References of "Intelligence"
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See detailWhy are difficult figural matrices hard to solve? The role of selective encoding and working memory capacity
Krieger, Florian UL; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Intelligence (2019), 72

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically ... [more ▼]

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically managed sub-goals (goal management), which requires more working memory capacity (WMC). The current research addresses the necessity to apply selective encoding as a requirement that goes beyond the ability to manage goals when solving figural matrices. In the first study (N = 38), we found that selective encoding demands are present in items with multiple rules in addition to goal management demands. Furthermore, eye movement data indicated that rule induction was hampered when selective encoding demands were present. The second study (N = 127) de-monstrated that individuals' ability to filter relevant features in working memory was positively related to figural matrices items with selective encoding demands. Moreover, there was no evidence that other sources of WMC are related to goal management in figural matrices. Hence, this study provides preliminary evidence that fil-tering of relevant information in working memory is critical for solving figural matrices with multiple rules and challenges the view that goal management is the only driver of the relationship between WMC and performance in solving figural matrices with multiple rules. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects in middle childhood in a large German twin sample
Gottschling, Juliana UL; Hahn, E.; Beam, C.R. et al

in Intelligence (2019), 72

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See detailIntelligence in action. Effective strategic behaviors while solving complex problems.
Lotz, Christin; Scherer, Ronny; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Intelligence (2017), 64

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See detailMetacognitive confidence judgments and their link to complex problem solving
Rudolph, Julia UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Intelligence (2017)

With the aim to better understand the nature of complex problem solving (CPS), we investigated the link between confidence judgments, which represent a major constituent of metacognitive self-monitoring ... [more ▼]

With the aim to better understand the nature of complex problem solving (CPS), we investigated the link between confidence judgments, which represent a major constituent of metacognitive self-monitoring, and CPS by regressing the two facets of CPS (i.e., knowledge acquisition and knowledge application) on confidence in CPS. To ensure that the link between confidence in CPS and CPS is distinct, we controlled for reasoning, which is the strongest known correlate of CPS. Using structural equation modeling in a sample of 471 German eventh- grade students, we found that confidence in CPS explained 67% of the variance in CPS knowledge acquisition and 55% of the variance in CPS knowledge application. These links were reduced but remained substantial when we controlled for reasoning. The results indicate that confidence judgments as indicators of metacognitive monitoring in CPS are substantially linked to successful CPS, thus bringing us one step closer to a full understanding of CPS. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex problem solving in educational contexts. Still something beyond a “good g”?
Lotz, Christin; Sparfeldt, Jörn R.; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Intelligence (2016), 59

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See detailConstruct validity of complex problem solving: A comprehensive view on different facets of intelligence and school grades
Kretzschmar, André UL; Neubert, Jonas UL; Wüstenberg, Sascha UL et al

in Intelligence (2016), 54

Although Complex Problem Solving (CPS) has attracted increasing amounts of attention in recent years (e.g., PISA study), the role of CPS in the nomological network of intelligence is controversial. The ... [more ▼]

Although Complex Problem Solving (CPS) has attracted increasing amounts of attention in recent years (e.g., PISA study), the role of CPS in the nomological network of intelligence is controversial. The question of whether CPS is a distinct construct is as old as CPS research itself, but previous studies have had specific shortcomings when addressing the question of whether CPS is a separable or independent construct. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to combine the advantages of previous studies to facilitate a less biased view of the relation between CPS and established intelligence constructs. A sample of 227 German university students worked on a comprehensive measure of intelligence (Berlin Intelligence Structure test) and two CPS assessment tools (MicroDYN and MicroFIN). Furthermore, final school grades (GPA) served as an external criterion. We applied confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling to investigate the relation between CPS and established intelligence constructs on the basis of different psychometric approaches (i.e., first-order model, nested factor model). Moreover, we examined the incremental validity of CPS in explaining GPA beyond established intelligence constructs. Results indicate that CPS represents unique variance that is not accounted for by established intelligence constructs. The incremental validity of CPS was found only when a commonly used narrow operationalization of intelligence was applied (i.e., figural reasoning) but not when a broad operationalization was applied. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligence and school grades: A meta-analysis
Roth, Bettina; Becker, Nicolas; Romeyke, Sara et al

in Intelligence (2015), 53

Intelligence is considered as the strongest predictor of scholastic achievement. Research as well as educational policy and the society as a whole are deeply interested in its role as a prerequisite for ... [more ▼]

