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See detailTuning the defect configurations in nematic and smectic liquid crystalline shells.
Liang, H. L.; Noh, Junghyun UL; Zentel, R. et al

in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A : Mathematical and Physical Sciences (2013), 371(1988), 20120258

Thin liquid crystalline shells surrounding and surrounded by aqueous phases can be conveniently produced using a nested capillary microfluidic system, as was first demonstrated by Fernandez-Nieves et al ... [more ▼]

Thin liquid crystalline shells surrounding and surrounded by aqueous phases can be conveniently produced using a nested capillary microfluidic system, as was first demonstrated by Fernandez-Nieves et al. in 2007. By choosing particular combinations of stabilizers in the internal and external phases, different types of alignment, uniform or hybrid, can be ensured within the shell. Here, we investigate shells in the nematic and smectic phases under varying boundary conditions, focusing in particular on textural transformations during phase transitions, on the interaction between topological defects in the director field and inclusions in the liquid crystal (LC), and on the possibility to relocate defects within the shell by rotating the shell in the gravitational field. We demonstrate that inclusions in a shell can seed defects that cannot form in a pristine shell, adding a further means of tuning the defect configuration, and that shells in which the internal aqueous phase is not density matched with the LC will gently rearrange the internal structure upon a rotation that changes the influence of gravity. Because the defects can act as anchor points for added linker molecules, allowing self-assembly of adjacent shells, the various arrangements of defects developing in these shells and the possibility of tuning the result by modifying boundary conditions, LC phase, thickness and diameter of the shell or applying external forces make this new LC configuration very attractive. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the influence of delamination on laminated paperboard creasing and folding
Beex, Lars UL; Peerlings, Ron

in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A : Mathematical and Physical Sciences (2012), 370

Laminated paperboard is used as a packaging material for a wide range of products. During production of the packaging, the fold lines are first defined in a so-called creasing (or scoring) operation in ... [more ▼]

Laminated paperboard is used as a packaging material for a wide range of products. During production of the packaging, the fold lines are first defined in a so-called creasing (or scoring) operation in order to obtain uncracked folds. During creasing as well as folding, cracking of the board is to be avoided. A mechanical model for a single fold line has been proposed in a previous study (Beex & Peerlings 2009 Int. J. Solids Struct. 46, 4192–4207) to investigate the general mechanics of creasing and folding, as well as which precise mechanisms trigger the breaking of the top layer. In the present study, we employ this modelling to study the influence of delamination on creasing and folding. The results reveal the separate role of the cohesive zone model and the friction model in the description of delamination. They also show how the amount of delamination behaviour should be controlled to obtain the desired high folding stiffness without breaking of the top layer. [less ▲]

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