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See detailMacroscopic control of helix orientation in films dried from cholesteric liquid crystalline cellulose nanocrystal suspensions

Park, Ji Hyun; Noh, Junghyun UL; Schütz, Christina et al

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2014), 15(7), 1477-1484

The intrinsic ability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to self-organize into films and bulk materials with helical order in a cholesteric liquid crystal is scientifically intriguing and potentially ... [more ▼]

The intrinsic ability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to self-organize into films and bulk materials with helical order in a cholesteric liquid crystal is scientifically intriguing and potentially important for the production of renewable multifunctional materials with attractive optical properties. A major obstacle, however, has been the lack of control of helix direction, which results in a defect-rich, mosaic-like domain structure. Herein, a method for guiding the helix during film formation is introduced, which yields dramatically improved uniformity, as confirmed by using polarizing optical and scanning electron microscopy. By raising the CNC concentration in the initial suspension to the fully liquid crystalline range, a vertical helix orientation is promoted, as directed by the macroscopic phase boundaries. Further control of the helix orientation is achieved by subjecting the suspension to a circular shear flow during drying. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamic Aspects of the Synthesis of Thin-Film Materials for Solar Cells
Scragg, Jonathan J.; Dale, Phillip UL; Colombara, Diego UL et al

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2012), 13(12), 30353046

A simple and useful thermodynamic approach to the prediction of reactions taking place during thermal treatment of layers of multinary semiconductor compounds on different substrates has been developed ... [more ▼]

A simple and useful thermodynamic approach to the prediction of reactions taking place during thermal treatment of layers of multinary semiconductor compounds on different substrates has been developed. The method, which uses the extensive information for the possible binary compounds to assess the stability of multinary phases, is illustrated with the examples of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 as well as other less-studied ternary and quaternary semiconductors that have the potential for use as absorbers in photovoltaic devices. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex chirality at the nanoscale
Lagerwall, Jan UL; Giesselmann, F.

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2010), 11(5), 975-977

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See detailDifferent protonation equilibria of 4-methylimidazole and acetic acid
Gu, Wei UL; Helms, Volkhard

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2007), 8(17), 2445-2451

Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4-methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP ... [more ▼]

Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4-methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP molecular dynamics simulation. We find a qualitatively different protonation behavior of 4-methylimidazole compared to that of acetic acid. On one hand, deprotonoted, neutral 4-methylimidazole cannot as easily attract a freely diffusing extra proton from solution. Once the proton is bound however, it remains tightly bound on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. In a linear chain composed of acetic acid, a separating water molecule and 4-methylimidazole, an excess proton is equally shared between 4-methylimidozole and water. When a water molecule is linearly placed between two acetic acid molecules, the excess proton is always found on the central water. On the other hand, an excess proton in a 4-methylimidazole-water-4-methylimidozole chain is always localized on one of the two 4-methylimidozoles. These findings are of interest to the discussion of proton transfer along chains of amino acids and water molecules in biomolecules. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent topics in smectic liquid crystal research
Lagerwall, Jan UL; Giesselmann, Frank

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2006), 7(1), 20-45

Interest in the smectic liquid-crystalline state of matter received a substantial boost with the discovery by Meyer in the mid-1970s that a chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase exhibits a spontaneous elec- tric ... [more ▼]

Interest in the smectic liquid-crystalline state of matter received a substantial boost with the discovery by Meyer in the mid-1970s that a chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase exhibits a spontaneous elec- tric polarization, and with the subsequent demonstration by Clark and Lagerwall of the surface-stabilized SmC* ferroelectric liquid crystal at the beginning of the 1980s. Since then, chiral smectic phases and their plethora of polar effects have dominat- ed the research in this field, which today has reached a mature state where the first commercial microdisplay applications are now shipping in millions-per-year quantities. In this Review we discuss some of the topics of highest interest in current smectic liquid crystal research, and address application-relevant research (de Vries-type tilting transitions without defect generation and high-tilt antiferroelectric liquid crystals with perfect dark state) as well as more curiosity-driven research (the nature and origin of the chiral smectic C subphases and their intermediate frustrated states between ferro- and antiferroelectricity). [less ▲]

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