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See detailAssessing binge-watching behaviors: Development and validation of the “Watching TV Series Motives” and “Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms” questionnaires
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Canale, Natale; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 90

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation ... [more ▼]

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation, however, remains fragmentary. Based on the previous phenomenological investigation of TV series watching, we developed and validated two original assessment instruments, assessing TV series watching motives and binge-watching engagement and symptoms, respectively. Preliminary items were created for each questionnaire, and a focus group with TV series viewers was conducted and analyzed to generate the final instruments. The questionnaires were then administered via an online survey (N=6556), together with complementary measures of affect, problematic Internet use and substance use. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, along with correlational analyses, were performed to examine both structural and external validity of the scales. The factorial analyses resulted in a 4-factor model (i.e. emotional enhancement, enrichment, coping-escapism and social) for the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire (WTSMQ), and in a 7-factor model (i.e. engagement, positive emotions, desire-savoring, pleasure preservation, binge-watching, dependency and loss of control) for the Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire (BWESQ). The results suggest good psychometric properties for both scales. The current study thus provides theoretically-driven and psychometrically sound instruments for further research on binge-watching behaviors [less ▲]

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See detailCritical discussion of the special issue current innovations in computer-based assessment.
Greiff, Samuel UL; Scherer, Ronny; Kirschner, Paul A.

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 76

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See detailEditorial to the special issue current innovations in computer-based assessment.
Scherer, Ronny; Greiff, Samuel UL; Kirschner, Paul A.

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 76

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See detailCurrent innovations in computer-based assessment. Special issue.
Scherer, Ronny; Greiff, Samuel UL; Kirschner, Paul A.

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017)

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See detailMay I teach you? Students' behavior when lectured by robotic vs. human teachers
Fernández-Llamas, C.; Conde, M. A.; Rodriguez Lera, Francisco Javier UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017)

\textcopyright 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Social robots have been and are currently being used in many projects, research initiatives and experiments, but we know relatively little about them compared to humans ... [more ▼]

\textcopyright 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Social robots have been and are currently being used in many projects, research initiatives and experiments, but we know relatively little about them compared to humans when performing a social task such as teaching. Using an experiment in which a robot and a human teacher were used for teaching computational concepts to a group of K-12 students, the main goal of this paper is not to analyze the scores obtained in the post-test performed, but to focus on the students' attitudes towards robots. In order to do this, a version of the NARS and RAS questionnaires, adapted for children, was used. The analysis of the results of these questionnaires considers differences between age groups and students lectured by a robot vs. a human teacher. We conclude that age is the main factor that affects students' attitudes towards robots, although we also found other differences between the robot and the human teacher group. [less ▲]

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See detailShoot at First Sight! First Person Shooter Players Display Reduced Reaction Time and Compromised Inhibitory Control in Comparison to Other Video Game Players
Deleuze, Jory; Christiaens, Maxime; Nuyens, Filip et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 72

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and socioprofessional spheres. Both positive and negative outcomes of video game use were linked to their structural characteristics (i.e., features that make the game appealing or are inducements for all gamers to keep playing regularly). The current study tested whether active video gamers from main genres (massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online first person shooter, multiplayer online battle arena) differed in a laboratory task that measured inhibitory control. Eighty-one gamers performed the Hybrid-Stop Task, assessing restraint (go/no-go trials) and cancellation (stop-signal trials) processes of a prepotent response. They completed additional self-reported questionnaires measuring demographics, problematic video game use, impulsivity traits, and depressive symptoms. Results showed that when confounding variables were controlled for, participants whose favorite game is online first person shooter were characterized by accelerated motor responses yet reduced abilities to cancel a prepotent response. No differences between groups were identified regarding the restraint process. The findings of this pilot study might have clear implications for video gaming research by supporting the critical importance of distinguishing between video game genres when considering their specific potential benefits and detrimental effects [less ▲]

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See detailSchizotypal personality traits and problematic use of massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)
Schimmenti, Adriano; Infanti, Alexandre; Badoud, Déborah et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 74

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in ... [more ▼]

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in MMORPG use is understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the potential links between schizotypal traits, motivations for playing MMORPGs, and symptoms of problematic MMORPG use. Eighty-three MMORPG gamers were enrolled in the study. They filled out questionnaires measuring schizotypal personality traits and an adapted version of the same scale designed to measure in-game schizotypal traits. All participants also filled out questionnaires assessing motivations for gaming and disordered use of MMORPGs. Results of the study showed that the disorganized and interpersonal traits of schizotypy decreased when participants were thinking about themselves in the virtual world. Schizotypal traits, together with achievement and immersion motives, predicted problematic use of MMORPGs. The findings of this study may suggest that schizotypal traits and motivations for playing can interact and play a relevant role in the onset and maintenance of problematic gaming [less ▲]

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See detailHome alone: Complex problem solving performance bene fi ts from individual online assessment
Schult, Johannes; Stadler, Matthias UL; Becker, Nicolas et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016)

Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving performance often take place in group settings like classrooms and computer laboratories. Such computer-based procedures provide an excellent ... [more ▼]

Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving performance often take place in group settings like classrooms and computer laboratories. Such computer-based procedures provide an excellent opportunity to examine setting effects that might occur while participants are tested in a non-group session online at a time and place of their own choosing. For this purpose, N = 273 teacher students were randomly assigned to one of two settings: the individual online condition (n=216) or the computer laboratory group condition (n=57). Strong factorial measurement invariance was evidenced. Participants performed significantly better in the individual online condition than in the group condition (knowledge acquisition:d=0.38; knowledge application: d=0.39). The worse performance in the group setting compared to the individual setting could neither be explained by exploration time, nor by time on task. The internal experimental design validity strengthens the conclusion that setting-related differences in cognitive ability testing are not negligible but noteworthy. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring problem solving skills via stealth assessment in an engaging video game
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016), 63

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See detailTrick with treat – Reciprocity increases the willingness to communicate personal data
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016)

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging ... [more ▼]

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging confidential information. However, many users are lacking awareness of the risks involved. In a field survey that tested reciprocal behavior in social interactions, 1208 participants were asked to reveal their personal password. In line with the social norm of reciprocity, more than one third of the participants were willing to do so when they received a small incentive. Elicitation was even more successful when the incentive was given right before asking for the password. The results, including moderating factors (e.g., age, gender), are discussed in the light of security awareness of ICT users and the mechanisms of psychological persuasion. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding students' performance in a computer-based assessment of complex problem solving. An analysis of behavioral data from computer-generated log files.
Greiff, Samuel UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016), 61

Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving (CPS) that have been used in international large-scale surveys require students to engage in an in-depth interaction with the problem environment. In ... [more ▼]

Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving (CPS) that have been used in international large-scale surveys require students to engage in an in-depth interaction with the problem environment. In this, they evoke manifest sequences of overt behavior that are stored in computer-generated logfiles. In the present study, we explored the relation between several overt behaviors, which N=1476 Finnish ninth-grade students (mean age=15.23,SD=.47 years) exhibited when exploring a CPS environment, and their CPS performance. We used the MicroDYN approach to measure CPS and inspected students' behaviors through log-file analyses. Results indicated that students who occasionally observed the problem environment in a noninterfering way in addition to actively exploring it (noninterfering observation) showed better CPS performance, whereas students who showed a high frequency of (potentially unplanned) interventions (intervention frequency) exhibited worse CPS performance. Additionally, both too much and too little time spent on a CPS task (time on task) was associated with poor CPS performance. The observed effects held after controlling for students' use of an exploration strategy that required a sequence of multiple interventions (VOTAT strategy) indicating that these behaviors exhibited incremental effects on CPS performance beyond the use of VOTAT. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline sexual activities: An exploratory study of problematic and non-problematic usage patterns in a sample of men
Wéry, A.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016), 56

Involvement in online sexual activities (OSAs) is ubiquitous, especially in males, and can under certain circumstances become problematic. The risk factors associated with problematic OSAs remain, however ... [more ▼]

Involvement in online sexual activities (OSAs) is ubiquitous, especially in males, and can under certain circumstances become problematic. The risk factors associated with problematic OSAs remain, however, poorly explored. The current study aimed to investigate the characteristics, usage patterns, and motives for men to engage in OSAs and to disentangle the risk factors associated with problematic OSAs. To this end, 434 men completed an online survey measuring socio-demographic information, OSAs consumption habits, motives for engaging in OSAs, symptoms of problematic OSAs, and sexual dysfunctions. Results showed that watching pornography is the most prevalent OSA, and sexual gratification is the most frequent motive for OSAs involvement. Additional multiple regression analyses indicated that the following characteristics are associated with problematic use of OSAs: (a) partnered-arousal activities (e.g., sex chat) and solitary-arousal activities (e.g., pornography); (b) anonymous fantasizing and mood regulation motives; and (c) higher sexual desire, lower overall sexual satisfaction, and lower erectile function. This study sheds new light on the characteristics, motives, and sexual function of men involved in OSAs, emphasizing that problematic OSAs are heterogeneous and depend on interrelated factors. The findings support tailoring of preventive actions and clinical interventions to both OSA type and individual risk factors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEasily too difficult. Estimating item difficulty in computer simulated microworlds
Stadler, Matthias; Niepel, Christoph UL; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016), 65

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See detailUser Experience: a concept without consensus? Exploring practitioners' perspectives through an international survey.
Lallemand, Carine UL; Gronier, Guillaume; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2015), (43), 35-48

For more than a decade, User Experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of Human–Computer Inter- action (HCI). Practitioners and researchers from a wide range of disciplines are daily working with this ... [more ▼]

