References of "The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMultiagent Deontic Logic and its Challenges from a Normative Systems Perspective
Pigozzi, Gabriella; van der Torre, Leon UL

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

This article gives an overview of several challenges studied in deontic logic, with an emphasis on challenges involving agents. We start with traditional modal deontic logic using preferences to address ... [more ▼]

This article gives an overview of several challenges studied in deontic logic, with an emphasis on challenges involving agents. We start with traditional modal deontic logic using preferences to address the challenge of contrary-toduty reasoning, and STIT theory addressing the challenges of non-deterministic actions, moral luck and procrastination. Then we turn to alternative normbased deontic logics detaching obligations from norms to address the challenge of Jørgensen’s dilemma, including the question how to derive obligations from a normative system when agents cannot assume that other agents comply with their norms. We discuss also some traditional challenges from the viewpoint of normative systems: when a set of norms may be termed ‘coherent’, how to deal with normative conflicts, how to combine normative systems and traditional deontic logic, how various kinds of permission can be accommodated, how meaning postulates and counts-as conditionals can be taken into account,how sets of norms may be revised and merged, and how normative systems can be combined with game theory. The normative systems perspective means that norms, not ideality or preference, should take the central position in deontic semantics, and that a semantics that represents norms explicitly provides a helpful tool for analysing, clarifying and solving the problems of deontic logic. We focus on the challenges rather than trying to give full coverage of related work, for which we refer to the handbook of deontic logic and normative systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (10 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetachment in Normative Systems: Examples, inference Patterns, Properties
Parent, Xavier UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017), 4(9), 2295-3039

There is a variety of ways to reason with normative systems. This partly reflects a variety of semantics developed for deontic logic, such as traditional semantics based on possible worlds, or alternative ... [more ▼]

There is a variety of ways to reason with normative systems. This partly reflects a variety of semantics developed for deontic logic, such as traditional semantics based on possible worlds, or alternative semantics based on algebraic methods, explicit norms or techniques from non-monotonic logic. This diversity raises the question how these reasoning methods are related, and which reasoning method should be chosen for a particular application. In this paper we discuss the use of examples, inference patterns, and more abstract properties. First, benchmark examples can be used to compare ways to reason with normative systems. We give an overview of several benchmark examples of normative reasoning and deontic logic: van Fraassen’s paradox, Forrester’s paradox, Prakken and Sergot’s cottage regulations, Jeffrey’s disarmament example, Chisholm’s paradox, Makinson’s Möbius strip, and Horty’s priority examples. Moreover, we distinguish various interpretations that can be given to these benchmark examples, such as consistent interpretations, dilemma interpretations, and violability interpretations. Second, inference patterns can be used to compare different ways to reason with normative systems. Instead of analysing the benchmark examples semantically, as it is usually done, in this paper we use inference patterns to analyse them at a higher level of abstraction. We discuss inference patterns reflecting typical logical properties such as strengthening of the antecedent or weakening of the consequent. Third, more abstract properties can be defined to compare different ways to reason with normative systems. To define these more abstract properties, we first present a formal framework around the notion of detachment. Some of the ten properties we introduce are derived from the inference patterns, but others are more abstract: factual detachment, violation detection, substitution, replacements of equivalents, implication, para-consistency, conjunction, factual monotony, norm monotony, and norm induction. We consider these ten properties as desirable for a reasoning method for normative systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 153 (24 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHandling Norms in Multi-Agent System by Means of Formal Argumentation
Peirera, Célia da Costa; Tettamanzi, Andrea G. B.; Villata, Serena et al

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

Formal argumentation is used to enrich and analyse normative multi-agent systems in various ways. In this chapter, we discuss three examples from the literature of handling norms by means of formal ... [more ▼]

Formal argumentation is used to enrich and analyse normative multi-agent systems in various ways. In this chapter, we discuss three examples from the literature of handling norms by means of formal argumentation. First, we discuss how existing ways to resolve conflicts among norms using priorities can be represented in formal argumentation, by showing that the so-called Greedy and Reduction approaches can be represented using the weakest and the last link principles respectively. Based on such representation results, formal argumentation can be used to explain the detachment of obligations and permissions from hierarchical normative systems in a new way. Second, we discuss how formal argumentation can be used as a general theory for developing new approaches for normative reasoning, using a dynamic ASPIC-based legal argumentation theory. We show how existing logics of normative systems can be used to analyse such new argumentation systems. Third, we show how argumentation can be used to reason about other challenges in the area of normative multiagent systems as well, by discussing a model for arguing about legal interpretation. In particular, we show how fuzzy logic combined with formal argumentation can be used to reason about the adoption of graded categories and thus address the problem of open texture in normative interpretation. Our aim to discuss these three examples is to inspire new applications of formal argumentation to the challenges of normative reasoning in multiagent systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (10 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Principle-Based Approach to Abstract Argumentation Semantics
van der Torre, Leon UL; Vesic, Srdjan

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

The principle-based or axiomatic approach is a methodology to choose an argumentation semantics for a particular application, and to guide the search for new argumentation semantics. This article gives a ... [more ▼]

The principle-based or axiomatic approach is a methodology to choose an argumentation semantics for a particular application, and to guide the search for new argumentation semantics. This article gives a complete classification of the fifteen main alternatives for argumentation semantics using the twenty-seven main principles discussed in the literature on abstract argumentation, extending Baroni and Giacomin’s original classification with other semantics and principles proposed in the literature. It also lays the foundations for a study of representation and (im)possibility results for abstract argumentation, and for a principle-based approach for extended argumentation such as bipolar frameworks, preference-based frameworks, abstract dialectical frameworks, weighted frameworks, and input/output frameworks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLogical Analysis of Cyber Vulnerability and Protection
David, Esther; Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Leshem, Guy et al

