References of "Pediatric Diabetes"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSeasonal variation in month of diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes registered in 23 European centers during 1989-2008: little short-term influence of sunshine hours or average temperature
Patterson, C.; Gyürüs, E.; Rosenbauer, J. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2015), 16(8), 573-580

BACKGROUND: The month of diagnosis in childhood type 1 diabetes shows seasonal variation. OBJECTIVE: We describe the pattern and investigate if year-to-year irregularities are associated with ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The month of diagnosis in childhood type 1 diabetes shows seasonal variation. OBJECTIVE: We describe the pattern and investigate if year-to-year irregularities are associated with meteorological factors using data from 50 000 children diagnosed under the age of 15 yr in 23 population-based European registries during 1989-2008. METHODS: Tests for seasonal variation in monthly counts aggregated over the 20 yr period were performed. Time series regression was used to investigate if sunshine hour and average temperature data were predictive of the 240 monthly diagnosis counts after taking account of seasonality and long term trends. RESULTS: Significant sinusoidal pattern was evident in all but two small centers with peaks in November to February and relative amplitudes ranging from ± 11 to ± 38% (median ± 17%). However, most centers showed significant departures from a sinusoidal pattern. Pooling results over centers, there was significant seasonal variation in each age-group at diagnosis, with least seasonal variation in those under 5 yr. Boys showed greater seasonal variation than girls, particularly those aged 10-14 yr. There were no differences in seasonal pattern between four 5-yr sub-periods. Departures from the sinusoidal trend in monthly diagnoses in the period were significantly associated with deviations from the norm in average temperature (0.8% reduction in diagnoses per 1 °C excess) but not with sunshine hours. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonality was consistently apparent throughout the period in all age-groups and both sexes, but girls and the under 5 s showed less marked variation. Neither sunshine hour nor average temperature data contributed in any substantial way to explaining departures from the sinusoidal pattern. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCardiometabolic risk: leg fat is protective during childhood.
Samouda, Hanen; De Beaufort, Carine UL; Stranges, Saverio et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2015)

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with early cardiometabolic risk (CMR), increased risk of adulthood obesity, and worse health outcomes. Leg fat mass (LFM) is protective beyond total fat mass ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with early cardiometabolic risk (CMR), increased risk of adulthood obesity, and worse health outcomes. Leg fat mass (LFM) is protective beyond total fat mass (TFM) in adults. However, the limited evidence in children remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between LFM and CMR factors in youth. SUBJECTS: A total of 203 overweight/obese children, 7-17-yr-old, followed in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg. METHODS: TFM and LFM by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and a detailed set of CMR markers were analyzed. RESULTS: After TFM, age, sex, body mass index (BMI) Z-score, sexual maturity status, and physical activity adjustments, negative significant partial correlations were shown between LFM and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) (variance explained: 6.05% by LFM*; 7.18% by TFM**), fasting insulin (variance explained: 5.71% by LFM*; 6.97% by TFM**), triglycerides (variance explained: 3.96% by LFM*; 2.76% by TFM*), systolic blood pressure (variance explained: 2.68% by LFM*; 4.33% by TFM*), C-reactive protein (variance explained: 2.31% by LFM*; 4.28% by TFM*), and resistin (variance explained: 2.16% by LFM*; 3.57% by TFM*). Significant positive partial correlations were observed between LFM and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (variance explained: 4.16% by LFM*) and adiponectin (variance explained: 3.09% by LFM*) (*p-value < 0.05 and **p-value < 0.001). In order to adjust for multiple testing, Benjamini-Hochberg method was applied and the adjusted significance level was determined for each analysis. LFM remained significant in the aforementioned models predicting HOMA, fasting insulin, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol (Benjamini and Hochberg corrected p-value < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: LFM is protective against CMR in children, at least in terms of insulin resistance and adverse blood lipid profiles. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClassifying insulin regimens--difficulties and proposal for comprehensive new definitions.
Neu, A.; Lange, K.; Barrett, T. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2015), 16(6), 402-406

Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied ... [more ▼]

Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied. Despite clear recommendations for insulin management in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes there is little distinctiveness about concepts and the nomenclature is confusing. Even among experts similar terms are used for different strategies. The aim of our review--based on the experiences of the Hvidoere Study Group (HSG)--is to propose comprehensive definitions for current insulin regimens reflecting current diabetes management in childhood and adolescence. The HSG--founded in 1994--is an international group representing 24 highly experienced pediatric diabetes centers, from Europe, Japan, North America and Australia. Different benchmarking studies of the HSG revealed a broad variety of insulin regimens applied in each center, respectively. Furthermore, the understanding of insulin regimens has been persistently different between the centers since more than 20 yr. Not even the terms 'conventional' and 'intensified therapy' were used consistently among all members. Besides the concepts 'conventional' and 'intensified', several other terms for the characterization of insulin regimens are in use: Basal Bolus Concept (BBC), multiple daily injections (MDI), and flexible insulin therapy (FIT) are most frequently used, although none of these expressions is clearly or consistently defined. The proposed new classification for insulin management will be comprehensive, simple, and catchy. Currently available terms were included. This classification may offer the opportunity to compare therapeutic strategies without the currently existing confusion on the insulin regimen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessment and monitoring of glycemic control in children and adolescents with diabetes
Rewers, Marian J.; Pillay, Kuben; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2014), 15 Suppl 20

The article presents a chapter of the guidelines on pediatric diabetes in the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014 Compedium. It ... [more ▼]

The article presents a chapter of the guidelines on pediatric diabetes in the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014 Compedium. It explores the recommendations for screening and monitoring of glycemic control in diabetic children and adolescents. It compares the grading system used in the ISPAD guidelines with that of the American Diabetes Association. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 1099 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntroduction to the Limited Care Guidance Appendix to ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014.
Acerini, Carlo L.; Craig, Maria E.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2014), 15 Suppl 20

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDiabetes in adolescence
Cameron, Fergus J.; Amin, Rakesh; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2014), 15 Suppl 20

The article presents a part of the guidelines on pediatric diabetes in the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014 Compedium. It ... [more ▼]

The article presents a part of the guidelines on pediatric diabetes in the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014 Compedium. It highlights the recommendations for psychoeducation interventions and health care of diabetic adolescents. It features the similar grading system used in the ISPAD guidelines with that of the American Diabetes Association. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 432 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntroduction to ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014 Compendium
Acerini, Carlo; Craig, Maria E.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2014), 15 Suppl 20

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group and the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study.
Due, Pernille; De Beaufort, Carine UL; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2013), 14(8), 554-561

BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) has demonstrated major differences in glycemic control between pediatric diabetes centers which remain largely unexplained. This study investigates whether these ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) has demonstrated major differences in glycemic control between pediatric diabetes centers which remain largely unexplained. This study investigates whether these differences are partly attributable to healthy eating norms in the background population. METHODS: The study involved adolescents from 18 countries from (i) the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study (HBSC) and (ii) the HSG. There were 94 387 participants from representative HBSC samples of 11-, 13- and 15-yr-olds and 1483 11- to 15-yr-old adolescents with diabetes from the HSG. The frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, sweets, sugary soft drinks, and daily breakfast was compared between the two groups. The glycemic control of the adolescents in the HSG cohort was determined by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: Across countries in the HSBC survey, there was substantial variation in prevalence of healthy eating behavior and even greater variation between adolescents from the HSG centers. In all countries more adolescents with diabetes reported healthy eating behavior compared to national norms. In individuals healthy eating behavior had a significant effect on the individual level HbA1c. There was no significant correlation between the frequencies of these healthy eating behaviors at (i) the national level and (ii) diabetes center level and the center mean HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Although individual healthy eating behavior is associated with better glycemic control at the individual level, such eating behavior does not explain the center differences in HbA1c. Similarly, the reported healthy eating norm of the background populations does not explain the variation in glycemic control among centers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLessons from the Hvidoere International Study Group on childhood diabetes: Be dogmatic about outcome and flexible in approach
Cameron, F. J.; De Beaufort, Carine UL; Aanstoot, H.-J. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2013), 14(7), 473-480

[No abstract available]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSWEET--where are we heading with international type 1 diabetes registries?
Danne, T.; Aschemeier, B.; Perfetti, R. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 1-4

