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See detailEIF4G1 is neither a strong nor a common risk factor for Parkinson's disease: evidence from large European cohorts
Huttenlocher, Johanna; Krüger, Rejko UL; Capetian, Philipp et al

in Journal of medical genetics (2014), 0

BACKGROUND: Missense mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma 1 (EIF4G1) gene have previously been implicated in familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A large PD family with ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Missense mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma 1 (EIF4G1) gene have previously been implicated in familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A large PD family with autosomal-dominant segregation showed a heterozygous missense mutation and additional patients were found to have unique sequence variants that have not been observed in controls. Subsequent studies have reported contradictory findings. METHODS: We assessed the relevance of EIF4G1 mutations in a European cohort of 2146 PD patients. Of these, 2051 sporadic PD patients were screened for the reported p.Ala502Val and p.Arg1205His mutations. In addition, the complete coding region of EIF4G1 was directly sequenced in 95 familial PD patients with autosomal-dominant inheritance. Moreover, we imputed the p.Arg1205His substitution and tested for association with PD in the Icelandic population (93 698 samples). RESULTS: We did not observe the presence of the p.Ala502Val substitution in our cohort; however, the p.Arg1205His mutation was identified in one sporadic PD patient. The same mutation was also found in 76 Icelandic subjects older than 65 years using haplotype imputing. Only five of these subjects reported PD symptoms (OR 1.3, p=0.50). Thus, if causal, the p.Arg1205His EIF4G1 mutation has a low penetrance or a late onset manifestation. A novel variant p.Arg566Cys found in a patient with familial PD did not cosegregate with PD in all three affected siblings. All further recently published EIF4G1 mutations found in our cohort are likely to be benign polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest genetic study of EIF4G1 mutations in PD. Our data do not support the EIF4G1 gene as a high-risk PD locus, neither for the familial nor the sporadic condition. Furthermore, the p.Arg1205His mutation is not significantly associated with increased risk of PD in the Icelandic population. Therefore, caution should be exercised when interpreting EIF4G1 genotyping results in isolated patients and PD families. In summary, diagnostic testing of EIF4G1 should not be recommended in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel heterozygous OPA3 mutation located in the mitochondrial target sequence results in altered steady-state levels and fragmented mitochondrial network.
Grau, Tanja; Burbulla, Lena F.; Engl, Gertraud et al

in Journal of medical genetics (2013), 50(12), 848-58

BACKGROUND: Mutations in OPA3 have been reported in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy plus cataract and Costeff syndrome. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive study on OPA3 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mutations in OPA3 have been reported in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy plus cataract and Costeff syndrome. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive study on OPA3 mutations, including the mutation spectrum and its prevalence in a large cohort of OPA1-negative autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) patients, the associated clinical phenotype and the functional characterisation of a newly identified OPA3 mutant. METHODS: Mutation analysis was carried out in a patient cohort of 121 independent ADOA patients. To characterise a novel OPA3 mutation, we analysed the mitochondrial import, steady-state levels and the mitochondrial localisation of the mutated protein in patients' fibroblasts. Furthermore, the morphology of mitochondria harbouring the mutated OPA3 was monitored. RESULTS: We identified four independent cases (representing families with multiple affected members) with OPA3 mutations. Besides the known p.Q105E mutation, we observed a novel insertion, c.10_11insCGCCCG/p.V3_G4insAP which is located in the mitochondrial presequence. Detailed functional analysis of mitochondria harbouring this novel mutation demonstrates a fragmented mitochondrial network with a decreased mitochondrial mass in patient fibroblasts. In addition, quantification of the OPA3 protein reveals decreased steady-state levels of the mutant protein compared with the native one. Comparison of the clinical phenotypes suggests that OPA3 mutations can additionally evoke hearing loss and by that extend the clinical manifestation of OPA3-associated optic atrophy. This finding is supported by expression analysis of OPA3 in murine cochlear tissue. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our study provides new insights into the clinical spectrum and the pathogenesis of dominant optic atrophy caused by mutations in the OPA3 gene. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-centre clinico-genetic analysis of the VPS35 gene in Parkinson disease indicates reduced penetrance for disease-associated variants.
Sharma, Manu; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Aasly, Jan O. et al

in Journal of medical genetics (2012), 49(11), 721-6

BACKGROUND: Two recent studies identified a mutation (p.Asp620Asn) in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene as a cause for an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson disease . Although additional missense ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Two recent studies identified a mutation (p.Asp620Asn) in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene as a cause for an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson disease . Although additional missense variants were described, their pathogenic role yet remains inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed the largest multi-center study to ascertain the frequency and pathogenicity of the reported vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene variants in more than 15,000 individuals worldwide. p.Asp620Asn was detected in 5 familial and 2 sporadic PD cases and not in healthy controls, p.Leu774Met in 6 cases and 1 control, p.Gly51Ser in 3 cases and 2 controls. Overall analyses did not reveal any significant increased risk for p.Leu774Met and p.Gly51Ser in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study apart from identifying the p.Asp620Asn variant in familial cases also identified it in idiopathic Parkinson disease cases, and thus provides genetic evidence for a role of p.Asp620Asn in Parkinson disease in different populations worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailPAX genes and human neural tube defects: an amino acid substitution in PAX1 in a patient with spina bifida.
Hol, F. A.; Geurds, M. P.; Chatkupt, S. et al

in Journal of Medical Genetics (1996), 33(8), 655-60

From studies in the mouse and from the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with type 1 Waardenburg syndrome, particular members of the PAX gene family are suspected factors in the aetiology of ... [more ▼]

From studies in the mouse and from the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with type 1 Waardenburg syndrome, particular members of the PAX gene family are suspected factors in the aetiology of human neural tube defects (NTD). To investigate the role of PAX1, PAX3, PAX7, and PAX9, allelic association studies were performed in 79 sporadic and 38 familial NTD patients from the Dutch population. Sequence variation was studied by SSC analysis of the paired domain regions of the PAX1, PAX7, and PAX9 genes and of the complete PAX3 gene. In one patient with spina bifida, a mutation in the PAX1 gene was detected changing the conserved amino acid Gln to His at position 42 in the paired domain of the protein. The mutation was inherited through the maternal line from the unaffected grandmother and was not detected in 300 controls. In the PAX3 gene, variation was detected at several sites including a Thr/Lys amino acid substitution in exon 6. All alleles were present among patients and controls in about the same frequencies. However, an increased frequency of the rare allele of a silent polymorphism in exon 2 was found in NTD patients, but no significant association was observed (p = 0.06). No sequence variation was observed in the paired domain of the PAX7 and PAX9 genes. Our findings so far do not support a major role of the PAX genes examined in the aetiology of NTD. However, the detection of a mutation in PAX1 suggests that, in principle, this gene can act as a risk factor for human NTD. [less ▲]

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