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See detailThe genetic and regulatory architecture of ERBB3-type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus
Kaur, S.; Mirza, A. H.; Brorsson, C. A. et al

in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (2016), 419

The study aimed to explore the role of ERBB3 in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We examined whether genetic variation of ERBB3 (rs2292239) affects residual β-cell function in T1D cases. Furthermore, we examined ... [more ▼]

The study aimed to explore the role of ERBB3 in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We examined whether genetic variation of ERBB3 (rs2292239) affects residual β-cell function in T1D cases. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ERBB3 in human islets, the effect of ERBB3 knockdown on apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1E cells and the genetic and regulatory architecture of the ERBB3 locus to provide insights to how rs2292239 may confer disease susceptibility. rs2292239 strongly correlated with residual β-cell function and metabolic control in children with T1D. ERBB3 locus associated lncRNA (NONHSAG011351) was found to be expressed in human islets. ERBB3 was expressed and down-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human islets and INS-1E cells; knockdown of ERBB3 in INS-1E cells decreased basal and cytokine-induced apoptosis. Our data suggests an important functional role of ERBB3 and its potential regulators in the β-cells and may constitute novel targets to prevent β-cell destruction in T1D. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSperm phenotype of mice carrying a gene deletion for the plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin dependent ATPase 4.
Withers, Sarah; Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Neyses, Ludwig UL

in Molecular and cellular endocrinology (2006), 250(1-2), 93-7

The sarcolemmal calcium pumps (PMCA for plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin dependent ATPase) are a family of 10 transmembrane domain proteins ejecting calcium from the cytosol. They are encoded by four ... [more ▼]

The sarcolemmal calcium pumps (PMCA for plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin dependent ATPase) are a family of 10 transmembrane domain proteins ejecting calcium from the cytosol. They are encoded by four independent genes and at least 21 splice variants have been described. Isoforms 1 and 4 are ubiquitous, whereas isoforms 2 and 3 are confined to neurons and few other cells (e.g. isoform 2 in the myocardium). In non-excitable cells they are thought to be the only calcium ejection systems and their function as governors of calcium balance is hence intuitive since cells cannot survive in a state of calcium overload. Differences in the affinity of the various isoforms for calcium, ATP and calmodulin have been described, but it is unclear whether the pumps have specialized functions over and above their 'housekeeping' role. In particular, in excitable cells, most calcium is ejected by the sodium/calcium exchanger suggesting that the PMCAs may have evolved into a specialized role. Recently, our group has identified a number of specialized functions of the PMCAs, notably a prominent regulatory role of PMCA4 (splice variant b) for neuronal NO synthase as well as for the Ras pathway. In addition, mice carrying a genetic deletion of the PMCA4 gene showed normal female, but completely infertile male animals. This is due to a highly specific defect in sperm motility, which is reduced to zero, with normal fertilization capacity. Overall, a scenario emerges where the plasma membrane calcium pumps fulfil roles far beyond the traditional housekeeping function, notably in cell signaling, sperm motility, and potentially in cell division. Consequently, we are currently exploring their potential as future drug targets for a variety of conditions, as well as their potential use in the development of a male contraception. [less ▲]

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