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See detailA Syntactic-Semantic Approach to Incremental Verification
Bianculli, Domenico UL; Filieri, Antonio; Ghezzi, Carlo et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Software verification of evolving systems is challenging mainstream methodologies and tools. Formal verification techniques often conflict with the time constraints imposed by change management practices ... [more ▼]

Software verification of evolving systems is challenging mainstream methodologies and tools. Formal verification techniques often conflict with the time constraints imposed by change management practices for evolving systems. Since changes in these systems are often local to restricted parts, an incremental verification approach could be beneficial. This paper introduces SiDECAR, a general framework for the definition of verification procedures, which are made incremental by the framework itself. Verification procedures are driven by the syntactic structure (defined by a grammar) of the system and encoded as semantic attributes associated with the grammar. Incrementality is achieved by coupling the evaluation of semantic attributes with an incremental parsing technique. We show the application of SiDECAR to the definition of two verification procedures: probabilistic verification of reliability requirements and verification of safety properties. [less ▲]

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See detailSyntactic-Semantic Incrementality for Agile Verification
Bianculli, Domenico UL; Filieri, Antonio; Ghezzi, Carlo et al

in Science of Computer Programming (2015), 97(0), 47-54

Modern software systems are continuously evolving, often because systems requirements change over time. Responding to requirements changes is one of the principles of agile methodologies. In this paper we ... [more ▼]

Modern software systems are continuously evolving, often because systems requirements change over time. Responding to requirements changes is one of the principles of agile methodologies. In this paper we envision the seamless integration of automated verification techniques within agile methodologies, thanks to the support for incrementality. Incremental verification accommodates the changes that occur within the schedule of frequent releases of software agile processes. We propose a general approach to developing families of verifiers that can support incremental verification for different kinds of artifacts and properties. The proposed syntactic-semantic approach is rooted in operator precedence grammars and their support for incremental parsing. Incremental verification procedures are encoded as attribute grammars, whose incremental evaluation goes hand in hand with incremental parsing. [less ▲]

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See detailSyntax-driven program verification of matching logic properties.
Bianculli, Domenico UL; Filieri, Antonio; Ghezzi, Carlo et al

in Proceedings of the 3rd FME Workshop on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (FormaliSE 2015) (2015, May)

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See detailSynthèse (rapport de synthèse au colloque tenu à Nantes en mars 2011)
Prüm, André UL

in Nurit-Pontier, Laure; Rousseau, Stéphane (Eds.) Risques d’entreprise : quelle stratégie juridique ?, 384 pages (2012)

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See detailSynthèse de l'évaluation du Girls' and Boys' Day 2008
Blond-Hanten, Carole; Schumacher, Anette UL

Report (2008)

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See detailSynthesis and assessment of the public debate on the reform of the CAP after 2013
Klump, Rainer UL; Rutz, Cordula; Schramek, Jorg et al

Book published by Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft (2013)

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See detailSynthesis and biological activity of diaryl ether inhibitors of malarial enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase. Part 2: 2'-substituted triclosan derivatives.
Freundlich, Joel S.; Yu, Min; Lucumi Moreno, Edinson UL et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2006), 16(8), 2163-9

2'-Substituted analogs of triclosan have been synthesized to target inhibition of the key malarial enzyme Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR). Many of these compounds ... [more ▼]

2'-Substituted analogs of triclosan have been synthesized to target inhibition of the key malarial enzyme Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR). Many of these compounds exhibit good potency (EC50<500 nM) against in vitro cultures of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of the P. falciparum parasite and modest (IC50=1-20 microM) potency against purified PfENR enzyme. Compared to triclosan, this survey of 2'-substituted derivatives has afforded gains in excess of 20- and 30-fold versus the 3D7 and Dd2 strains of parasite, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layers by an electrdeposition-annealing route
Scragg, Jonathan J.; Dale, Phillip UL; Peter, Laurence M.

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 517(7), 2481-2484

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of CuZnSnS4 absorber layers by an electrodeposition-annealing route
Scragg, Jonathan J.; Dale, Phillip UL; Peter, L. M.

in Thin Solid Films (2009)

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of uniaxial ferrogels with Ni nanorods as magnetic phase
Bender, Philipp; Günther, Annegret UL; Tschöpe, Andreas et al

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2011), 323

In the present study, the rotation of magnetic nanorods in a soft hydrogel matrix induced by a homogeneous magnetic field is investigated. Magnetic nanorods of ≈151.2 nm length and ≈17.7 nm diameter are ... [more ▼]

