References of "Development"
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See detailSpinal motor neurons are regenerated after mechanical lesion and genetic ablation in larval zebrafish
Ohnmacht, Jochen UL; Yang, Yujie; Maurer, Giana et al

in Development (2016), 143(9), 1464-1474

In adult zebrafish, relatively quiescent progenitor cells show lesion-induced generation of motor neurons. Developmental motor neuron generation from the spinal motor neuron progenitor domain (pMN ... [more ▼]

In adult zebrafish, relatively quiescent progenitor cells show lesion-induced generation of motor neurons. Developmental motor neuron generation from the spinal motor neuron progenitor domain (pMN) sharply declines at 48 hours post-fertilisation (hpf). After that, mostly oligodendrocytes are generated from the same domain. We demonstrate here that within 48 h of a spinal lesion or specific genetic ablation of motor neurons at 72 hpf, the pMN domain reverts to motor neuron generation at the expense of oligodendrogenesis. By contrast, generation of dorsal Pax2-positive interneurons was not altered. Larval motor neuron regeneration can be boosted by dopaminergic drugs, similar to adult regeneration. We use larval lesions to show that pharmacological suppression of the cellular response of the innate immune system inhibits motor neuron regeneration. Hence, we have established a rapid larval regeneration paradigm. Either mechanical lesions or motor neuron ablation is sufficient to reveal a high degree of developmental flexibility of pMN progenitor cells. In addition, we show an important influence of the immune system on motor neuron regeneration from these progenitor cells. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptome of human foetal heart compared with cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL; Mummery, Christine

in Development (2015)

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See detailTranscriptome of human foetal heart compared with cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells
W. van den Berg, Cathelijne; Okawa, Satoshi UL; M. Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana et al

in Development (2015)

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See detailPax1 and Pax9 activate Bapx1 to induce chondrogenic differentiation in the sclerotome.
Rodrigo, Isabel; Hill, Robert E.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Development (2003), 130(3), 473-82

We have previously shown that the paired-box transcription factors Pax1 and Pax9 synergistically act in the proper formation of the vertebral column. Nevertheless, downstream events of the Pax1/Pax9 ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the paired-box transcription factors Pax1 and Pax9 synergistically act in the proper formation of the vertebral column. Nevertheless, downstream events of the Pax1/Pax9 action and their target genes remain to be elucidated. We show, by analyzing Pax1;Pax9 double mutant mice, that expression of Bapx1 in the sclerotome requires the presence of Pax1 and Pax9, in a gene dose-dependent manner. By using a retroviral system to overexpress Pax1 in chick presomitic mesoderm explants, we show that Pax1 can substitute for Shh in inducing Bapx1 expression and in initiating chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Pax1 and Pax9 can transactivate regulatory sequences in the Bapx1 promoter and that they physically interact with the Bapx1 promoter region. These results strongly suggest that Bapx1 is a direct target of Pax1 and Pax9. Together, we conclude that Pax1 and Pax9 are required and sufficient for the chondrogenic differentiation of sclerotomal cells. [less ▲]

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See detailPax1 and Pax9 synergistically regulate vertebral column development.
Peters, H.; Wilm, B.; Sakai, N. et al

in Development (1999), 126(23), 5399-408

The paralogous genes Pax1 and Pax9 constitute one group within the vertebrate Pax gene family. They encode closely related transcription factors and are expressed in similar patterns during mouse ... [more ▼]

The paralogous genes Pax1 and Pax9 constitute one group within the vertebrate Pax gene family. They encode closely related transcription factors and are expressed in similar patterns during mouse embryogenesis, suggesting that Pax1 and Pax9 act in similar developmental pathways. We have recently shown that mice homozygous for a defined Pax1 null allele exhibit morphological abnormalities of the axial skeleton, which is not affected in homozygous Pax9 mutants. To investigate a potential interaction of the two genes, we analysed Pax1/Pax9 double mutant mice. These mutants completely lack the medial derivatives of the sclerotomes, the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and the proximal parts of the ribs. This phenotype is much more severe than that of Pax1 single homozygous mutants. In contrast, the neural arches, which are derived from the lateral regions of the sclerotomes, are formed. The analysis of Pax9 expression in compound mutants indicates that both spatial expansion and upregulation of Pax9 expression account for its compensatory function during sclerotome development in the absence of Pax1. In Pax1/Pax9 double homozygous mutants, formation and anteroposterior polarity of sclerotomes, as well as induction of a chondrocyte-specific cell lineage, appear normal. However, instead of a segmental arrangement of vertebrae and intervertebral disc anlagen, a loose mesenchyme surrounding the notochord is formed. The gradual loss of Sox9 and Collagen II expression in this mesenchyme indicates that the sclerotomes are prevented from undergoing chondrogenesis. The first detectable defect is a low rate of cell proliferation in the ventromedial regions of the sclerotomes after sclerotome formation but before mesenchymal condensation normally occurs. At later stages, an increased number of cells undergoing apoptosis further reduces the area normally forming vertebrae and intervertebral discs. Our results reveal functional redundancy between Pax1 and Pax9 during vertebral column development and identify an early role of Pax1 and Pax9 in the control of cell proliferation during early sclerotome development. In addition, our data indicate that the development of medial and lateral elements of vertebrae is regulated by distinct genetic pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailPax1 is expressed during development of the thymus epithelium and is required for normal T-cell maturation.
Wallin, J.; Eibel, H.; Neubuser, A. et al

