References of "Psychopharmacology"
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See detailDifferential impairments across attentional networks in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Moyaerts, Nathalie et al

in Psychopharmacology (2017), 234

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities (particularly memory and executive functions), and uncertainty thus still abounds regarding the integrity of less complex cognitive processes in binge drinking. This is particularly true for attentional abilities, which play a crucial role in behavior regulation and are impaired in other alcohol-related disorders. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To specify the attentional deficits associated with binge drinking, two groups of university students (40 binge drinkers and 40 matched controls) performed the Attention Network Task, a theoretically grounded test assessing three independent attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. RESULTS: Binge drinkers displayed preserved orienting performance but impaired alerting and executive control. Binge drinking is thus not related to a general attentional impairment but rather to specific impairments of the alerting and executive control networks. CONCLUSIONS: These results underline that, beyond the already explored high-level deficits, binge drinking is also related to impairments for attentional abilities. In view of the role played by attentional impairments in alcohol dependence, the present data also suggest that rehabilitation programs should be developed to improve attentional abilities at the early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailOral cortisol impairs implicit sequence learning
Romer, S.; Schulz, André UL; Richter, S. et al

in Psychopharmacology (2011), 215(1), 33-40

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See detailCigarette smoking and attention: processing speed or specific effects?
Mancuso, Giovanna UL; Lejeune, M.; Ansseau, M.

in Psychopharmacology (2001), 155(4), 372-8

RATIONALE: It has been evidenced that nicotine acts on some dimensions of human attention. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to test whether the positive effects of nicotine usually observed on the ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: It has been evidenced that nicotine acts on some dimensions of human attention. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to test whether the positive effects of nicotine usually observed on the posterior system are specific or should rather be explained in terms of an effect of nicotine on eye movement velocity. METHODS: Ten participants were submitted to four tasks assessing attention. The tasks were borrowed from Zimmermann and Fimm's Battery for the Assessment of Attention: alert, eye movements, visual search and incompatibility. The order of the different tasks was balanced among participants. A within-subjects repeated-measure design was used. Participants received a 0.9-mg or 0.1-mg nicotine cigarette. The 0.1-mg cigarette was used as control. The order of administration of doses over sessions was counterbalanced. During the testing day, volunteers smoked their own cigarette and then waited 3 h without smoking. At the end of this abstinence period, participants completed the baseline tests before smoking an experimental cigarette ad libitum. They were then tested again. RESULTS: Participants who received nicotine appeared to respond faster in an eye movement task--a task associated with a non-elaborated attentional process. Similarly, their alert state improved. On the contrary, no effect of nicotine was observed in the incompatibility task and in the visual search task depending on elaborated attentional process. CONCLUSIONS: Data support previous observations and suggest that, first, non-elaborated information processing appeared to be more sensitive to nicotine and, second, this effect is not due to a velocity factor. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of nicotine administered via a transdermal delivery system on vigilance: a repeated measure study.
Mancuso, Giovanna UL; Andres, Pilar; Ansseau, Marc et al

in Psychopharmacology (1999), 142(1), 18-23

Fifteen 18- to 25-year-old male smokers were tested in a within-subjects design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Subjects were tested on the RVIP test ... [more ▼]

Fifteen 18- to 25-year-old male smokers were tested in a within-subjects design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Subjects were tested on the RVIP test (Rapid Visual Information Processing test) 1.30, 3.00 and 6.30 h after patch application, to verify the involvement of the dose of nicotine on the performance. This study confirms and extends the increasing effects of nicotine on vigilance previously found with orally and transdermally given nicotine. Moreover, it showed that such performance was independent of the time of nicotine absorption (1.30, 3.00 and 6.30 h after patch application), which suggests that a relatively low dose of nicotine suffices to activate vigilance processing. Regarding motor performance, no convincing effect of nicotine was observed on reaction time. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of nicotine administered via a transdermal delivery system on vigilance: a repeated measure study.
Mancuso, Giovanna UL; Andres, P.; Ansseau, M. et al

in Psychopharmacology (1999), 142(1), 18-23

Fifteen 18- to 25-year-old male smokers were tested in a within-subjects design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Subjects were tested on the RVIP test ... [more ▼]

Fifteen 18- to 25-year-old male smokers were tested in a within-subjects design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Subjects were tested on the RVIP test (Rapid Visual Information Processing test) 1.30, 3.00 and 6.30 h after patch application, to verify the involvement of the dose of nicotine on the performance. This study confirms and extends the increasing effects of nicotine on vigilance previously found with orally and transdermally given nicotine. Moreover, it showed that such performance was independent of the time of nicotine absorption (1.30, 3.00 and 6.30 h after patch application), which suggests that a relatively low dose of nicotine suffices to activate vigilance processing. Regarding motor performance, no convincing effect of nicotine was observed on reaction time. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective effects of nicotine on attentional processes.
Mancuso, Giovanna UL; Warburton, D. M.; Melen, M. et al

in Psychopharmacology (1999), 146(2), 199-204

RATIONALE: It is now well established from electrophysiological and behavioural evidence that nicotine has effects on information processing. The results are usually explained either by a primary effect ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: It is now well established from electrophysiological and behavioural evidence that nicotine has effects on information processing. The results are usually explained either by a primary effect of nicotine or by a reversal effect of a nicotine-induced, abstinence deficit. In addition, there is dispute about the cognitive processes underlying the changes in performance. METHODS: This study has approached the first question by using the nicotine patch, in order to administer nicotine chronically. In addition, we examined the effects of nicotine on attention with a selection of tests which assessed the intensity and selectivity features of attention, using the Random Letter Generation test, the Flexibility of Attention test and the Stroop test. RESULTS: Nicotine enhanced the speed of number generation and the speed of processing in both the control and interference conditions of the Stroop test. There were no effects on attentional switching of the Flexibility of Attention test. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that nicotine mainly improves the intensity feature of attention, rather than the selectivity feature. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the information processing and mood effects of a transdermal nicotine patch.
Warburton, D. M.; Mancuso, Giovanna UL

in Psychopharmacology (1998), 135(3), 305-10

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a transdermal nicotine patch will produce the same effects on performance and mood as cigarette smoking. The nicotine patch improved attentional ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a transdermal nicotine patch will produce the same effects on performance and mood as cigarette smoking. The nicotine patch improved attentional processing and produced some improvements in memory. It produced the calming effects of smoking and induced feelings of happiness which were increased with smoking. These effects were obtained 6 h after application of the patch, showing that acute tolerance for these behavioural effects had not developed completely, if at all, after exposure to nicotine, although it is still possible that tolerance might occur with longer exposure. [less ▲]

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