In the present study, the rotation of magnetic nanorods in a soft hydrogel matrix induced by a homogeneous magnetic field is investigated. Magnetic nanorods of ≈151.2 nm length and ≈17.7 nm diameter are synthesized via current-pulsed electrodeposition of nickel into porous aluminum oxide-templates. The nanorods are processed towards a stable colloidal dispersion by dissolution of the alumina template in aqueous NaOH to which PVP (polyvinyl-pyrrolidone) is added as surfactant. These suspensions are used to prepare gelatine-based ferrogels of different shear modulus with either isotropic or uniaxial orientation-distribution of the nanorods. While magnetization measurements of rigid ferrogels mainly reflect the magnetic properties of the nickel nanorods, the magnetization behavior of soft ferrogels is significantly influenced by a field-induced rotation of the nickel nanorods in the low compliant matrix. A particular analysis of magnetization measurements on uniaxial ferrogels enables to quantify the rotation angle of the nanorods with respect to their initial orientation under the influence of a transversal homogeneous magnetic field. The analysis of the field-dependent rotation also allows to estimate the local shear modulus of the matrix which is demonstrated by an investigation of room temperature ageing process of the ferrogel. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt nanocubes
Gräf, C. P.; Birringer, R.; Michels, Andreas UL

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2006), 73(21), 2124011-2124014

We report on the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles with cubic shape. The nanoparticles with an average cube-edge length of about 50 nm were prepared by wet-chemical ... [more ▼]

We report on the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles with cubic shape. The nanoparticles with an average cube-edge length of about 50 nm were prepared by wet-chemical processing and characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and magnetometry. The x-ray data indicate a mixture of hcp Co and ϵ-Co. From the magnetization measurements we deduce on the presence of a ferromagnet/antiferromagnet Co/CoO interface, which gives rise to a pronounced exchange-bias effect. Between 350 K and 5 K the coercivity HC increases by almost a factor of 6, whereas the exchange-bias field HE takes on a value of about 380 Oe at 5 K and vanishes above 75 K. The variation of HC with temperature cannot be understood in terms of the various conventional types of magnetic anisotropy. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and magnetic properties of Ta/NdFeB-based composite microwires
Szary, Philipp; Luciu, Ioana; Duday, David et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2015), 117

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See detailSynthesis of a nanorod ferrofluid and characterisation by magnetic-field-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering
Döbrich, Frank UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Birringer, R.

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2007), 316(e), 779-782

Compared to conventional ferrofluids, which contain mostly spherical particles, a dispersion of highly anisometric particles such as rods or chains is expected to give rise to an enhancement or ... [more ▼]

Compared to conventional ferrofluids, which contain mostly spherical particles, a dispersion of highly anisometric particles such as rods or chains is expected to give rise to an enhancement or modification of well-known ferrofluid properties. This contribution reports on the synthesis of a ferrofluid containing stable chains of iron nanoparticles and on its microstructural characterisation by means of transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS measurements develop a pronounced anisotropy of the scattering pattern as a function of an increasing external magnetic field. Evaluation of the radially averaged SAXS curves in terms of basic scattering functions is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of folate- pegylated polyester nanoparticles encapsulating ixabepilone for targeting folate receptor overexpressing breast cancer cells
Siafaka, P.; Betsiou, M.; Tsolou, A. et al

in Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (2015), 26(12), 1-14

Abstract: The aim of this study was the preparation of novel polyester nanoparticles based on folic acid (FA)–functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(propylene succinate) (PEG–PPSu) copolymer and loaded ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The aim of this study was the preparation of novel polyester nanoparticles based on folic acid (FA)–functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(propylene succinate) (PEG–PPSu) copolymer and loaded with the new anticancer drug ixabepilone (IXA). These nanoparticles may serve as a more selective (targeted) treatment of breast cancer tumors overexpressing the folate receptor. The synthesized materials were characterized by 1H-NMR, FTIR, XRD and DSC. The nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsification and solvent evaporation method and characterized with regard to their morphology by scanning electron microscopy, drug loading with HPLC–UV and size by dynamic light scattering. An average size of 195 nm and satisfactory drug loading efficiency (3.5 %) were observed. XRD data indicated that IXA was incorporated into nanoparticles in amorphous form. The nanoparticles exhibited sustained drug release properties in vitro. Based on in vitro cytotoxicity studies, the blank FA–PEG–PPSu nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic to the cells. Fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by conjugating Rhodanine B to PEG–PPSu, and live cell, fluorescence, confocal microscopy was applied in order to demonstrate the ability of FA–PEG–PPSu nanoparticles to enter into human breast cancer cells expressing the folate receptor. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of trigonal selenium nanorods by electrodeposition from an ionic liquid at high temperature
Steichen, Marc UL; Dale, Phillip UL

in Electrochemistry Communications (2011), 13(8), 865-868

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See detailSynthesis, biological activity, and X-ray crystal structural analysis of diaryl ether inhibitors of malarial enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase. Part 1: 4'-substituted triclosan derivatives.
Freundlich, Joel S.; Anderson, John W.; Sarantakis, Dimitri et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2005), 15(23), 5247-52