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

The growth in IoT will far exceed that of other connected devices. In contrast to the rapid assimilation of the IoT devices and interfaces, the technology that ensures these systems are safe and secure is ... [more ▼]

The growth in IoT will far exceed that of other connected devices. In contrast to the rapid assimilation of the IoT devices and interfaces, the technology that ensures these systems are safe and secure is left behind. The IoT safety, security and privacy is composed of several key aspects. Attention has already been given to vulnerabilities associated with networked systems as authentication and encryption. However there exist more vulnerabilities issues in IoT systems for which we aim to develop a detection methodology and propose possible solutions. Specifically, here we propose techniques for security verification of an IoT system that mainly involves inconsistency and vulnerability. The proposed methods are logic based techniques that were developed especially for the new challenges that the IoT environment is facing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReasoning under the Influence of Universal Distortion. Sex Offenders Case Study
Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Rozenberg, Gadi; Rivlin, Lydia

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

We define and study the phenomenon of a universal distortion into a reasoning system or an argumentation network. Such distortions can happen for various reasons, for instance under the influence of ... [more ▼]

We define and study the phenomenon of a universal distortion into a reasoning system or an argumentation network. Such distortions can happen for various reasons, for instance under the influence of alcohol or a fundamentalist religion, or as the result of a behavioural disorder such as paedophilia. We define the notion theoretically in the framework of abstract argumentation and present an actual case study of a sex offender. We then present a formal logical model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReasoning Schemes, Expert Opinions and Critical Questions. Sex Offenders Case Study
Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Rozenberg, Gadi

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

This paper examines in detail the argumentation features in the domain of sex offender with some applications to the scheme of “Argument from Expert Opinion". We build a model for reasoning schemes ... [more ▼]

This paper examines in detail the argumentation features in the domain of sex offender with some applications to the scheme of “Argument from Expert Opinion". We build a model for reasoning schemes, critical questions and expert opinion on the question of “the degree of risk of a sex offender". We discover that in order to properly model expert practice in this area we need to use numerical argumentation as well as the new notion of “Attack as Information Input". The model is generic and we believe is not restricted to the sex offence area of expertise. Our paper also offers a more detailed example for Walton’s argumentation scheme of Expert Opinion as well as a bridge between the argumentation community and the community dealing with sex offenders. We offer an introduction to the student on the subject of determining the degree of risk of sex offenders. We also look at standard international tools for determining the risk of sex offenders and see how the argumentation community can integrate these tools. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHEAL2100: Human Effective Argumentation and Logic for the 21st Century. The next Step in the Evolution of Logic
Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Rivlin, Lydia

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

This editorial is about weaponising the Fallacies, and offering them as active additional components to modern formal logic, thus forming the new evolutionary logic for the 21st Century. Logicians since ... [more ▼]

This editorial is about weaponising the Fallacies, and offering them as active additional components to modern formal logic, thus forming the new evolutionary logic for the 21st Century. Logicians since Aristotle considered the fallacies as wrong arguments which look correct but are not. They classified them into groups, discussed them and left them by the sidelines of logic as failures. Modern society, with the rise of the internet, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube showed the fallacies as most used and most effective in argumentation and debate. If this is the way humans reason and think then we need to develop the logical theory of the the use of the fallacies and legitimise them as a significant component of modern reasoning. This manifesto outlines our approach to the new logic of the 21st century which allows for the systematic use of the fallacies in argumentation and debate as practiced by people in the mass media. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImplicit dynamic function introduction and Ackermann-like Function Theory
Cramer, Marcos UL

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2017)

We discuss a feature of the natural language of mathematics – the implicit dynamic introduction of functions – that has, to our knowledge, not been captured in any formal system so far. If this feature is ... [more ▼]

We discuss a feature of the natural language of mathematics – the implicit dynamic introduction of functions – that has, to our knowledge, not been captured in any formal system so far. If this feature is used without limitations, it yields a paradox analogous to Russell’s paradox. Hence any formalism capturing it has to impose some limitations on it. We sketch two formalisms, both extensions of Dynamic Predicate Logic, that innovatively do capture this feature, and that differ only in the limitations they impose onto it. One of these systems is based on Ackermann-like Function Theory, a novel foundational theory of functions that is inspired by Ackermann Set Theory and that interprets ZFC. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTools for Conviviality in Multi-Context Systems
bikakis, Antonis; Caire, Patrice UL; Le Traon, Yves UL

in The IfCoLog Journal of Logics and their Applications (2014), 1(1),

A common feature of many distributed systems, including web social networks, peer-to-peer systems and Ambient Intelligence systems, is cooperation in terms of information exchange among heterogeneous ... [more ▼]

A common feature of many distributed systems, including web social networks, peer-to-peer systems and Ambient Intelligence systems, is cooperation in terms of information exchange among heterogeneous entities. In order to facilitate the exchange of information, we first need ways to evaluate it. The concept of conviviality was recently proposed for modeling and measuring cooperation among agents in multiagent systems. In this paper, we introduce conviviality as a property of Multi-Context Systems (MCS). We first present how to use conviviality to model and evaluate interactions among different contexts, which represent heterogeneous entities in a distributed system. Then, as one cause of logical conflicts in MCS is due to the exchange of information between mutually inconsistent contexts, we show how inconsistency can be resolved using the conviviality property. We illustrate our work with an example from web social networks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (2 UL)