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See detailDifferent load bearing mechanisms in headed stud shear connectors for composite beams with profiled steel sheeting
Vigneri, Valentino UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Lam, Dennis

in Steel Construction (2019), 12(3), 184-190

The current design rules of EN 1994-1-1 covering headed stud shear connectors for composite beams with profiled sheeting lead, in some cases, to an overestimation of the load bearing capacity. Owing to ... [more ▼]

The current design rules of EN 1994-1-1 covering headed stud shear connectors for composite beams with profiled sheeting lead, in some cases, to an overestimation of the load bearing capacity. Owing to their empirical nature, these equations are not able to capture the real behaviour of the connector. Therefore, the load bearing mechanisms of the shear connection are identified in this work with the support of experimental and numerical results. According to the static system proposed, the concrete rib is modelled as a system of diagonal struts in combination with the stud in bending. It was observed that at 1-4 mm slip, a 'strut and beam' mechanism prevails, where the resistance of the connector depends on the activation of the plastic hinges in the stud and on the capacity of the diagonal strut in front of it. By increasing the slip (approx. 4-10 mm), the surrounding concrete gradually crushes, while the tensile stresses at the edge of the rib reach the tensile strength of the material. Because of this loss of rotational stiffness, the bending moment in the stud decreases and the upper plastic hinge gradually moves towards the slab. At higher displacements (approx. 20-40 mm), high tensile forces develop in the stud due to non-linear geometric effects and the load is carried through a 'strut and tie' resistance mechanism, provided that the embedment of the stud is sufficient to prevent the rotation of the rib. As the slip increases further, failure occurs either in the form of concrete pull-out or stud rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean design code for composite structures in steel and concrete - Historical development and investigation in the second generation of Eurocode 4
Schäfer, Markus UL

in Steel Construction (2019), 12 (2019) Heft 2(02/2019), 70-81

The Eurocodes (EC) represent European norms (EN) for the design and construction of building and bridge structures. The development of these European design codes is carried out on behalf of the European ... [more ▼]

The Eurocodes (EC) represent European norms (EN) for the design and construction of building and bridge structures. The development of these European design codes is carried out on behalf of the European Union (EU) by the “European Committee for Standardization - CEN”. The Eurocodes have been in use for some years now. The motivation behind the development of the Eurocodes is the harmonization of the planning and design process for the structural components and construction elements of buildings and bridges all over Europe. Based on the experience gained through the use of the Eurocode conditions in recent years and many comments from industry, a revision of all parts of the Eurocode is currently in progress. The aim is to adapt the current design standards to the state of the art and research, to simplify the application and to harmonize the Eurocodes with each other. Finally, these modifications will be transferred to the second generation of European standards. An overview of the development phases and project teams is presented in this paper, accompanied by an insight into current standardization work and the technical discussions, mainly focusing on EN 1994-1-1. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical model to predict the resistance of the shear connection in composite beams with deep steel decking
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Nellinger, Sebastian UL

in Steel Construction (2017), 10(3), 248-253

The resistance of a typical shear connection with headed shear studs in a composite beam is analysed for the normal case in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The reducing effect of a trapezoidal metal decking ... [more ▼]

The resistance of a typical shear connection with headed shear studs in a composite beam is analysed for the normal case in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The reducing effect of a trapezoidal metal decking to the ultimate loadbearing capacity is considered with empirically derived reduction factors and equations that were developed between the late 1970s and early 1980s. The RFCS research project ”DISCCO“ investigated the shear stud resistance with novel types of steel decking. In many cases, the shear resistance predicted by EN 1994-1-1 was not reached in tests. In the respective experiments with composite beams and deep decking, a concrete cone failure mode was identified and not a pure shear failure of the stud. This failure mode acted in combination with the loadbearing capacity of the shear stud, which formed one or two plastic hinges in the shaft depending on the actual geometry. Based on these observations, new equations have been developed to predict the shear connection's resistance with more accuracy. The yield hinge mechanism of the shear stud, which was developed by Lungershausen, was extended by the aforementioned loadbearing component ”concrete cone“. The formulae consider the geometry of the stud and the steel decking and the material strength of the stud and the concrete. The statistical evaluation of the equations developed demonstrates good agreement with test results. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of single-span beams for SLS and ULS using semi-continuous beam-to-column joints. Part 2: Composite beams with variable bending stiffness and joints according to EN 1993-1-8
Duarte Da Costa, Job UL; Braun, Matthias Volker UL; Obiala, Renata UL et al

in Steel Construction (2017), 10(2),

The objective of this article is to facilitate the use of semi-continuous joints by providing ready-to-use tables and charts for design, which also permit the benefits accruing from the use of semi ... [more ▼]

