References of "Progress in Photovoltaics"
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See detailHigh‐performance low bandgap thin film solar cells for tandem applications
Elanzeery, Hossam UL; Babbe, Finn UL; Melchiorre, Michele UL et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2018)

Thin film tandem solar cells provide a promising approach to achieve high efficiencies. These tandem cells require at least a bottom low bandgap and an upper high bandgap solar cell. In this contribution ... [more ▼]

Thin film tandem solar cells provide a promising approach to achieve high efficiencies. These tandem cells require at least a bottom low bandgap and an upper high bandgap solar cell. In this contribution, 2 high‐performance Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cells with bandgaps as low as 1.04 and 1.07 eV are presented. These cells have shown certified efficiencies of 15.7% and 16.6% respectively. Measuring these cells under a 780‐nm longpass filter, corresponding to the bandgap of a typical top cell in tandem applications (1.57 eV), they achieved efficiencies of 7.9% and 8.3%. Admittance measurements showed no recombination active deep defects. One additional high‐performance CuInSe2 thin film solar cell with bandgap of 0.95 eV and efficiency of 14.1% is presented. All 3 cells have the potential to be integrated as bottom low bandgap cells in thin film tandem applications achieving efficiencies around 24% stacked with an efficient high bandgap top cell. [less ▲]

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See detailVisualizing the performance loss of solar cells by IR thermography — an evaluation study on CIGS with artificially induced defects
Vetter, Andreas; Babbe, Finn UL; Hofbeck, Bernhard et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2016), 24(7), 1001-1008

Local electric defects may result in considerable performance losses in solar cells. Infrared (IR) thermography is one im- portant tool to detect these defects on photovoltaic modules. Qualitative ... [more ▼]

Local electric defects may result in considerable performance losses in solar cells. Infrared (IR) thermography is one im- portant tool to detect these defects on photovoltaic modules. Qualitative interpretation of IR images has been carried out successfully, but quantitative interpretation has been hampered by the lack of “calibration” defects. The aims of this study are to (i) establish methods to induce well-defined electric defects in thin-film solar cells serving as “calibration” defects and to (ii) assess the accuracy of IR imaging methods by using these artificially induced defects. This approach paves the way for improving quality control methods based on imaging in photovoltaic. We created ohmic defects (“shunts”) by using a focused ion beam and weak diodes (“interface shunts”) by applying a femto-second laser at rather low power on copper indium gallium selenide cells. The defects can be induced precisely and reproducibly, and the severity of the defects on the electrical performance can be well adjusted by focused ion beam/laser parameters. The successive assess- ment of the IR measurement (ILIT-Voc) revealed that this method can predict the losses in Pmpp (maximal power extract- able) with a mean error of below 10%. [less ▲]

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See detailCu-rich CuInSe2 solar cells with a Cu-poor surface
Aida, Yasuhiro UL; Depredurand, Valérie UL; Larsen, Jes K. UL et al

in PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS (2015), 23

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See detailCu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells produced via co-evaporation and annealing including a SnSe2 capping layer
Redinger, Alex UL; Mousel, Marina; Djemour, Rabie et al

in PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS (2014), 22(1), 51-57

Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells have been produced via co-evaporation followed by a high-temperature annealing. In order to reduce the decomposition of the CZTSe, a SnSe2 capping layer has been ... [more ▼]

Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells have been produced via co-evaporation followed by a high-temperature annealing. In order to reduce the decomposition of the CZTSe, a SnSe2 capping layer has been evaporated onto the absorber prior to the high-temperature treatment. This eliminates the Sn losses due to SnSe evaporation. A solar cell efficiency of 5.1 could be achieved with this method. Moreover, the device does not suffer from high series resistance, and the dominant recombination pathway is situated in the absorber bulk. Finally different illumination conditions (white light, red light, and yellow light) reveal a strong loss in fill factor if no carriers are generated in the CdS buffer layer. This effect, known as red-kink effect, has also been observed in the closely related Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 thin film solar cells. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSolution-based processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers for 11% efficiency solar cells via a metallic intermediate
Berner, Ulrich Maximilian UL; Widenmeyer, Markus

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2014)

In this work, a low cost solution-based method for the deposition of uniform Cu-In-Ga layers compatible with roll-to-roll processing is described. As ink system we use metal carboxylates dissolved in a ... [more ▼]

In this work, a low cost solution-based method for the deposition of uniform Cu-In-Ga layers compatible with roll-to-roll processing is described. As ink system we use metal carboxylates dissolved in a mixture of a nitrogen containing base and an alcohol. This solution can be coated homogeneously under inert atmosphere using a doctor blade technique. With this method and appropriate precursor concentrations, crack-free metal layers with dry-film thicknesses of more than 700 nm can be deposited in one fast step. For the controlled film formation during the drying of the solvents a flow channel has been used to improve the evaporative mass transport and the convective gas flows of any unwanted organic species. Due to the absence of organic binders with high molecular weight, this step allows the formation of virtually pure metal layers. Elementary analyses of the dried thin films reveal less than 5 wt% of carbon residues at 200°C. In situ X-ray diffraction data of the drying step show the formation of Cu-In-Ga alloys. The subsequent processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 chalcopyrites with evaporated elemental selenium takes place in a separate tube oven under inert atmosphere. Photoelectric measurements of cells with CdS buffer and ZnO window layer reveal a short-circuit current of 29 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 533 mV, and a fill factor of 0.69 under standard conditions. Thus efficiencies of up to 11% on 0.5 cm2 area without antireflective coating have been achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe electronic structure of chalcopyrites - bands, point defects and grain boundaries
Siebentritt, Susanne UL; Igalson, Malgorzata; Persson, Clas et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2010), 18(6), 390-410

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See detailCu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells produced by selenisation of magnetron sputtered precursors
Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian; Miles, Robert W. et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2009), 17(5), 315-319

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