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See detailProgressive loss of PAX9 expression correlates with increasing malignancy of dysplastic and cancerous epithelium of the human oesophagus.
Gerber, Josef-Karl; Richter, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2002), 197(3), 293-7

Pax genes encode a family of transcription factors that play key roles in embryonic development. Whereas the functions of Pax genes in the adult organism are largely unknown, upregulated Pax gene ... [more ▼]

Pax genes encode a family of transcription factors that play key roles in embryonic development. Whereas the functions of Pax genes in the adult organism are largely unknown, upregulated Pax gene expression has been implicated in tumourigenesis. In this study, PAX9-specific monoclonal antibodies have been generated and it has been shown that PAX9 protein is expressed in the normal epithelium of the adult human oesophagus. PAX9 expression was either lost or significantly reduced in the majority of invasive carcinomas and epithelial dysplasias, the latter representing precancerous lesions. Notably, the percentage of PAX9-positive cells within the epithelium decreased with increasing malignancy of the epithelial lesion. These results identify PAX9 as a sensitive marker for deregulated differentiation of oesophageal keratinocytes and indicate a role for PAX9 in the normal differentiation process of internal stratified squamous epithelia. These data suggest that upregulated PAX9 expression is not required for the formation of the majority of squamous cell carcinomas of the human oesophagus. [less ▲]

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See detailCadherin-11 is highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcomas and during differentiation of myoblasts in vitro.
Markus, M. A.; Reichmuth, C.; Atkinson, M. J. et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1999), 187(2), 164-72

Rhabdomyosarcomas bear a morphological and genetic resemblance to developing skeletal muscle. Apart from myogenic marker genes (bHLH factors, myosin, actin), cell adhesion molecules such as N-cadherin and ... [more ▼]

Rhabdomyosarcomas bear a morphological and genetic resemblance to developing skeletal muscle. Apart from myogenic marker genes (bHLH factors, myosin, actin), cell adhesion molecules such as N-cadherin and N-CAM have been reported to be expressed both in rhabdomyosarcomas and during myogenesis. The present study demonstrates the expression of another cadherin, cadherin-11, in rhabdomyosarcomas and during differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: cadherin-11, a predominantly mesenchymal cell adhesion molecule, is highly expressed in embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, which do not bear the Pax-3-FKHR fusion previously described. Cadherin-11 is down-regulated in normal skeletal muscle and after myotube formation in vitro. The results of this study suggest that cadherin-11 might be involved in myogenesis and that rhabdomyosarcomas may re-express or fail to down-regulate cadherin-11. Since alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas bearing the t(2;13) translocation do not express cadherin-11, it is postulated that Pax-3 and cadherin-11 might be linked and involved in the same myogenic pathway. [less ▲]

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