in Development (1996), 122(1), 23-30

Pax1 is a transcriptional regulatory protein expressed during mouse embryogenesis and has been shown to have an important function in vertebral column development. Expression of Pax1 mRNA in the embryonic ... [more ▼]

Pax1 is a transcriptional regulatory protein expressed during mouse embryogenesis and has been shown to have an important function in vertebral column development. Expression of Pax1 mRNA in the embryonic thymus has been reported previously. Here we show that Pax1 protein expression in thymic epithelial cells can be detected throughout thymic development and in the adult. Expression starts in the early endodermal epithelium lining the foregut region and includes the epithelium of the third pharyngeal pouch, a structure giving rise to part of the thymus epithelium. In early stages of thymus development a large proportion of thymus cells expresses Pax1. With increasing age, the proportion of Pax1-expressing cells is reduced and in the adult mouse only a small fraction of cortical thymic stromal cells retains strong Pax1 expression. Expression of Pax1 in thymus epithelium is necessary for establishing the thymus microenvironment required for normal T cell maturation. Mutations in the Pax-1 gene in undulated mice affect not only the total size of the thymus but also the maturation of thymocytes. The number of thymocytes is reduced about 2- to 5-fold, affecting mainly the CD4+8+ immature and CD4+ mature thymocyte subsets. The expression levels of major thymocyte surface markers remains unchanged with the exception of Thy-1 which was found to be expressed at 3- to 4-fold higher levels. [less ▲]

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See detailA role for mel-18, a Polycomb group-related vertebrate gene, during theanteroposterior specification of the axial skeleton.
Akasaka, T.; Kanno, M.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Development (1996), 122(5), 1513-22

Segment identity in both invertebrates and vertebrates is conferred by spatially restricted distribution of homeotic gene products. In Drosophila, the expression of Homeobox genes during embryogenesis is ... [more ▼]

Segment identity in both invertebrates and vertebrates is conferred by spatially restricted distribution of homeotic gene products. In Drosophila, the expression of Homeobox genes during embryogenesis is initially induced by segmentation gene products and then maintained by Polycomb group and Trithorax group gene products. Polycomb group gene homologs are conserved in vertebrates. Murine mel-18 and closely related bmi-1 are homologous to posterior sex combs and suppressor two of zeste. Mel-18 protein mediates a transcriptional repression via direct binding to specific DNA sequences. To gain further insight into the function of Mel-18, we have inactivated the mel-18 locus by homologous recombination. Mice lacking mel-18 survive to birth and die around 4 weeks after birth after exhibiting strong growth retardation. Similar to the Drosophila posterior sex combs mutant, posterior transformations of the axial skeleton were reproducibly observed in mel-18 mutants. The homeotic transformations were correlated with ectopic expression of Homeobox cluster genes along the anteroposterior axis in the developing paraxial mesoderm. Surprisingly, mel-18-deficient phenotypes are reminiscent of bmi-1 mutants. These results indicate that the vertebrate Polycomb group genes mel-18 and bmi-1, like Drosophila Polycomb group gene products, might play a crucial role in maintaining the silent state of Homeobox gene expression during paraxial mesoderm development. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of Pax-1 in axial skeleton development.
Wallin, J.; Wilting, J.; Koseki, H. et al

