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See detailProinflammatory T Cell Status Associated with Early Life Adversity
Elwenspoek, M.M.C.; Hemgesch, X.; Leenen, F.A.D et al

in Journal of Immunology (2017)

Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired ... [more ▼]

Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the ELA immune phenotype. The present investigation tested cell-specific immune differences in relationship to the ELA immune phenotype, altered stress parameters, and health behaviors in individuals with ELA (n = 42) and those without a history of ELA (control, n = 73). Relative number and activation status (CD25, CD69, HLA-DR, CD11a, CD11b) of monocytes, NK cells, B cells, T cells, and their main subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. ELA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of CD69+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.022), increased numbers of HLA-DR+ CD4 and HLA-DR+ CD8 T cells (p < 0.001), as well as increased numbers of CD25+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.036). ELA also showed a trend toward higher numbers of CCR4+CXCR3−CCR6+ CD4 T cells. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Although several aspects of the ELA immune phenotype were related to increased activation markers, neither stress nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Thus, the state of immune activation in ELA does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. [less ▲]

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See detailBroad RNA interference-mediated antiviral immunity and virus-specific inducible responses in Drosophila
Kemp, Cordula; Mueller, Stefanie; Goto, Akira et al

in Journal of Immunology (2013), 190(2), 650-658

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to unravel the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity and has led to some important discoveries about the sensing and signaling of microbial ... [more ▼]

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to unravel the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity and has led to some important discoveries about the sensing and signaling of microbial infections. The response of Drosophila to virus infections remains poorly characterized and appears to involve two facets. On the one hand, RNA interference involves the recognition and processing of dsRNA into small interfering RNAs by the host RNase Dicer-2 (Dcr-2), whereas, on the other hand, an inducible response controlled by the evolutionarily conserved JAK-STAT pathway contributes to the antiviral host defense. To clarify the contribution of the small interfering RNA and JAK-STAT pathways to the control of viral infections, we have compared the resistance of flies wild-type and mutant for Dcr-2 or the JAK kinase Hopscotch to infections by seven RNA or DNA viruses belonging to different families. Our results reveal a unique susceptibility of hop mutant flies to infection by Drosophila C virus and cricket paralysis virus, two members of the Dicistroviridae family, which contrasts with the susceptibility of Dcr-2 mutant flies to many viruses, including the DNA virus invertebrate iridescent virus 6. Genome-wide microarray analysis confirmed that different sets of genes were induced following infection by Drosophila C virus or by two unrelated RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus. Overall, our data reveal that RNA interference is an efficient antiviral mechanism, operating against a large range of viruses, including a DNA virus. By contrast, the antiviral contribution of the JAK-STAT pathway appears to be virus specific. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAn essential role of STIM1, Orai1, and S100A8-A9 proteins for Ca2+ signaling and FcγR-mediated phagosomal oxidative activity
Steinckwich, Natacha; Schenten, Véronique UL; Melchior, Chantal UL et al

in Journal of Immunology (2011), 186(4), 2182-2191

Phagocytosis is a process of innate immunity that allows for the enclosure of pathogens within the phagosome and their subsequent destruction through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS ... [more ▼]

Phagocytosis is a process of innate immunity that allows for the enclosure of pathogens within the phagosome and their subsequent destruction through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although these processes have been associated with increases of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) could regulate the different phases of phagocytosis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the Ca(2+) signaling pathways involved in the regulation of FcγRs-induced phagocytosis. Our work focuses on IgG-opsonized zymosan internalization and phagosomal ROS production in DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells and neutrophils. We found that chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA or emptying of the intracellular Ca(2+) store by thapsigargin reduced the efficiency of zymosan internalization. Using an small interfering RNA strategy, our data establish that the observed Ca(2+) release occurs through two isoforms of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, ITPR1 and ITPR3. In addition, we provide evidence that phagosomal ROS production is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) entry. We demonstrate that the observed Ca(2+) influx is supported by ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orai1) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). This result suggests that extracellular Ca(2+) entry, which is required for ROS production, is mediated by a store-operated Ca(2+) mechanism. Finally, our data identify the complex formed by S100A8 and S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A8 and A9 complex), two Ca(2+)-binding proteins, as the site of interplay between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intraphagosomal ROS production. Thus, we demonstrate that FcγR-mediated phagocytosis requires intracellular Ca(2+) store depletion for the internalization phase. Then phagosomal ROS production requires extracellular Ca(2+) entry mediated by Orai1/STIM1 and relayed by S100A8-A9 as Ca(2+) sensor. [less ▲]