The authors discuss a project "Better control in Pediatric and Adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference" (SWEET) led by the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes ... [more ▼]

The authors discuss a project "Better control in Pediatric and Adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference" (SWEET) led by the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD). The project includes pediatric centres from countries such as Czech, Germany and Greece. They also discuss the European DIAMAP project which addresses clinical research issues for people with diabetes. They believe these initiatives will enable evaluation of invaluable data sets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHeterogeneity in the systems of pediatric diabetes care across the European Union
Cinek, O.; Šumník, Z.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(SUPPL. 16), 5-14

Background: It is known that the systems of pediatric diabetes care differ across the member states of the European Union (EU). The aim of this project was to characterize some of the main differences ... [more ▼]

Background: It is known that the systems of pediatric diabetes care differ across the member states of the European Union (EU). The aim of this project was to characterize some of the main differences among the national systems. Methods: Data were collected using two questionnaires. The first one was distributed among leading centers of pediatric diabetes (one per country) with the aim of establishing an overview of the systems, national policies, quality control (QC) and financing of pediatric diabetes care. Responses were received from all 27 EU countries. The second questionnaire was widely disseminated among all 354 International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes members with a domicile in an EU country; it included questions related to individual pediatric diabetes centers. A total of 108 datasets were collected and processed from healthcare professionals who were treating more than 29000 children and adolescents with diabetes. Data on the reimbursement policies were verified by representatives of the pharmaceutical and medical device companies. Results: The collected data reflect the situation in 2009. There was a notable heterogeneity among the systems for provision of pediatric diabetes care across the EU. Only 20/27 EU countries had a pediatric diabetes register. Nineteen countries had officially recognized centers for pediatric diabetes, but only nine of them had defined criteria for becoming such a center. A system for QC of pediatric diabetes at the national level was reported in 7/26 countries. Reimbursement for treatment varied significantly across the EU, potentially causing inequalities in access to modern technologies. Conclusions: The collected data help develop strategies toward improving equity and access to modern pediatric diabetes care across Europe. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTechnical solution for data collection, data safety and data privacy legislation: experiences from the SWEET study.
Forsander, Gun; Pellinat, Martin; Volk, Michael et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2012), 13(16), 39-48

BACKGROUND: One of the most important tasks of the SWEET study is benchmarking the data collected. Information on the occurrence of the disease of diabetes, the treatment, and their outcomes in children ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: One of the most important tasks of the SWEET study is benchmarking the data collected. Information on the occurrence of the disease of diabetes, the treatment, and their outcomes in children from the different member states of European Union (EU) is crucial. How the collection of data is realized is essential, concerning both the technical issues and the results. The creation of SWEET Centers of Reference (CoR), all over Europe will be facilitated by the access to safe data collection, where legal aspects and privacy are ascertained. OBJECTIVE: To describe the rationale for- and the technical procedure in the data collection implementation, in the SWEET study. SUBJECTS: Selected data on all patients treated at SWEET CoR are collected. METHODS: The SWEET project data collection and management system, consists of modular components for data collection, online data interchange, and a database for statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: The SWEET study and the organization of CoR aims for the goal of offering an updated, secure, and continuous evaluation of diabetes treatment regimens for all children with diabetes in Europe. To support this goal, an appropriate and secure data management system as described in this paper has been created. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMetabolic outcomes in young children with type 1 diabetes differ between treatment centers: the Hvidoere Study in Young Children 2009
De Beaufort, Carine UL; Lange, K.; Swift, P.G. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 14(6), 422-428