For more than a decade, User Experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of Human–Computer Inter- action (HCI). Practitioners and researchers from a wide range of disciplines are daily working with this concept. However, despite many attempts to understand, define and scope UX, one may still wonder whether a consensus has been reached on this concept. In a willingness to address the complexity of this research topic and bring the concept of UX to maturity, a replication of an international survey has been conducted. The main goal of the present study is to get a better understanding of practitioners’ view- points on the notion of UX and to analyze potential evolutions over time in the understanding and prac- tical use of the concept. As both practical and theoretical implications of UX are of the greatest importance for whoever designs interactive systems, the exploration of practitioners’ perspectives is a valuable step toward continual improvement of UX activities. The present survey has been conducted amongst 758 practitioners and researchers from 35 nationalities. It allows to better understand how this concept is understood and used throughout the world. Amongst interesting results, important differences were observed according to the geographical location and background of the respondents. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic involvement in online games: A cluster analytic approach
Billieux, Joël UL; Thorens, G.; Khazaal, Y. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2015), 43

Playing online games can become problematic and engender adverse consequences. Several psychological factors have been shown to influence the development and the maintenance of this problematic behavior ... [more ▼]

Playing online games can become problematic and engender adverse consequences. Several psychological factors have been shown to influence the development and the maintenance of this problematic behavior, including impulsivity traits, motives to play (immersion, achievement, social affiliation), and self-esteem. The aim of the current study is to determine whether reliable subtypes of problematic online gamers can be identified. A sample of 1057 online gamers was recruited. Validated questionnaires were used to measure established psychological risk factors (impulsivity, motives to play, self-esteem) and potential consequences of playing (addiction symptoms, positive and negative affect). Actual in-game behaviors were also monitored. Five reliable clusters of gamers were identified (three problematic and two nonproblematic clusters). Cluster comparison revealed that the psychological factors considered are differentially involved in problematic online gaming. At the theoretical level, the results emphasized that problem online gaming depends on a wide range of psychological factors. At the clinical level, the diversity of psychological profiles shown supports the development of personalized (custom-made) interventions targeting specific psychological mechanisms. Overall, our findings suggest that conceptualizing the problematic use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games as "behavioral addiction" is too restrictive and might result in the simplification of heterogeneous and multi-determined problematic behaviors. © 2014, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich psychological factors influence Internet addiction? Evidence through an integrative model
Burnay, J.; Billieux, Joël UL; Blairy, S. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2015), 43

Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were twofold. First, to examine ... [more ▼]

Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were twofold. First, to examine which psychological factors are relevant to explain Internet addiction, including impulsivity, passion and social provision. Second, to incorporate all these factors into an integrative model. Based on multiple regressions and path analysis, results revealed a positive relation between Internet addiction and specific impulsivity components (lack of perseverance, urgency) and obsessive passion. Moreover, positive relations were observed between obsessive passion and reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturance, sensation seeking and harmonious passion. In other words, Internet addiction is related to obsessive passion, but is explained by different psychological factors. Accordingly, both Internet addiction and obsessive passion can be viewed as two important and complementary facets of problematic Internet use. ©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.; Achab, S. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2013), 29(1), 103-109

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play ... [more ▼]

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play MMORPGs are heterogeneous (e.g. achievement, socialisation, immersion in virtual worlds). This study investigates in detail the relationships between self-reported motives and actual in-game behaviours. We recruited a sample of 690 World of Warcraft players (the most popular MMORPG) who agreed to have their avatar monitored for 8 months. Participants completed an initial online survey about their motives to play. Their actual in-game behaviours were measured through the game's official database (the Armory website). Results showed specific associations between motives and in-game behaviours. Moreover, longitudinal analyses revealed that teamwork- and competition-oriented motives are the most accurate predictors of fast progression in the game. In addition, although specific associations exist between problematic use and certain motives (e.g. advancement, escapism), longitudinal analyses showed that high involvement in the game is not necessarily associated with a negative impact upon daily living. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEscaping in digital games: The relationship between playing motives and addictive tendencies in males
Kneer, Julia; Glock, Sabine UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2013), 29

Problematic playing behaviour in terms of addiction is well known to be associated with specific traits (e.g., self-esteem) and weak social settings (e.g., negative relationships). What remains unclear is ... [more ▼]

Problematic playing behaviour in terms of addiction is well known to be associated with specific traits (e.g., self-esteem) and weak social settings (e.g., negative relationships). What remains unclear is the impact of playing motives on addictive tendencies. We investigated how playing motives were related to problematic playing behaviour. Using ratings indicating explicit motives and response latencies indicating the activation of implicit motives, we investigated Yee’s (2006) three main playing motives: social interaction, achievement, and immersion. All three implicit motives were found to be highly activated among problematic players while only explicit immersion was judged as less important by non-problematic and excessive players. In addition, implicit immersion together with explicit immersion and playing hours were found to be strong predictors for problematic playing behaviour. We discuss motives, especially immersion, as possible risk factors for addictive tendencies when motives become internalised and therefore automatically activated by thoughts about digital games. [less ▲]

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