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See detailAn unusual insertion in Jak2 is crucial for kinase activity and differentially affects cytokine responses
Haan, Claude UL; Kroy, Daniela C.; Wüller, Stefan et al

in Journal of Immunology (2009), 182(5), 2969-2977

The Janus kinases, Jaks, constitutively associate with the cytoplasmic region of cytokine receptors and play an important role in a multitude of biological processes. Jak2 dysfunction has been implicated ... [more ▼]

The Janus kinases, Jaks, constitutively associate with the cytoplasmic region of cytokine receptors and play an important role in a multitude of biological processes. Jak2 dysfunction has been implicated in myeloproliferative diseases and leukemia. Although Jaks were studied extensively for many years, the molecular mechanism of Jak activation upon cytokine stimulation of cells is still incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the importance of an unusual insertion located within the kinase domain in Jak2. We found that the deletion of this insertion, which we named the Jak-specific insertion (JSI), totally abrogates Jak2 autophosphorylation. We further point mutated four residues within the JSI that are conserved in all Jak family members. Three of these mutants showed abrogated or reduced autophosphorylation, whereas the fourth displayed increased autophosphorylation. We found that the phosphorylation state of these mutants is not influenced by other domains of the kinase. Our data further suggest that the JSI is not required for the negative regulation of kinase activity by the suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins, SOCS. Most importantly, we show that mutations in this region differentially affect IFN-gamma and erythropoietin signal transduction. Taken together, the dramatic effects on the phosphorylation status of Jak2 as well as the differential effects on the signaling via different cytokines highlight the importance of this unusual region for the catalytic activity of Jaks. [less ▲]

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See detailOncostatin M-induced and constitutive activation of the JAK2/STAT5/CIS pathway suppresses CCL1, but not CCL7 and CCL8, chemokine expression
Hintzen, Christoph UL; Haan, Claude UL; Tuckermann, Jan P. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2009), 181(10), 7341-7349

The recruitment of leukocytes to injured tissue is crucial for the initiation of inflammatory responses as well as for immune surveillance to fight tumor progression. In this study, we show that ... [more ▼]

The recruitment of leukocytes to injured tissue is crucial for the initiation of inflammatory responses as well as for immune surveillance to fight tumor progression. In this study, we show that oncostatin M, a member of the IL-6-type cytokine family and potent proinflammatory cytokine stimulates the expression of the chemokines CCL1, CCL7, and CCL8 in primary human dermal fibroblasts at a faster kinetic than IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The production of CCL1 and CCL8 is important for migration of monocytes, while specific Abs against CCL1 additionally inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes. We identify the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38 as crucial factors for the enhanced expression of CCL1 and CCL8. Depletion of the ERK1/2 target genes c-Jun or c-Fos strongly decrease CCL1 and CCL8 expression, while p38 MAPK prolongs the half-life of CCL1, CCL7, and CCL8 mRNA through inhibition of tristetraprolin. None of the STAT transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, or STAT5 stimulate transcription of CCL1 or CCL8. However, we identify a negative regulatory function of activated STAT5 for the gene expression of CCL1. Importantly, not STAT5 itself, but its target gene cytokine inducible SH2-domain containing protein is required for the STAT5 inhibitory effect on CCL1 expression. Finally, we show that constitutive activation of STAT5 through a mutated form of JAK2 (JAK2 V617F) occurring in patients with myeloproliferative disorders similarly suppresses CCL1 expression. Taken together, we identify novel important inflammatory target genes of OSM which are independent of STAT signaling per se, but depend on MAPK activation and are partly repressed through STAT5-dependent expression of cytokine inducible SH2-domain containing protein. [less ▲]

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See detailDual role of the Jak1 FERM and kinase domains in cytokine receptor binding and in stimulation-dependent Jak activation
Haan, Serge UL; Margue, Christiane UL; Engrand, A. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2008), 180(2), 998-1007

Jak1 is a tyrosine kinase that noncovalently forms tight complexes with a variety of cytokine receptors and is critically involved in signal transduction via cytokines. Jaks are predicted to have a 4.1 ... [more ▼]

