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See detailMinimum Wages and the Gender Gap in Pay: New Evidence from the United Kingdom and Ireland
Bargain, Olivier; Doorley, Karina; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (in press)

Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the ... [more ▼]

Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the change in the gender wage gap around the introduction of minimum wages in Ireland and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Using survey data for the two countries, we develop a decomposition of the change in the gender differences in wage distributions around the date of introduction of minimum wages. We separate out “price” effects attributed to minimum wages from “employment composition” effects. A significant reduction of the gender gap at low wages is observed after the introduction of the minimum wage in Ireland, while there is hardly any change in the U.K. Counterfactual simulations show that the difference between countries may be attributed to gender differences in non‐compliance with the minimum wage legislation in the U.K. [less ▲]

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See detailPro-Poorness Orderings
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa

in Review of Income and Wealth (in press)

An indicator of pro-poorness of a growth profile associated with a distribution of income is a measure of the extent to which growth is biased towards the poor. This paper proposes a general approach to ... [more ▼]

An indicator of pro-poorness of a growth profile associated with a distribution of income is a measure of the extent to which growth is biased towards the poor. This paper proposes a general approach to pro-poorness, called the progressive sequential averaging principle (PSA), relaxing the requirement of rank preservation due to growth. An endogenous benchmark for evaluating the growth of poor comes out naturally from this principle. A dominance relation on the basis of the above approach for a class of growth profiles is introduced through a simple device, called the PSA curve and its properties are examined in relation to the standard dominances in terms of the generalized Lorenz curve and the inverse generalized Lorenz curve. The paper concludes with an application to evaluate growth profiles experienced by the United States between 2001-2007 and 2007-2013. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring and accounting for the deprivation gap of Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg
Hildebrand, Vincent A.; Pi Alperin, Maria Noel; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (2017), 63(2), 288-309

This paper examines the relative well-being of Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg by looking at indicators of material deprivation. We document material deprivation differences between immigrants and ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the relative well-being of Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg by looking at indicators of material deprivation. We document material deprivation differences between immigrants and nationals---the `deprivation gap'---and measure the extent to which income differentials (and other sociodemographic differences) explain this gap using a combination of non-parametric methods and a versatile graphical device. We find a large and significant deprivation gap against Portuguese immigrants, whatever the indicator considered. The extent to which the gap is merely a reflection of differences in income, however, depends on what deprivation items are taken into consideration. Income differences almost fully account for material deprivation differences when the latter is measured using the items included in the official EU social indicator of material deprivation. Inclusion of housing condition indicators mitigates this relationship and we then find compelling evidence that the deprivation gap is not entirely accounted for by income differentials. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Intensity and Shape of Inequality: The ABG Method of Distributional Analysis
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (2016), 62(1), 5268

Inequality is anisotropic: its intensity varies by income level. We here develop a new tool, the isograph, to focus on local inequality and illustrate these variations. This method yields three ... [more ▼]

Inequality is anisotropic: its intensity varies by income level. We here develop a new tool, the isograph, to focus on local inequality and illustrate these variations. This method yields three coefficients which summarize the shape of inequality: a main coefficient, Alpha, which measures inequality at the median, and two correction coefficients, Beta and Gamma, which pick up any differential curvature at the top and bottom of the distribution. The analysis of a set of 232 microdata samples from 41 different countries in the LIS datacenter archive allows us to provide a systematic overview of the properties of the ABG (Alpha Beta Gamma) coefficients, which are compared both to a set of standard indices (Atkinson indices, generalized entropy, Wolfson polarization, etc.) and the GB2 distribution. This method also provides a smoothing tool that reveals the differences in the shape of distributions (the strobiloid) and how these have changed over time. [less ▲]

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See detailThe distributional incidence of growth: a social welfare approach
Palmisano, Flaviana UL; Peragine, Vito

in Review of Income and Wealth (2015), 61(3), 440-464

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See detailThe Distribution of Economic Insecurity: Italy and the USA over the Great Recession
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas

in Review of Income and Wealth (2014), 60(S1), 33-52

We estimate the distribution of economic insecurity in Italy and the USA using data from 1994 to 2010. Economic insecurity for each individual is assumed to depend on both current wealth and the changes ... [more ▼]

We estimate the distribution of economic insecurity in Italy and the USA using data from 1994 to 2010. Economic insecurity for each individual is assumed to depend on both current wealth and the changes in wealth that have been experienced in the past. The first element plays the role of the buffer stock that can be relied on in the case of an adverse future event. The second element reflects the individual's confidence in his ability to overcome any losses in the future. With respect to this second element, experiences in the recent past are given greater weight than experiences that occurred in the more distant past. The results confirm that the great recession has had a dramatic effect on the distribution of economic insecurity in both countries with the effect being much stronger in the USA. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional Poverty and Material Deprivation with Discrete Data
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Chakravarty, Satya

in Review of Income and Wealth (2013), 59

We propose a characterization of a popular index of multidimensional poverty which, as a special case, generates a measure of material deprivation. This index is the weighted sum of the functioning ... [more ▼]

We propose a characterization of a popular index of multidimensional poverty which, as a special case, generates a measure of material deprivation. This index is the weighted sum of the functioning failures. The important feature of the variables that may be relevant for poverty assessments is that they are discrete in nature. Thus, poverty measures based on continuous variables are not suitable in this setting and the assumption of a discrete domain is mandatory. We apply the measure to European Union member states where the concept of material deprivation was initiated and illustrate how its recommendations differ from those obtained from poverty measures based exclusively on income considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization Orderings of Income Distributions
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya

in Review of Income and Wealth (2010), 56(1), 47-64

This paper considers an intermediate notion of polarization which is defined as a convex mix of relative and absolute concepts of polarization. While absolute polarization indices remain unchanged under ... [more ▼]

This paper considers an intermediate notion of polarization which is defined as a convex mix of relative and absolute concepts of polarization. While absolute polarization indices remain unchanged under equal absolute augmentation in all incomes, relative indices do not change under equiproportionate variations in all incomes. We then identify the class of intermediate polarization indices whose orderings of alternative income distributions agree with the rankings generated by intermediate polarization curves. The ranking relation developed is implemented by a simple graphical device. Finally, a numerical illustration of the results developed in the paper is provided using data from Southern European countries. [less ▲]

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