in Development (1994), 120(5), 1109-21

Previous studies have identified a single amino-acid substitution in the transcriptional regulator Pax-1 as the cause of the mouse skeletal mutant undulated (un). To evaluate the role of Pax-1 in the ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have identified a single amino-acid substitution in the transcriptional regulator Pax-1 as the cause of the mouse skeletal mutant undulated (un). To evaluate the role of Pax-1 in the formation of the axial skeleton we have studied Pax-1 protein expression in early sclerotome cells and during subsequent embryonic development, and we have characterized the phenotype of three different Pax-1 mouse mutants, un, undulated-extensive (unex) and Undulated short-tail (Uns). In the Uns mutation the whole Pax-1 locus is deleted, resulting in the complete absence of Pax-1 protein in these mice. The other two genotypes are interpreted as hypomorphs. We conclude that Pax-1 is necessary for normal vertebral column formation along the entire axis, although the severity of the phenotype is strongest in the lumbar region and the tail. Pax-1-deficient mice lack vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The proximal part of the ribs and the rib homologues are also missing or severely malformed, whereas neural arches are nearly normal. Pax-1 is thus required for the development of the ventral parts of vertebrae. Embryonic analyses reveal that although sclerotomes are formed in mutant embryos, abnormalities can be detected from day 10.5 p.c. onwards. The phenotypic analyses also suggest that the notochord still influences vertebral body formation some days after the sclerotomes are formed. Furthermore, the notochord diameter is larger in mutant embryos from day 12 p.c., due to increased cell proliferation. In the strongly affected genotypes the notochord persists as a rod-like structure and the nucleus pulposus is never properly formed. Since the notochord is Pax-1-negative these findings suggest a bidirectional interaction between notochord and paraxial mesoderm. The availability of these Pax-1 mutant alleles permitted us to define an early role for Pax-1 in sclerotome patterning as well as a late role in intervertebral disc development. Our observations suggest that Pax-1 function is required for essential steps in ventral sclerotome differentiation, i.e. for the transition from the mesenchymal stage to the onset of chondrogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial steps of myogenesis in somites are independent of influence from axial structures.
Bober, E.; Brand-Saberi, B.; Ebensperger, C. et al

in Development (1994), 120(11), 3073-82

Formation of paraxial muscles in vertebrate embryos depends upon interactions between early somites and the neural tube and notochord. Removal of both axial structures results in a complete loss of ... [more ▼]

Formation of paraxial muscles in vertebrate embryos depends upon interactions between early somites and the neural tube and notochord. Removal of both axial structures results in a complete loss of epaxial myotomal muscle, whereas hypaxial and limb muscles develop normally. We report that chicken embryos, after surgical removal of the neural tube at the level of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm, start to develop myotomal cells that express transcripts for the muscle-specific regulators MyoD and myogenin. These cells also make desmin, indicating that the initial steps of axial skeletal muscle formation can occur in the absence of the neural tube. However, a few days following the extirpation, the expression of MyoD and myogenin transcripts gradually disappears, and becomes almost undetectable after 4 days. From these observations we conclude that the neural tube is not required for the generation of the skeletal muscle cell lineage, but may support the survival or maitenance of further differentiation of the myotomal cell compartment. Notochord transplanted medially or laterally to the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm leads to a ventralization of axial structures but does not entirely prevent the early appearance of myoblasts expressing MyoD transcripts. However, the additional notochord inhibits subsequent development and maturation of myotomes. Taken together, our data suggest that neural tube promotes, and notochord inhibits, the process of myogenesis in axial muscles at a developmental step following the initial expression of myogenic bHLH regulators. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression and function of Pax 1 during development of the pectoral girdle.
Timmons, P. M.; Wallin, J.; Rigby, P. W. et al

in Development (1994), 120(10), 2773-85

Pax 1 is a member of the paired-box containing gene family. Expression has previously been observed in the developing sclerotomes and later in the anlagen of the intervertebral discs. Analysis of Pax 1 ... [more ▼]

Pax 1 is a member of the paired-box containing gene family. Expression has previously been observed in the developing sclerotomes and later in the anlagen of the intervertebral discs. Analysis of Pax 1-deficient undulated mice revealed an important role for this gene in the development of the axial skeleton, in which Pax 1 apparently functions as a mediator of notochordal signals during sclerotome differentiation. Here we demonstrate that Pax 1 is also transiently expressed in the developing limb buds. A comparative phenotypic analysis of different undulated alleles shows that this expression is of functional significance. In mice that are mutant for the Pax 1 gene severe developmental abnormalities are found in the pectoral girdle. These include fusions of skeletal elements which would normally remain separate, and failures in the differentiation of blastemas into cartilaginous structures. Although Pax 1 is also expressed in the developing hindlimb buds and Wolffian ridge, no malformations could be detected in the corresponding regions of Pax 1 mutant mice. These findings show that, in addition to its role in the developing vertebral column, Pax 1 has an important function in the development of parts of the appendicular skeleton. [less ▲]

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See detailA role for Pax-1 as a mediator of notochordal signals during the dorsoventral specification of vertebrae.
Koseki, H.; Wallin, J.; Wilting, J. et al

in Development (1993), 119(3), 649-60

The notochord plays an important role in the differentiation of the paraxial mesoderm and the neural tube. We have analyzed the role of the notochord in somite differentiation and subsequent formation of ... [more ▼]