Objective: To investigate whether center differences in glycemic control are present in prepubertal children <11 yr with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Research Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate whether center differences in glycemic control are present in prepubertal children <11 yr with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Research Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 18 pediatric centers worldwide. All children, <11 y with a diabetes duration ≥12 months were invited to participate. Case Record Forms included information on clinical characteristics, insulin regimens, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), severe hypoglycemia, language difficulties, and comorbidities. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured centrally by liquid chromatography (DCCT aligned, range: 4.4-6.3%; IFFC: 25-45 mmol/mol). Results: A total of 1133 children participated (mean age: 8.0 ± 2.1 y; females: 47.5%, mean diabetes duration: 3.8 ± 2.1 y). HbA1c (overall mean: 8.0 ± 1.0%; range: 7.3-8.9%) and severe hypoglycemia frequency (mean 21.7 events per 100 patient-years), but not DKA, differed significantly between centers (p < 0.001 resp. p = 0.179). Language difficulties showed a negative relationship with HbA1c (8.3 ± 1.2% vs. 8.0 ± 1.0%; p = 0.036). Frequency of blood glucose monitoring demonstrated a significant but weak association with HbA1c (r = -0.17; p < 0.0001). Although significant different HbA1c levels were obtained with diverse insulin regimens (range: 7.3-8.5%; p < 0.001), center differences remained after adjusting for insulin regimen (p < 0.001). Differences between insulin regimens were no longer significant after adjusting for center effect (p = 0.199). Conclusions: Center differences in metabolic outcomes are present in children <11 yr, irrespective of diabetes duration, age, or gender. The incidence of severe hypoglycemia is lower than in adolescents despite achieving better glycemic control. Insulin regimens show a significant relationship with HbA1c but do not explain center differences. Each center's effectiveness in using specific treatment strategies remains the key factor for outcome. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRecommendations for age-appropriate education of children and adolescents with diabetes and their parents in the European Union
Martin, D.; Lange, K.; Sima, A. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 20-28

Education is the keystone of diabetes care, and structured self-management education is the key to a successful outcome. Existing guidelines provide comprehensive guidance on the various aspects of ... [more ▼]

Education is the keystone of diabetes care, and structured self-management education is the key to a successful outcome. Existing guidelines provide comprehensive guidance on the various aspects of education and offer general and organizational principles of education, detailed curricula at different ages and stages of diabetes, and recommendations on models, methods, and tools to attain educative objectives. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines give the most elaborate and detailed descriptions and recommendations on the practice of education, which other national guidelines address on specific aspects of education and care. The aim of the work package on education developed by Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in the European Union: Working to Create Centers of Reference ( SWEET) project was not to generate new guidelines but to evaluate how the existing guidelines were implemented in some pediatric diabetes reference centers. The SWEET members have completed a questionnaire that elaborates on the many aspects of delivery of education. This survey highlights a profound diversity of practices across centers in Europe, in terms of organization as well as the practices and the content of initial and continuing education. A toolbox is being developed within SWEET to facilitate exchanges on all aspects of education and to establish a process of validation of materials, tools, written structured age-adjusted programs, and evaluation procedures for the education of children and adolescents with diabetes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCriteria for Centers of Reference for pediatric diabetes--a European perspective
Danne, T.; Lion, S.; Madaczy, L. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 62-75

' SWEET' is an acronym standing for 'Better control in pediatric and adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference ( CORs)' and is based on a partnership of established national and European ... [more ▼]

' SWEET' is an acronym standing for 'Better control in pediatric and adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference ( CORs)' and is based on a partnership of established national and European diabetes organizations such as International Diabetes Federation, Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes, and Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE, www.sweet-project.eu). A three-level classification of centers has been put forward. In addition to centers for local care, SWEET collaborating centers on their way to being a COR have been defined. Peer-audited CORs with a continuous electronic documentation of at least 150 pediatric patients with diabetes treated by a multidisciplinary team based on the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes ( ISPAD) Clinical Practice recommendations have been created in 12 European countries. In 2011, they cared for between 150 to more than 700 youth with diabetes with an average hemoglobin A1c between 7.6 and 9.2%. Although these clinics should not be regarded as representative for the whole country, the acknowledgment as COR includes a common objective of targets and guidelines as well as recognition of expertise in treatment and education at the center. In a first step, the SWEET Online platform allows 12 countries using 11 languages to connect to one unified diabetes database. Aggregate data are de-identified and exported for longitudinal health and economic data analysis. Through their network, the CORs wish to obtain political influence on a national and international level and to facilitate dissemination of new approaches and techniques. The SWEET project hopes to extend from the initial group of centers within countries, throughout Europe, and beyond with the help of the ISPAD network. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA pediatric diabetes toolbox for creating centres of reference
Lange, K.; Klotmann, S.; Saßmann, H. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 49-61