The objective of this article is to facilitate the use of semi-continuous joints by providing ready-to-use tables and charts for design, which also permit the benefits accruing from the use of semi-continuous composite beams to be directly identified. The relevant features for the design of composite beams, such as bending moment distribution, maximum deflection and natural frequency, are derived analytically. The influence of semi-continuous steel joints on the performance of single-span composite beams is analysed. The article concludes with an example of the use of a new slim-floor beam type – the composite slim-floor beam (CoSFB). The tables and charts derived are applied in this example with the intention of demonstrating the advantages of using semi-continuous joints in combination with composite beams. The present article extends the design of semi-continuous steel beams presented in the previous article on this subject. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of single span beams in SLS and ULS using semi-continuous beam-to-column joints - Part 1: Beams with constant bending stiffness and joints according to EN 1993-1-8
Braun, Matthias Volker UL; Duarte Da Costa, Job UL; Obiala, Renata UL et al

in Steel Construction (2016), 9(1), 1-15

This article explains a method for determining how semi-continuous joints influence the deflection, natural frequency and bending moment distribution of single-span beams with constant inertia under ... [more ▼]

This article explains a method for determining how semi-continuous joints influence the deflection, natural frequency and bending moment distribution of single-span beams with constant inertia under uniformly distributed load. The method is adequate for simple hand calculations, allowing the structural engineer to assess potential savings already in the pre-design phase. Further, the economical potential of semi-continuous joints according to EN 1993-1-8 is demonstrated by an application example. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of hybrid steel-glass beams with adhesive silicone shear connection
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Dias, Vincent UL

in Steel Construction (2016), 9(3), 207-221

Glass is used in current construction applications mostly as a façade element, its structural role being only rarely exploited, despite its significant resistance to in-plane compression. A steel-glass ... [more ▼]

Glass is used in current construction applications mostly as a façade element, its structural role being only rarely exploited, despite its significant resistance to in-plane compression. A steel-glass composite beam was built to investigate a hybrid steel-glass assembly and its loadbearing behaviour. To fulfil this objective, the existing types of steel-glass connection were evaluated, which allowed the possibilities offered by adhesive jointing to be highlighted. The selection of the adhesive, detailed in the present article, constituted a crucial aspect. An excessively soft connection does not transfer the shear loads between the glass and steel adherends, whereas an excessively stiff connection leads to failure of the glass. A two-component structural silicone was chosen and its properties were assessed with the help of an intensive test programme. As a result of this programme, a new quasi-incompressible hyperelastic material law was developed in order to represent the silicone elastomer behaviour. Numerical simulations were conducted in parallel to large-scale four-point bending tests on the adhesively bonded steel-glass composite beams. The aims were, on the one hand, to assess the bending stiffness of the steel-glass composite beam and, on the other, to validate the numerical simulations to conduct parametric studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyses of the loadbearing behaviour of deep-embedded concrete dowels, CoSFB
Braun, Matthias; Obiala, Renata UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL

in Steel Construction (2015), 8(3), 167-173

The development of the “CoSFB-Betondübel” is presented in this paper. The “CoSFB-Betondübel” is a deep-embedded concrete dowel connecting in situ concrete with a steel section to assure composite action ... [more ▼]

The development of the “CoSFB-Betondübel” is presented in this paper. The “CoSFB-Betondübel” is a deep-embedded concrete dowel connecting in situ concrete with a steel section to assure composite action and thus allow for composite beam design. The loadbearing behaviour and parameters influencing this behaviour were determined through experimental tests. Special focus was given to the influence of the ratio of the resistance of the concrete dowel to the concrete compression class. The evaluation of the results concluded in a National Technical Approval [1]. Further investigations were performed via FE analysis in ABAQUS. Further, 3D models with non-linear material and geometry were prepared and validation undertaken. In addition, a real application example of CoSFB is shown. [less ▲]

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