Intelligence is considered as the strongest predictor of scholastic achievement. Research as well as educational policy and the society as a whole are deeply interested in its role as a prerequisite for scholastic success. The present study investigated the population correlation between standardized intelligence tests and school grades employing psychometric meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). The analyses involved 240 independent samples with 105,185 participants overall. After correcting for sampling error, error of measurement, and range restriction in the independent variable, we found a population correlation of ρ = .54. Moderator analyses pointed to a variation of the relationship between g and school grades depending on different school subject domains, grade levels, the type of intelligence test used in the primary study, as well as the year of publication, whereas gender had no effect on the magnitude of the relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex Problem Solving and intelligence. A meta-analysis
Stadler, Matthias UL; Becker, N.; Gödker, M. et al

in Intelligence (2015), 53

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See detailExploring the relation between speed and ability in complex problem solving
Scherer, Ronny; Greiff, Samuel UL; Hautamäki, J.

in Intelligence (2015), 48

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See detailChildhood intelligence and adult health: The mediating roles of education and socioeconomic status
Wrulich, Marius UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Stadler, Gertraud et al

in Intelligence (2013), 41(5), 490-500

The longitudinal relation between childhood intelligence and various health outcomes in adulthood is now well-established. One mediational model that accounts for this relation proposes that intelligence ... [more ▼]

The longitudinal relation between childhood intelligence and various health outcomes in adulthood is now well-established. One mediational model that accounts for this relation proposes that intelligence has cumulative indirect effects on adult health via subsequent educational attainment and adult socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of the present study was to examine whether and the extent to which educational attainment and {SES} mediate the impact of childhood intelligence on three dimensions of adult health in Luxembourg, a country with high-quality universal public health care. We used data from 745 participants in the Luxembourgish {MAGRIP} study. At the age of 12, participants completed a comprehensive intelligence test. At the age of 52, they reported their educational careers, SES, and functional, subjective, and physical health status. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated the direct and indirect effects (via educational attainment and adult SES) of childhood intelligence on adult health. We found that higher childhood intelligence predicted better functional, subjective, and physical health in adulthood. These effects were entirely mediated via educational attainment and SES. The mediational processes differed depending on the health dimension under investigation: Whereas {SES} was crucial in mediating the effect of intelligence on functional and subjective health, educational attainment was crucial in mediating the effect on physical health. These findings held up when considering adult intelligence and were similar for women and men. Our results suggest that even excellent public health care cannot fully offset the cumulative effects of childhood intelligence on adult health. Further studies are needed to investigate the relative importance of different mediators in the intelligence–health relation while including a broader set of objective health measures. [less ▲]

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See detailA multitrait-multimethod study of assessment instruments for Complex Problem Solving
Greiff, Samuel UL; Fischer, Andreas; Wüstenberg, Sascha UL et al

in Intelligence (2013), 41

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See detailGender Differences in the Mean Level, Variability, and Profile Shape of Student Achievement: Results From 41 Countries
Brunner, Martin; Gogol, Katarzyna UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL et al

in Intelligence (2013), 41(5), 378-395

A domain-specific hierarchical conceptualization of mathematics achievement can be represented by the standard psychometric model in which a single latent dimension accounts for observed individual ... [more ▼]