The notochord plays an important role in the differentiation of the paraxial mesoderm and the neural tube. We have analyzed the role of the notochord in somite differentiation and subsequent formation of the vertebral column using a mouse mutant, Danforth's short-tail (Sd). In this mutant, the skeletal phenotype is most probably a result of degeneration and subsequent loss of the notochord. The Sd gene is known to interact with undulated (un), a sclerotome mutant. Double mutants between Sd and un alleles show an increase in the severity of the defects, mainly in the ventral parts of the vertebrae. We also show that part of the Sd phenotype is strikingly similar to that of the un alleles. As un is known to be caused by a mutation in the Pax-1 gene, we analyzed Pax-1 expression in Sd embryos. In Sd embryos, Pax-1 expression is reduced, providing a potential molecular basis for the genetic interaction observed. A complete loss of Pax-1 expression in morphologically intact mesenchyme was found in the lower thoracic-lumbar region, which is phenotypically very similar to the corresponding region in a Pax-1 null mutant, Undulated short-tail. The sclerotome developmental abnormalities in Sd coincide closely, both in time and space, with notochordal changes, as determined by whole-mount T antibody staining. These findings indicate that an intact notochord is necessary for normal Pax-1 expression in sclerotome cells, which is in turn required for the formation of the ventral parts of the vertebrae. The observed correlation among structural changes of the notochord, Pax-1 expression levels and skeletal phenotypes, suggests that Pax-1 might be an intrinsic mediator of notochordal signals during the dorsoventral specification of vertebrae. [less ▲]

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See detailSeparate elements cause lineage restriction and specify boundaries of Hox-1.1 expression.
Puschel, A. W.; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P.

in Development (1991), 112(1), 279-87

The Hox genes are a class of putative developmental control genes that are thought to be involved in the specification of positional identity along the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate embryo. It is ... [more ▼]

The Hox genes are a class of putative developmental control genes that are thought to be involved in the specification of positional identity along the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate embryo. It is apparent from their expression pattern that their regulation is dependent upon positional information. In a previous analysis of the Hox-1.1 promoter in transgenic mice, we identified sequences that were sufficient to establish transgene expression in a specific region of the embryo. The construct used, however, did not contain enough regulatory sequences to reproduce all aspects of Hox-1.1 expression. In particular, neither a posterior boundary nor a restriction of expression to prevertebrae was achieved. Here we show correct regulation by Hox-1.1 sequences in transgenic mice and identify the elements responsible for different levels of control. Concomitant with the subdivision of mesodermal cells into different lineages during gastrulation and organogenesis, Hox-1.1 expression is restricted to successively smaller sets of cells. Distinct elements are required at different stages of development to execute this developmental programme. One position-responsive element (130 bp nontranslated leader) was shown to be crucial for the restriction of expression not only along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo, setting the posterior border, but also along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube and to the lineage giving rise to the prevertebrae. Thus, Hox-1.1 expression is established in a specific region of the embryo and in a specific lineage of the mesoderm by restricting the activity of the promoter by the combined effect of several regulatory elements. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the spatial and temporal control of Hox 1.1 in transgenic mice
Püschel, A; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P

in Development (1990), (108), 435-442

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See detailPosition-specific activity of the Hox1.1 promoter in transgenic mice.
Puschel, A. W.; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P.

in Development (1990), 108(3), 435-42

During development, positional values have to be assigned to groups of cells. The murine Hox genes are a class of genes that are predicted to be involved at some stage in this process. During ... [more ▼]

During development, positional values have to be assigned to groups of cells. The murine Hox genes are a class of genes that are predicted to be involved at some stage in this process. During embryogenesis they are expressed in distinct overlapping region- and stage-specific patterns and therefore must be regulated in response to positional information. In this study, we have analysed the activity of Hox1.1 promoter sequences in transgenic mice. The use of lacZ as a marker allows a detailed analysis of expression at the single cell level during early embryonic development. We show that 3.6 kbp of promoter and 1.7 kbp of 3' sequences provide sufficient regulatory information to express a transgene in a spatial and temporal manner indistinguishable from the endogenous Hox1.1 gene during the period of development when Hox1.1 expression is established. The activation occurs in a strict order in specific ectodermal and mesodermal domains. Within each of these domains the transgene is activated over a period of four hours apparently randomly in single cells. In a following second period, Hox1.1 and transgene expression patterns diverge. In this period, transgene expression persists in many mesodermally derived cells that do not express Hox1.1 indicating the absence of a negative regulatory element in the transgene. The anterior boundary of transgene expression is identical to that of Hox1.1. However, no posterior boundary of transgene expression is set, suggesting that a separate element absent from the transgene specifies this boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailMurine Genes with homology to Drosophila segmentation genes.
Dressler, G. R.; Deutsch, U; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Development (1988), 0(104), 181-186

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