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See detailHydroxycoumarin OT-55 kills CML cells alone or in synergy with imatinib or Synribo: Involvement of ER stress and DAMP release
Mazumder, A; Lee, JY; Talhi, O et al

in Cancer Letters (2018)

We synthetized and investigated the anti-leukemic potential of the novel cytostatic bis(4-hydroxycoumarin) derivative OT-55 which complied with the Lipinski's rule of 5 and induced differential toxicity ... [more ▼]

We synthetized and investigated the anti-leukemic potential of the novel cytostatic bis(4-hydroxycoumarin) derivative OT-55 which complied with the Lipinski's rule of 5 and induced differential toxicity in various chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell models. OT-55 triggered ER stress leading to canonical, caspase-dependent apoptosis and release of danger associated molecular patterns. Consequently, OT-55 promoted phagocytosis of OT-55-treated CML cells by both murine and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Moreover, OT-55 inhibited tumor necrosis factor α-induced activation of nuclear factor-кB and produced synergistic effects when used in combination with imatinib to inhibit colony formation in vitro and Bcr-Abl+ patient blast xenograft growth in zebrafish. Furthermore, OT-55 synergized with omacetaxine in imatinib-resistant KBM-5 R cells to inhibit the expression of Mcl-1, triggering apoptosis. In imatinib-resistant K562 R cells, OT-55 triggered necrosis and blocked tumor formation in zebrafish in combination with omacetaxine. [less ▲]

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See detailCytostatic hydroxycoumarin OT52 induces ER/Golgi stress and STAT3 inhibition triggering non-canonical cell death and synergy with BH3 mimetics in lung cancer.
Lee, JY; Talhi, O; Jang, D et al

in Cancer Letters (2018)

Coumarins are natural compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential known to modulate inflammatory pathways. Here, non-toxic biscoumarin OT52 strongly inhibited proliferation of ... [more ▼]

Coumarins are natural compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential known to modulate inflammatory pathways. Here, non-toxic biscoumarin OT52 strongly inhibited proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells with KRAS mutations, inhibited stem-like characteristics by reducing aldehyde dehydrogenase expression and abrogated spheroid formation capacity. This cytostatic effect was characterized by cell cycle arrest and onset of senescence concomitant with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stress, leading to metabolic alterations. Mechanistically, this cellular response was associated with the novel capacity of biscoumarin OT52 to inhibit STAT3 transactivation and expression of its target genes linked to proliferation. These results were validated by computational docking of OT52 to the STAT3 DNA-binding domain. Combination treatments of OT52 with subtoxic concentrations of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1-targeting BH3 protein inhibitors triggered synergistic immunogenic cell death validated in colony formation assays as well as in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. [less ▲]

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See detail"Stroma-induced phenotypic plasticity offers phenotype-specific targeting to improve melanoma treatment".
Seip, Kotryna; Jorgensen, Kjetil; Haselager, Marco Vincent et al

in Cancer letters (2018)

Cancer cells' phenotypic plasticity, promoted by stromal cells, contributes to intra-tumoral heterogeneity and affects response to therapy. We have disclosed an association between fibroblast-stimulated ... [more ▼]

Cancer cells' phenotypic plasticity, promoted by stromal cells, contributes to intra-tumoral heterogeneity and affects response to therapy. We have disclosed an association between fibroblast-stimulated phenotype switching and resistance to the clinically used BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) vemurafenib in malignant melanoma, revealing a challenge in targeting the fibroblast-induced phenotype. Here we compared molecular features and drug sensitivity in melanoma cells grown as co-cultures with fibroblasts versus mono-cultures. In the presence of fibroblasts, melanoma cells switched to the dedifferentiated, mesenchymal-like, inflammatory phenotype that showed reduced sensitivity to the most of 275 tested cancer drugs. Fibroblasts, however, sensitized melanoma cells to PI3K inhibitors (PI3Ki) and particularly the inhibitor of GSK3, AR-A014418 (GSK3i), that showed superior efficacy in co-cultures. The proteome changes induced by the BRAFi+GSK3i combination mimicked changes induced by BRAFi in mono-cultures, and GSK3i in co-cultures. This suggests that the single drug drives the response to the combination treatment, depending on fibroblast presence or absence, consequently, phenotype. We propose that the BRAFi and GSK3i (or PI3Ki) combination exemplifies phenotype-specific combinatorial treatment that should be beneficial in phenotypically heterogeneous tumors rich in stromal interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailUnravelling a p73-regulated network: The role of a novel p73-dependent target, MIR3158, in cancer cell migration and invasiveness
Galtsidis, Sotirios UL; Logotheti, S.; Pavlopoulou, A. et al

in Cancer Letters (2017), 388

The transcription factor p73 is homologous to the well-known tumor-suppressor p53. The p73-regulated networks are of significant clinical interest, because they may substitute for impaired p53-regulated ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor p73 is homologous to the well-known tumor-suppressor p53. The p73-regulated networks are of significant clinical interest, because they may substitute for impaired p53-regulated networks which are commonly perturbed in cancer. Herein, we aimed to characterize a p73-regulated network that mediates cell migration and restores anti-oncogenic responses in p53-mutant cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that p73 regulates a network underlying cell migration, which consists of MIR34A/MIR3158/vimentin/β-catenin/lef1. The p73 isoforms transactivate the miRNA components (MIR34A/MIR3158) of this network, which in turn, downregulate their EMT-related mRNA co-targets (vimentin/β-catenin/lef1) to decrease cell-migration. Modulation of this network, by increasing the level of the novel p73-dependent target MIR3158, was found to induce anti-oncogenic/anti-invasive responses in p53-mutant cancer cells. Taken together, a p73-regulated, MIR3158-containing, network restores anti-invasive phenotypes in p53-mutant cancer cells; this property could be exploited towards the development of anticancer therapeutics. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd [less ▲]

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