A domain-specific hierarchical conceptualization of mathematics achievement can be represented by the standard psychometric model in which a single latent dimension accounts for observed individual differences in scores on the respective subdomains (e.g., quantity). Alternatively, a fully hierarchical conceptualization of achievement can be represented by a nested-factor model in which individual differences in subdomain-specific scores are explained by both general student achievement and specific mathematics achievement. The authors applied both models to study the gender similarity hypothesis, the greater male variability hypothesis, and the masking hypothesis, which predicts that gender differences in general student achievement mask gender differences in both the means and the variability of specific mathematics achievement. Representative data were obtained from 275,369 15-year-old students in 41 countries. The results supported these hypotheses in most countries, demonstrating that a fully hierarchical conceptualization of achievement in terms of the nested-factor model significantly contributes to a better understanding of gender differences in the mean level, variability, and shape of students’ achievement profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents’ Complex Problem-Solving Abilities: Their Structure and Relations to Reasoning Ability and Educational Success
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Keller, Ulrich UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

in Intelligence (2013), 41(5), 289-305

Complex Problem Solving (CPS) is considered to be a promising candidate for capturing higher order thinking skills that are emphasized in new educational curricula but are not adequately measured by ... [more ▼]

Complex Problem Solving (CPS) is considered to be a promising candidate for capturing higher order thinking skills that are emphasized in new educational curricula but are not adequately measured by traditional intelligence tests. However, little is known about its psychometric structure and its exact relation to intelligence and educational success—especially in student populations. This study is among the first to use a large and representative sample of secondary school students (N = 563) to examine different measurement models of CPS—that conceptualize the construct as either faceted or hierarchical—and their implications for the construct’s validity. Results showed that no matter which way it was conceptualized, CPS was substantially related to reasoning and to different indicators of educational success. Controlling for reasoning within a joint hierarchical measurement model, however, revealed that the impressive external validity was largely attributable to the variance that CPS shares with reasoning, suggesting that CPS has only negligible incremental validity over and above traditional intelligence scales. On the basis of these results, the value of assessing CPS within the educational context is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex Problem Solving. More than reasoning?
Wüstenberg, Sascha UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Funke, Joachim

in Intelligence (2012), 40

This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a Multiple-Item-Approach. It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS – rule ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a Multiple-Item-Approach. It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS – rule identification (adequateness of strategies), rule knowledge (generated knowledge) and rule application (ability to control a system) – can be empirically distinguished, how (b) reasoning is related to these CPS-facets and if (c) CPS shows incremental validity in predicting school grade point average (GPA) beyond reasoning. N=222 university students completed Micro-DYN, a computer-based CPS test and Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices. Analysis including structural equation models showed that a 2-dimensionsal model of CPS including rule knowledge and rule application fitted the data best. Furthermore, reasoning predicted performance in rule application only indirectly through its influence on rule knowledge indicating that learning during system exploration is a prerequisite for controlling a system successfully. Finally, CPS explained variance in GPA even beyond reasoning, showing incremental validity of CPS. Thus, CPS measures important aspects of academic performance not assessed by reasoning and should be considered when predicting real life criteria such as GPA. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren's working memory: Its structure and relationship to fluid intelligence
Hornung, Caroline UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Reuter, Bob UL et al

in Intelligence (2011), 39(4), 210-221

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on how strongly WM components are related to higher order thinking skills such as fluid intelligence. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the theories and findings derived from adult data generalize to children. The purpose of the present study is therefore to investigate children's WM (N = 161), who attended classes at the end of kindergarten in Luxembourg. Specifically, we examine different structural models of WM and how its components, as defined in these models, are related to fluid intelligence. Our results indicate that short-term storage capacity primarily explains the relationship between WM and fluid intelligence. Based on these observations we discuss the theoretical and methodological issues that arise when children's WM is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory and fluid intelligence in young children
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Conway, A. R. A.; Gathercole, S. E.

in Intelligence (2010), 38(6), 552-561

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working ... [more ▼]

The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system-short-term storage or cognitive control-drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but separate constructs in young children. The results further showed that when the common variance between working memory and short-term memory was controlled, the residual working memory factor manifested significant links with fluid intelligence whereas the residual short-term memory factor did not. These findings suggest that in young children cognitive control mechanisms rather than the storage component of working memory span tasks are the source of their link with fluid intelligence. [less ▲]

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