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See detailSpatio-temporal distribution of chondromodulin-I mRNA in the chicken embryo: expression during cartilage development and formation of the heart and eye.
Dietz, U. H.; Ziegelmeier, G.; Bittner, K. et al

in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (1999), 216(3), 233-43

To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal ... [more ▼]

To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal chondrocytes from chicken embryos with mRNA species modulated in vitro by retinoic acid (RA). Chondrocyte-specific gene expression is downregulated by RA, and PCR-amplified cDNAs from both untreated and RA-modulated cells were differentially displayed. Amplification products only from RNA of untreated chondrocytes were further analyzed, and a cDNA-fragment of the chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) mRNA was isolated. After obtaining full length cDNA clones, we have analyzed the mRNA expression patterns at different developmental stages by RNase protection assay and in situ hybridization. Analysis of different tissues and cartilage from 17-day-old chicken embryos showed ChM-I mRNA only in chondrocytes. During somitogenesis of the chicken embryo, ChM-I transcripts were detected in the notochord, the floor and the roof plate of the neural tube, and in cartilage precursor tissues such as the sclerotomes of the somites, the developing limbs, the pharyngeal arches, the otic vesicle, and the sclera. ChM-I continued to be expressed in differentiated cartilages derived from these tissues and also in noncartilaginous domains of the developing heart and retina. Thus, in the chicken, the expression of ChM-I is not restricted to mature cartilage but is already present during early development in precartilaginous tissues as well as in heart and eye. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibitory action of BMPs on Pax1 expression and on shoulder girdle formation during limb development.
Hofmann, C.; Drossopoulou, G.; McMahon, A. et al

in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (1998), 213(2), 199-206

Pax1 expression in vertebrate limb buds is confined to cells in a discrete anterior proximal domain (Timmons et al. [1994] Development 120:2773-2785; Ebensperger et al. [1995] Anat. Embryol. 191:297-310 ... [more ▼]

Pax1 expression in vertebrate limb buds is confined to cells in a discrete anterior proximal domain (Timmons et al. [1994] Development 120:2773-2785; Ebensperger et al. [1995] Anat. Embryol. 191:297-310). In dorsoventral patterning of Drosophila, expression of pox meso, an insect gene with high sequence similarity to Pax1, is repressed by decapentaplegic (dpp) in dorsal mesoderm and, thus, is restricted to a discrete ventral domain (Staehling-Hampton et al. [1994] Nature 372:783-786). In the chick wing, cells expressing a vertebrate homolog of dpp, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), abut the Pax1 domain, suggesting a similar relationship between homologous genes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we show that two BMPs (BMP4, and BMP2, also highly related to dpp) can repress Pax1 in the developing chick wing. Chick wing bud cells expressing Pax1 give rise to the shoulder girdle. Cells in an equivalent position in the mouse forelimb also express Pax1, and Pax1 mutant mice display shoulder girdle defects. Similarly in chick embryos, girdle defects are produced by treatments with signalling molecules that lead to expression of BMPs, which subsequently reduce Pax1 expression in the limb bud. Recently, BMP4 has been shown to inhibit Pax1 expression in the developing trunk (Monsoro-Burq et al. [1996] Development 122:3607-3616) and Pax9 expression in developing teeth (Neubuser et al. [1997] Cell 90:247-255). Thus, a property of BMPs appears to be to regulate pox meso homologs negatively and, thus, limit their expression domains. [less ▲]

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