Jak1 is a tyrosine kinase that noncovalently forms tight complexes with a variety of cytokine receptors and is critically involved in signal transduction via cytokines. Jaks are predicted to have a 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain at their N terminus. FERM domains are composed of three structurally unrelated subdomains (F1, F2, and F3) which are in close contact to one another and form the clover-shaped FERM domain. We generated a model structure of the Jak1 FERM domain, based on solved FERM structures and the alignments with other FERM domains. To destabilize different subdomains and to uncover their exact function, we mutated specific hydrophobic residues conserved in FERM domains and involved in hydrophobic core interactions. In this study, we show that the structural integrity of the F2 subdomain of the FERM domain of Jak1 is necessary to bind the IFN-gammaRalpha. By mutagenesis of hydrophobic residues in the hydrophobic core between the three FERM subdomains, we find that the structural context of the FERM domain is necessary for the inhibition of Jak1 phosphorylation. Thus, FERM domain mutations can have repercussions on Jak1 function. Interestingly, a mutation in the kinase domain (Jak1-K907E), known to abolish the catalytic activity, also leads to an impaired binding to the IFN-gammaRalpha when this mutant is expressed at endogenous levels in U4C cells. Our data show that the structural integrity of both the FERM domain and of the kinase domain is essential for both receptor binding and catalytic function/autoinhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailContributions of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor and oncostatin M receptor to signal transduction in heterodimeric complexes with glycoprotein 130
Hermanns, H. M.; Radtke, S.; Haan, Claude UL et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 163(12), 6651-8

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M (OSM) lead to heterodimerization of LIF receptor (LIFR) or the OSM-specific receptor (OSMR) with ... [more ▼]

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M (OSM) lead to heterodimerization of LIF receptor (LIFR) or the OSM-specific receptor (OSMR) with glycoprotein (gp) 130, the common receptor subunit for IL-6-type cytokines. Thereby intracellular signaling via Janus kinases (Jaks) and STAT transcription factors is initiated. We investigated the contributions of LIFR and OSMR to signal transduction in the context of heterodimers with gp130. Chimeric receptors based on the extracellular parts of the IL-5R alpha- and beta-chains were generated, allowing the induced heterodimerization of two different cytoplasmic tails. Our studies demonstrate that upon heterodimerization with the gp130 cytoplasmic region, the cytoplasmic parts of both LIFR and OSMR were critical for activation of an acute phase protein promoter in HepG2 hepatoma cells. The membrane-proximal region of LIFR or OSMR was crucial for the ability of such receptor complexes to induce DNA binding of STAT1 and STAT3 in COS-7 cells. Membrane-distal regions of LIFR and OSMR contributed to STAT activation even in the absence of gp130 STAT recruitment sites. We further show that the Janus kinases Jak1 and Jak2 constitutively associated with receptor constructs containing the cytoplasmic part of LIFR, OSMR, or gp130, respectively. Homodimers of the LIFR or OSMR cytoplasmic regions did not elicit responses in COS-7 cells but did in HepG2 cells and in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Thus, in spite of extensive functional similarities, differential signaling abilities of gp130, LIFR, and OSMR may become evident in a cell-type-specific manner. [less ▲]

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See detailSignal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal attenuation
Anhuf, D.; Weissenbach, M.; Schmitz, J. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(5), 2535-43

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two ... [more ▼]

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two-SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that is activated by many cytokines and growth factors. SHP2 counteracts the activation of transcription factors of the STAT family and the induction of IL-6-responsive genes. Tyrosine 759 of gp130, the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6R complex, is essential for the phosphorylation of SHP2. Mutation of tyrosine 759 to phenylalanine leads to an enhanced inducibility of IL-6-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that no further tyrosines in the cytoplasmic part of gp130 are required for the phosphorylation of SHP2. We also tested whether the tyrosine 759 motifs in both subunits of the gp130 dimer are required for SHP2 association and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, one SHP2-recruiting phosphotyrosine motif in a single chain of the gp130 dimer is sufficient to mediate SHP2 association to the gp130 receptor subunit and its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as to attenuate IL-6-dependent gene induction. Furthermore, we show that repression of gene induction via Y759 does not require the presence of the SHP2 and STAT recruitment sites within the same receptor subunit, but within the same receptor complex. The Y759 motif in gp130 also attenuates gene induction mediated by the oncostatin M and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor complexes, which both contain gp130 as the shared subunit. [less ▲]

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