Introduction ISPAD guidelines recommend age appropriate diabetes education concepts for young patients and their families as well as tools for nutritional management, psychosocial assessment, and ... [more ▼]

Introduction ISPAD guidelines recommend age appropriate diabetes education concepts for young patients and their families as well as tools for nutritional management, psychosocial assessment, and psychological advice but their implementation in Europe is presently unknown. Methods On the basis of a structured survey among the European SWEET members information on established tools and programs in national languages were analyzed using an extensive literature and desk search. These were differentiated according to five age-groups and five target groups (young people with diabetes, parents, and other close relations, carers in school and nursery, and healthcare professionals). Results Responses and original tools were received from 11 SWEET countries reflecting the European status in 2011. More or less structured information for parents, close relations, and carers in school or nursery are available in all 11 participating countries. However, only two countries followed the recommendations of having published a structured, curriculum lead, and evaluated program for different age-groups and carers. One of these was evaluated nationwide and funded by the respective National Health Care System after accreditation. In addition a huge variety of creative tools, e.g., booklets, leaflets, games, videos, and material for educating children of different age-groups and their parents are available - but most of them are not linked to a structured education program. Conclusions Harmonizing and integrating these materials into quality assured structured holistic national education programs will be an important future task for the ongoing SWEET project. A comprehensive European diabetes educational toolbox is aimed to be published and continuously updated on the SWEET website. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGood practice recommendations on paediatric training programmes for health care professionals in the EU.
Waldron, S.; Rurik, i.; Madacsy, L. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 29-38

Part of the SWEET Project: EU (European Union), Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes: Working to Create Centres of Reference, was specifically to examine the training of health care ... [more ▼]

Part of the SWEET Project: EU (European Union), Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes: Working to Create Centres of Reference, was specifically to examine the training of health care professionals (HCPs) across the EU. Several types of information were collected during 2009, and these included a literature search, workshops of the SWEET members, examination of the data collected by the Hvidøre Study Group and the Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) Youth initiative, and a questionnaire distributed to SWEET members and professional colleagues who cared for children and young people (CYP) with diabetes. It was clear from the information collected that there was no European or global consensus either on a curriculum for the training of the paediatric diabetes multidisciplinary team (MDT) or individual professions in paediatric diabetes. A minority of countries had well-established training but, for the majority, there was little standardisation or accreditation. Moreover, most countries did not have available courses for training the diabetes MDT and training was not mandatory. Of the courses that were available more were accredited for doctors and nurses but fewer for the other professions. As a consequence, the majority of HCP posts in paediatric diabetes do not demand prior experience in the specialty. Standardised accredited training and continuous professional development (CPD) opportunities are severely limited. The SWEET Project supports a standardised, accredited approach to training and CPD of the MDT and for individual professions. As a consequence, a curriculum for the training of the MDT was developed, and this is now ready for implementation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailProinsulin, GLP-1, and glucagon are associated with partial remission in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
Kaas, A.; Max Andersen, M. L.; Fredheim, S. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(1), 51-58

Objective: Proinsulin is a marker of beta-cell distress and dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and transplanted islets. Proinsulin levels are elevated in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Our aim ... [more ▼]

Objective: Proinsulin is a marker of beta-cell distress and dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and transplanted islets. Proinsulin levels are elevated in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to assess the relationship between proinsulin, insulin dose-adjusted haemoglobin A1c (IDAA1C), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and remission status the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Methods: Juvenile patients (n = 275) were followed 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. At each visit, partial remission was defined as IDAA1C ≤9%. The patients had a liquid meal test at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month visits, which included measurement of C-peptide, proinsulin, GLP-1, glucagon, and insulin antibodies (IA). Results: Patients in remission at 6 and 12 months had significantly higher levels of proinsulin compared to non-remitting patients (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0002). An inverse association between proinsulin and IDAA1C was found at 1 and 6 months (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0022). Proinsulin was positively associated with C-peptide (p < 0.0001) and IA (p = 0.0024, p = 0.0068, p < 0.0001) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Glucagon (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.02) as well as GLP-1 (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.002) were significantly lower in remitters than in non-remitters at 6 and 12 months. Proinsulin associated positively with GLP-1 at 1 month (p = 0.004) and negatively at 6 (p = 0.002) and 12 months (p = 0.0002). Conclusions: In type 1 diabetes, patients in partial remission have higher levels of proinsulin together with lower levels of GLP-1 and glucagon compared to patients not in remission. In new onset type 1 diabetes proinsulin level may be a sign of better residual beta-cell function. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGrowth differences between North American and European children at risk for type 1 diabetes
Nucci, A.M.; Becker, D.J.; Virtanen, S.M. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012)

