References of "Psychiatry research"
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See detailThe role of childhood emotional maltreatment and body image dissatisfaction in problematic smartphone use among adolescents
Emirtekin⁠, Emrah; Balta, Sabah; Sural, İrfan et al

in Psychiatry Research (2019), 271

Growing empirical evidence has identified specific psychological and contextual risk factors associated with problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, the potential direct and indirect impact of ... [more ▼]

Growing empirical evidence has identified specific psychological and contextual risk factors associated with problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, the potential direct and indirect impact of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) on PSU remains largely unexplored, despite the established role of CEM in the onset of other excessive, problematic, and addictive behaviors. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to test the direct and indirect relationships of emotional abuse and neglect (two facets of CEM) with PSU via specific mediational pathways including body image dissatisfaction (BID), social anxiety, and depression. The sample comprised 443 adolescents who completed a questionnaire that included assessment tools of aforementioned variables. Multiple mediation model results indicated that CEM was directly and indirectly associated with PSU via BID, depression, BID-related depression, and BID-related social anxiety. Results suggested that emotionally traumatic experiences were associated with PSU in adolescents and that this relationship may partially be explained by BID and psychosocial risk factors. The present study draws caution to the amplifying roles of CEM and BID on increased PSU. The results of the study have important clinical and public health implications, but additional research is needed before interventions can be developed and implemented on the basis of present results. [less ▲]

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See detailBinging at the campus: motivations and impulsivity influence binge drinking profiles in university students
Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël UL; Poncin, Marie et al

in Psychiatry Research (2017), 250

This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were ... [more ▼]

This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were selected and were first compared with 924 non-binge drinkers. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the binge drinker sample, to explore the respective involvement of four drinking motives (DMQ-R model) and four impulsivity facets (UPPS model) in this habit. Centrally, the cluster analysis identified three clusters of binge drinkers presenting distinct psychological characteristics and alcohol consumption patterns: emotional, recreational, and hazardous binge drinkers. Hazardous binge drinkers were characterized by strong drinking motives but moderate impulsivity. Binge drinking should thus no more be considered as a unitary drinking pattern but rather as a habit encompassing a variety of psychological profiles. Moreover, risky drinking habits in young people might be mainly related to disproportionate drinking motives. Future studies should thus consider binge drinking heterogeneity, and prevention programs focusing on drinking motivations should be developed. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcohol-cue exposure decreases response inhibition towards alcohol-related stimuli in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.
Kreusch, Fanny; Billieux, Joël UL; Quertemont, Etienne

in Psychiatry research (2017), 249

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol ... [more ▼]

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol relapse. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the induction of a craving state, using an alcohol cue exposure paradigm, influences response inhibition towards both neutral stimuli and alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were exposed to either their preferred alcoholic beverage or to a glass of water. They then performed a modified stop signal task, which used alcohol-related words, neutral words and non-words, and a lexical decision as the Go response. The alcohol-cue exposure group reported significantly higher alcohol craving and showed higher percentages of commission errors towards alcohol-related words than the control group. All participants, but especially those of the alcohol-cue exposure group, showed also shorter reaction times when alcohol words were used as targets in go trials. The induction of alcohol craving in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients increases the motivational salience value of alcohol stimuli, leading them to automatically approach alcohol-related cues and therefore impairing response inhibition towards those stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac modulation of startle is altered in depersonalization-/derealization disorder: evidence for impaired brainstem representation of baro-afferent neural traffic
Schulz, André UL; Matthey, J. H.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychiatry Research (2016), 240(1), 4-10

Patients with depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) show altered heartbeat-evoked brain potentials, which are considered psychophysiological indicators of cortical representation of visceral ... [more ▼]

Patients with depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) show altered heartbeat-evoked brain potentials, which are considered psychophysiological indicators of cortical representation of visceral-afferent neural signals. The aim of the current investigation was to clarify whether the impaired CNS representation of visceral-afferent neural signals in DPD is restricted to the cortical level or is also present in sub-cortical structures. We used cardiac modulation of startle (CMS) to assess baro-afferent signal transmission at brainstem level in 22 DPD and 23 healthy control individuals. The CMS paradigm involved acoustic startle stimuli (105 dB(A), 50 ms) elicited 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ms after a cardiac R-wave. In healthy control individuals, we observed lower startle responses at 100 and 300 ms than at 0 and 400 ms after an R-wave. In DPD patients, no effect of the cardiac cycle on startle response magnitude was found. We conclude that the representation of visceral-afferent neural signals at brainstem level may be deficient in DPD. This effect may be due to increased peripheral sympathetic tone or to dysregulated signal processing at brainstem level. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociating emotional and cognitive empathy in pre-clinical and clinical Huntington's disease.
Maurage, Pierre; Lahaye, Magali; Grynberg, Delphine et al

in Psychiatry research (2016), 237

Huntington's disease (HD) is centrally characterized by motor, neurocognitive and psychiatric symptoms, but impaired emotional decoding abilities have also been reported. However, more complex affective ... [more ▼]

