References of "European Societies"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEducation systems and the dynamics of educational inequalities in low educational attainment: a closer look at England (UK), Finland, Luxembourg, and German-speaking Switzerland
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Uusitalo, Erica

in European Societies (2016), 18(3), 264-287

For decades, reforms aiming at educational expansion attempted to boost economic growth and to reduce inequalities. This study sheds light on the link between institutional settings of the education ... [more ▼]

For decades, reforms aiming at educational expansion attempted to boost economic growth and to reduce inequalities. This study sheds light on the link between institutional settings of the education system and educational inequalities in the course of educational expansion along two axes of inequality: social origin and gender. Looking at the educational attainment of cohorts born between 1925 and 1982 in the European Social Survey data, changing patterns of inequalities are analysed regarding four distinct education systems – England (UK), Finland, Luxembourg, and (Germanspeaking) Switzerland. Employing a comparative perspective, characteristics of the educational system that influence the societal change of educational levels and educational inequalities are considered. Our results show that although the patterns of educational inequalities were comparable in all four countries, Finland seems to have been the most successful in reducing educational inequalities if looking at both inequalities related to social origins and gender at the same time. However, in regard to social inequalities Switzerland also performs well. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe endless baby-boomer generation: Cohort differences in participation in political discussions in nine European countries in the period 1976-2008
Chauvel, Louis UL; Smits, Fransje UL

in European Societies (2015), 17(2), 242-278

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative ... [more ▼]

Important cohort fluctuations in participation in political discussions exist but have not been sufficiently underlined as an important source of change. We make use of a large European comparative dataset (Eurobarometer 1976-2008) and of recent improvements of the APC methodology to have a better assessment of these cohort-based changes. Thereafter, we search for appropriate explanations for these cohort fluctuations with contextual elements of cohort specific socialization and life conditions. The Easterlin effect (problematic consequences of oversized birth cohort) and the economic scarcity scarring effect explanation (difficulties of socialization of cohorts that faced economic slow down at age 20) are tested. The economic explanation is better than the demographic one. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 420 (40 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWho does not participate in elections in Europe and why is this? A multilevel analysis of social mechanisms behind non-voting
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Beck, Michael

in European Societies (2010), 12(4), 521-542

This paper focuses on the research question ‘Who does not vote and why?’ regarding national elections in 24 European countries. We analyse determinants of non-voting both on the individual and the ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the research question ‘Who does not vote and why?’ regarding national elections in 24 European countries. We analyse determinants of non-voting both on the individual and the societal level employing a multilevel design. On the micro level, the sociological determinants under consideration are education, cohort and gender. Regarding psychological or motivational factors, we include in the analyses political efficacy, political interest, political trust and satisfaction with politics. On the macro level, we analyse characteristics of the electoral system, including opportunities for ‘direct democracy’, maturity of democracy, disproportionality factor, and if the participation in elections is compulsory. The data source of the analyses is the European Social Survey 2006. A first main finding is the fact that the probability of non-voting is higher among people with a low level of education and among younger cohorts. The motivational factors have similar impacts on non-voting across all analysed societies. Lack of political efficacy, lack of political interest, lack of political trust and dissatisfaction with politicians and the political system increase the probability of non-voting. Regarding macro influences, countries with compulsory voting and ‘old democracies’ turn out to have a lower rate of non-voting, although these effects vanish when simultaneously modelled with the social psychological micro level indicators. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 181 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpecial Education and the Risk of Becoming Less Educated
Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Societies (2006), 8(4), 577-599

With educational expansion and rising standards, ever more students are being transferred into special education. These programs serve children and youth with ‘special educational needs’ (SEN), a ... [more ▼]

With educational expansion and rising standards, ever more students are being transferred into special education. These programs serve children and youth with ‘special educational needs’ (SEN), a heterogeneous group with social, ethnic, linguistic, physical, and intellectual disadvantages. An increasing proportion of students at risk of leaving secondary school without qualifications participate in special education. While most European countries aim to replace segregated schools and separate classes with school integration and inclusive education, cross-national comparisons of special education’s diverse student bodies show considerable disparities in rates of SEN classification, provided learning opportunities, and educational attainments. Analyses of European special education demographics and organizations emphasize institutional instead of individual explanations. Findings from Germany and the United States further demonstrate that which students bear the greatest risk of becoming less educated depends principally on the institutionalization of special education systems and on definitions of ‘special educational needs’. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (4 UL)