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See detailThe complement regulator CD46 is bactericidal to Helicobacter pylori and blocks urease activity
Basmarke-Wehelie, Rahma; Sjolinder, Hong; Jurkowski, Wiktor UL et al

in Gastroenterology (2011), 141(3), 918-28

BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD46 is a C3b/C4b binding complement regulator and a receptor for several human pathogens. We examined the interaction between CD46 and Helicobacter pylori (a bacterium that colonizes ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD46 is a C3b/C4b binding complement regulator and a receptor for several human pathogens. We examined the interaction between CD46 and Helicobacter pylori (a bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and causes gastritis), peptic ulcers, and cancer. METHODS: Using gastric epithelial cells, we analyzed a set of H pylori strains and mutants for their ability to interact with CD46 and/or influence CD46 expression. Bacterial interaction with full-length CD46 and small CD46 peptides was evaluated by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bacterial survival analyses. RESULTS: H pylori infection caused shedding of CD46 into the extracellular environment. A soluble form of CD46 bound to H pylori and inhibited growth, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, by interacting with urease and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, which are essential bacterial pathogenicity-associated factors. Binding of CD46 or CD46-derived synthetic peptides blocked the urease activity and ability of bacteria to survive in acidic environments. Oral administration of one CD46 peptide eradicated H pylori from infected mice. CONCLUSIONS: CD46 is an antimicrobial agent that can eradicate H pylori. CD46 peptides might be developed to treat H pylori infection. [less ▲]

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See detailSustained IL-6/STAT-3 signaling in cholangiocarcinoma cells due to SOCS-3 epigenetic silencing.
Isomoto, Hajime; Mott, Justin L.; Kobayashi, Shogo et al

in Gastroenterology (2007), 132(1), 384-96

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin 6 (IL-6)-mediated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation (activation) is aberrantly sustained in cholangiocarcinoma cells resulting in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin 6 (IL-6)-mediated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation (activation) is aberrantly sustained in cholangiocarcinoma cells resulting in enhanced myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) expression and resistance to apoptosis. Because suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS) controls the IL-6/STAT-3 signaling pathway by a classic feedback loop, the aims of this study were to examine SOCS-3 regulation in human cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: SOCS-3 expression was assessed in human cholangiocarcinoma tissue and the Mz-ChA-1 and CCLP1 human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. RESULTS: An inverse correlation was observed between phospho-STAT-3 and SOCS-3 protein expression in cholangiocarcinoma. In those cancers failing to express SOCS-3, extensive methylation of the SOCS-3 promoter was demonstrated in tumor but not in paired nontumor tissue. Likewise, methylation of the socs-3 promoter was also identified in 2 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), restored IL-6 induction of SOCS-3, terminated the phospho-STAT-3 response, and reduced cellular levels of Mcl-1. Enforced expression of SOCS-3 also reduced IL-6 induction of phospho-STAT-3 and Mcl-1. Either DAC treatment or enforced SOCS-3 expression sensitized the cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: SOCS-3 epigenetic silencing is responsible for sustained IL-6/STAT-3 signaling and enhanced Mcl-1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma. [less ▲]

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