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See detailDesign and Simulation of a Real-Time Implementable Energy-Efficient Model-Predictive Cruise Controller for Electric Vehicles
Schwickart, Tim Klemens UL; Voos, Holger UL; Minaglou, Jean-Régis UL et al

in Journal of the Franklin Institute (2015), 352(2), 603-625

This paper presents the design of a novel energy-efficient model-predictive cruise controller for electric vehicles as well a simulation model of the longitudinal vehicle dynamics and its energy ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the design of a novel energy-efficient model-predictive cruise controller for electric vehicles as well a simulation model of the longitudinal vehicle dynamics and its energy consumption. Both, the controller and the dynamic model are designed to meet the properties of a series-production electric vehicle whose characteristics are identified and verified by measurements. A predictive eco-cruise controller involves the minimisation of a compromise between terms related to driving speed and energy consumption which are in general both described by nonlinear differential equations. Considering the nonlinearities is essential for a proper prediction of the system states over the prediction horizon to achieve the desired energy-saving behaviour. In this work, the vehicle motion equation is reformulated in terms of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle which leads to a linear differential equation without loss of information. The energy consumption is modeled implicitly by exploiting the special form of the optimisation problem. The reformulations finally lead to a model-predictive control approach with quadratic cost function, linear prediction model and linear constraints that corresponds to a piecewise linear system behaviour and allows a fast real-time implementation with guaranteed convergence. Simulation results of the MPC controller and the simulation model in closed-loop operation finally provide a proof of concept. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear protocols for distributed consensus in directed networks of dynamic agents
Li, Yumei UL; Voos, Holger UL; Darouach, Mohamed

in Journal of the Franklin Institute (2015), 352(9), 3645-3669

This paper deals with the distributed consensus problem of multi-agent systems. While existing work mainly considers the design of linear protocols, we derive nonlinear protocols for directed networks of ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the distributed consensus problem of multi-agent systems. While existing work mainly considers the design of linear protocols, we derive nonlinear protocols for directed networks of dynamic agents with fi xed and switched topologies, respectively. The obtained nonlinear protocols have the same effectiveness as the existing linear protocols, however they can satisfy the input constraints of real world physical systems, as well as the state value restrictions of agents, which ensure the smooth communication of the whole network and the correct data transmission among agents under the limited bandwidth. In contrast to most existing approaches that commonly use the Lyapunov function theory in order to prove the consensus problem, simple and effective mathematical methods are developed here for this purpose. Based on the equivalent in fi nitesimal functions and differentials as well as linear approximations as comparatively simple mathematical tools, we prove that the distributed consensus is asymptotically reachable and derive the group decision values. For balanced topology structures, these nonlinear protocols in particular guarantee that the agents asymptotically reach an average-consensus. Furthermore, the obtained protocols relax the constraints on the communication links among the agents. Finally, simulations comprising the vertical alignment maneuver of a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the phase synchronization of three oscillators are studied, respectively. The simulation results underline that the developed nonlinear protocols are effective and feasible for distributed consensus in directed networks of dynamic multi-agent systems. [less ▲]

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See detailState constrained tracking control for nonlinear systems
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Marx, Benoît; Maquin, Didier et al

in Journal of the Franklin Institute (2015), 352(7), 2866-2886

This work addresses the model reference tracking control problem. It aims to highlight the encountered difficulties and the proposed solutions to achieve the tracking objective. Based on a literature ... [more ▼]

This work addresses the model reference tracking control problem. It aims to highlight the encountered difficulties and the proposed solutions to achieve the tracking objective. Based on a literature overview of linear and nonlinear reference tracking, the achievements and the limitations of the existing strategies are highlighted. This motivates the present work to propose clear control algorithms for perfect and approximate tracking controls of nonlinear systems described by Takagi-Sugeno models. First, perfect nonlinear tracking control is addressed and necessary structural conditions are stated. If these conditions do not hold, approximate tracking control is proposed and the choice of the reference model to be tracked as well as the choice of the criterion to be minimized are discussed with respect to the desired objectives. The case of constrained control input is also considered in order to anticipate and counteract the effect of the control saturation. [less ▲]

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