Huntington's disease (HD) is centrally characterized by motor, neurocognitive and psychiatric symptoms, but impaired emotional decoding abilities have also been reported. However, more complex affective abilities are still to be explored, and particularly empathy, which is essential for social relations and is impaired in various psychiatric conditions. This study evaluates empathic abilities and social skills in pre-clinical and clinical HD, and explores the distinction between two empathy sub-components (emotional-cognitive). Thirty-six HD patients (17 pre-clinical) and 36 matched controls filled in the Empathy Quotient Scale, while controlling for psychopathological comorbidities. At the clinical stage of HD, no global empathy impairment was observed but rather a specific deficit for the cognitive sub-component, while emotional empathy was preserved. A deficit was also observed for social skills. Pre-clinical HD was not associated with any empathy deficit. Emotional deficits in clinical HD are thus not limited to basic emotion decoding but extend towards complex interpersonal abilities. The dissociation between impaired cognitive and preserved emotional empathy in clinical HD reinforces the proposal that empathy subtypes are sustained by distinct processes. Finally, these results underline the extent of distinct affective and social impairments in HD and the need to grasp them in clinical contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailA multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Lopez, Regis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle et al

in Psychiatry research (2015), 227(2-3), 290-5

We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and ... [more ▼]

We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups. [less ▲]

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See detailEncoding style and its relationships with schizotypal traits and impulsivity during adolescence.
Badoud, Deborah; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial et al

in Psychiatry research (2013), 210(3), 1020-5

This study intends to explore how individual differences in encoding style (i.e. how encoding is implicitly affected by pre-existing schemata, so called an internal style, versus by cues from the outside ... [more ▼]

This study intends to explore how individual differences in encoding style (i.e. how encoding is implicitly affected by pre-existing schemata, so called an internal style, versus by cues from the outside world, so called an external style) are associated with schizotypal traits and impulsivity expression during adolescence. Moreover, we aim to provide first evidence reliability for the encoding style questionnaire with an adolescent sample. 101 French-speaking community adolescents (Mage=16.06, S.D.age=2.01; 57 girls; primarily Caucasian) participated in a cross-sectional study. The whole sample filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires. Our data supports a positive association between a predominant internal encoding style, the level of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits, and a higher degree of urgency and sensation seeking impulsivity components. On the one hand, these results have clinical implications in the sense that a low level in implicit processing, namely encoding style, is involved in positive and disorganized schizotypal traits as well as in impulsivity. Schizotypal traits and impulsivity are two sets of traits that put youth at risk for the development of severe psychopathological states in adulthood. On the other hand, this research enables an increased understanding of encoding style by providing the first reliable assessment tool for French-speaking adolescents. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of impulsivity in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: a multidimensional perspective.
Billieux, Joël UL; Lagrange, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial et al

in Psychiatry research (2012), 198(2), 291-6

Numerous studies have shown that problem gambling is characterised by lack of impulse control. However, they have often been conducted without considering the multifaceted nature of impulsivity and ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have shown that problem gambling is characterised by lack of impulse control. However, they have often been conducted without considering the multifaceted nature of impulsivity and related psychological mechanisms. The current study aims to disentangle which impulsivity facets are altered in pathological gambling. Twenty treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (PGs) and 20 matched control participants completed a self-reported questionnaire measuring the various facets of impulsive behaviours (UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), as well as two laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory control (the go-stop task) and tolerance for delayed rewards (single key impulsivity paradigm). Compared with matched controls, PGs exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation, impairment in prepotent inhibition, and lower tolerance towards delayed rewards. Nevertheless, complementary profile analyses showed that impulsivity-related deficits found in PGs are highly heterogeneous, and that some PGs are neither impulsive in the impulsivity facets assessed nor impaired in the cognitive mechanisms measured. These findings underscore (1) the necessity to disentangle the construct of impulsivity into lower-order components and (2) that further studies should take into account, in addition to impulsivity-related mechanisms, other psychological factors potentially involved in pathological gambling. [less ▲]

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See detailAffective reactivity in heroin-dependent patients with antisocial personality disorder
Walter, M.; Degen, B.; Treugut, C. et al

in Psychiatry Research (2011), 187(1-2), 210-213

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