid intelligence, and language (vocabulary and syntax). The data showed that the monolinguals performed significantly better on the language measures across the years, whereas no language group effect emerged on the working memory and fluid intelligence tasks after verbal abilities were considered. The study suggests that the need to manage several language systems in the bilingual mind has an impact on children's language skills while having little effects on the development of working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory screening, school context, and socioeconomic status: An analysis of the effectiveness of the Working Memory Rating Scale in Brazil
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Nikaedo, C.; Abreu, N. et al

in Journal of Attention Disorders (2014), 18(4), 301-311

Objective: The study explores the psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS-Br) in a population of 355 young children from diverse socioeconomic ... [more ▼]

Objective: The study explores the psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS-Br) in a population of 355 young children from diverse socioeconomic status and schooling backgrounds. Method: Public and private school teachers completed the WMRS-Br and children were assessed on a range of objective cognitive measures of fluid intelligence, working memory, and attention. Results: Reliability and validity of the WMRS-Br were excellent across the public and private school sample. The WMRS-Br manifested substantial links with objective measures of working memory and medium links with selective attention, switching, and interference suppression. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that a shorter version of the scale provides an adequate fit to the data. Conclusion: The WMRS-Br represents a valid screening tool in a Latin American context that has the potential to improve the early detection of working memory deficits in children growing up in poverty. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory, executive functions, language, and socio-economic status - A Latent Variable Study of Children From Brazil
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Nikaedo, C; Abreu, N et al

Scientific Conference (2011, July)

This study explores the underlying factor structure of executive functions, working memory, and language in young children from a range of social backgrounds. A particular interest was to investigate the ... [more ▼]

This study explores the underlying factor structure of executive functions, working memory, and language in young children from a range of social backgrounds. A particular interest was to investigate the effect of socioeconomic status on the identified factor structure and to explore whether potential links might be mediated by stimulation in the home and/or nutritional status. A population of 400, six- and eight-year-olds, completed multiple measures of working memory, short-term memory, response inhibition, conflict resolution, focused attention, fluid intelligence, and language. Socioeconomic status was indexed by the education and occupation of the caregivers and household income. Anthropometrical assessments were conducted to establish nutritional status; Environmental stimulation was explored via interviews conducted with the caregivers. The results contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive functions in childhood and their link with related cognitive systems. They also contribute to an increased understanding of the relationship between poverty and cognitive achievement. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (5 UL)