AIM: To evaluate the relationships between early growth and regional variations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in an international cohort of children with familial and genetic risk for T1D. METHODS ... [more ▼]

AIM: To evaluate the relationships between early growth and regional variations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in an international cohort of children with familial and genetic risk for T1D. METHODS: Anthropometric indices between birth to 5 yr of age were compared among regions and T1D proband in 2160 children participating in the Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk study. RESULTS: Children in Northern Europe had the highest weight z-score between birth to 12 months of age, while those in Southern Europe and U.S.A. had the lowest weight and length/height z-scores at most time points (p < 0.005 to p < 0.001). Few differences in z-score values for weight, height, and body mass index were found by maternal T1D status. Using International Obesity Task Force criteria, the obesity rates generally increased with age and at 5 yr were highest in males in Northern Europe (6.0%) and in females in Canada (12.8%). However, no statistically significance difference was found by geographic region. In Canada, the obesity rate for female children of mothers with and without T1D differed significantly at 4 and 5 yr (6.0 vs. 0.0% and 21.3 vs. 1.9%, respectively; p < 0.0125) but no differences by maternal T1D status were found in other regions. CONCLUSIONS: There are regional differences in early childhood growth that are consistent with the higher incidence of T1D in Northern Europe and Canada as compared to Southern Europe. Our prospective study from birth will allow evaluation of relationships between growth and the emerging development of autoimmunity and progression to T1D by region in this at-risk population of children [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHarmonize care to optimize outcome in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: treatment recommendations in Europe.
De Beaufort, Carine UL; Vazeou, Andreani; Sumnik, Zdenek et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2012), 13 Suppl 16

OBJECTIVE: Identify and evaluate current treatment recommendations in Europe for the care of children with diabetes in view of the European Union (EU) recommendations for Reference Centers. METHODS: A ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Identify and evaluate current treatment recommendations in Europe for the care of children with diabetes in view of the European Union (EU) recommendations for Reference Centers. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent in 2008 to representatives of all EU countries and Norway, all known to be actively involved in pediatric diabetes care. Participants were asked whether specific guidelines were recommended and applied in their countries; when possible, they were invited to forward their national guidelines. As a second step, we evaluated the guideline mostly used in relationship to the recommendations of the EU. RESULTS: Information was obtained from all EU countries (including Scotland and Norway). National guidelines, as available, were forwarded for review. A 15/29 reported to use the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines (CPCG), whereas 10 reported using national guidelines. These national guidelines were partly based on and/or compatible with ISPAD guidelines, but in most cases were far less detailed. The size and presentation differed (web based, booklet, page or chapter in adult guidelines). In four countries, no specific guidelines were used. As ISPAD CPCG were used most frequently, its content was evaluated within the EU Centres of Reference recommendations and minor changes were made in agreement with the ISPAD editor. DISCUSSION: Differences between guidelines may influence surveillance and quality of care in pediatric diabetes within Europe. Although a majority of countries is using or at least mentioning the ISPAD CPCG, their implementation as EU standard needs further endorsement. As language difficulties may hamper its implementation on a wider scale, further translation of the ISPAD guidelines should be endorsed to render it accessible to all healthcare professionals. With respect to the content, some changes were then made in agreement with the editors, adjusting them to the European context. For European Reference Centers, some further guidance on research may be included. Once implemented on an EU wide level, benchmarking of carefully defined robust quality of care and quality of life indicators will allow us to improve these guidelines on a regular basis ensuring an evidence-based care for all children with diabetes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (0 UL)