A structure-based approach has been taken to develop 4'-substituted analogs of triclosan that target the key malarial enzyme Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR). Many of ... [more ▼]

A structure-based approach has been taken to develop 4'-substituted analogs of triclosan that target the key malarial enzyme Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR). Many of these compounds exhibit nanomolar potency against purified PfENR enzyme and modest (2-10microM) potency against in vitro cultures of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of the P. falciparum parasite. X-ray crystal structures of nitro 29, aniline 30, methylamide 37, and urea 46 demonstrate the presence of hydrogen-bonding interactions with residues in the active site and point to future rounds of optimization to improve compound potency against purified enzyme and intracellular parasites. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation of a magnetic cisplatin delivery nanosystem based on PMAA-graft-PEG copolymers
Voulgari, E.; Bakandritsos, A.; Galtsidis, Sotirios UL et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016), 243

The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We ... [more ▼]

The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We investigated different poly(methacrylic acid)-g-poly(ethyleneglycol methacrylate) polymers as in situ coating agents for magnetite nanocrystallites. The obtained magnetic nano-assemblies were in turn thoroughly characterized for their structural, colloidal and physicochemical properties (drug loading capacity/release, magnetic field triggered drug release, cell uptake and localization) in order to select the best performing system. With the focus on in vivo validation of such magnetic drug delivery systems for first time, we selected cisplatin as the drug, since it is a potent anticancer agent which exhibits serious side effects due to lack of selectivity. In addition, cisplatin would offer facile determination of the metal content in the animal tissues for biodistribution studies. Alongside post-mortem Pt determination in the tissues, the biodistribution of the drug nanocarriers was also monitored in real time with PET-CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) with and without the presence of magnetic field gradients; using a novel chelator-free method, the nanoparticles were radiolabeled with 68Ga without having to alter their structure with chemical modifications for conjugation of radiochelators. The ability to be radiolabeled in such a straightforward but very robust way, along with their measured high MRI response, renders them attractive for dual imaging, which is an important functionality for translational investigations. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo, in a cisplatin resistant HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma model, with and without the presence of magnetic field gradients. Enhanced anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity was recorded for the cisplatin-loaded nanocarriers in comparison to the free cisplatin, particularly when a magnetic field gradient was applied at the tumor site. Post mortem and real-time tissue distribution studies did not reveal increased cisplatin concentration in the tumor site, suggesting that the enhanced anticancer efficacy of the cisplatin-loaded nanocarriers is driven by mechanisms other than increased cisplatin accumulation in the tumors. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, Characterization, and Electronic Structure of Single-Crystal SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2
Burton, Lee A.; Colombara, Diego UL; Abellon, Ruben D. et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2013), 25(24), 4908-4916

Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization ... [more ▼]

Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization of the single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material. We show that the coexistence of the Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states would limit the performance of SnS in photovoltaic devices due to the valence band alignment of the respective phases and the ''asymmetry'' in the underlying point defect behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that Sn2S3, in addition to SnS, is a candidate material for low-cost thin-film solar cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe synthetic cannabinoids phenomenon
Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, L et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2016), 22(42), 6420-6425

« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids ... [more ▼]

« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at this period Health professionals should take into account that limited scientific evidence is available regarding the effect of synthetic cannabinoids use in humans. It thus urges to launch more systematic epidemiological studies, to develop and validate screening procedures, and to investigate the neurobiological and psychological correlates and risk factors associated to synthetic cannabinoids use and misuse. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthetic Data Generation for Statistical Testing
Soltana, Ghanem UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 32nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2017) (2017)

Usage-based statistical testing employs knowledge about the actual or anticipated usage profile of the system under test for estimating system reliability. For many systems, usage-based statistical ... [more ▼]

Usage-based statistical testing employs knowledge about the actual or anticipated usage profile of the system under test for estimating system reliability. For many systems, usage-based statistical testing involves generating synthetic test data. Such data must possess the same statistical characteristics as the actual data that the system will process during operation. Synthetic test data must further satisfy any logical validity constraints that the actual data is subject to. Targeting data-intensive systems, we propose an approach for generating synthetic test data that is both statistically representative and logically valid. The approach works by first generating a data sample that meets the desired statistical characteristics, without taking into account the logical constraints. Subsequently, the approach tweaks the generated sample to fix any logical constraint violations. The tweaking process is iterative and continuously guided toward achieving the desired statistical characteristics. We report on a realistic evaluation of the approach, where we generate a synthetic population of citizens' records for testing a public administration IT system. Results suggest that our approach is scalable and capable o [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 129 (6 UL)