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See detailDesign and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton
Muller, J.; Mehlen, A.; Vetter, G. et al

in BMC Genomics (2007), 8

Background: The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system ... [more ▼]

Background: The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results: Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI) allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that Actichip is a powerful alternative to commercial high density microarrays for cytoskeleton gene profiling in normal or pathological samples. Actichip is available upon request. © 2007 Muller et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroarray analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha induced gene expression in U373 human glioblastoma cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Lindecke, Antje; Elvers, Margitta et al

in BMC Genomics (2003), 4(1), 46

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been widely used as a model for inflammatory cytokine actions in the nervous system. Here we used cDNA microarrays to analyze the time course of the transcriptional response from 1 h up to 12 h post TNF treatment in comparison to untreated U373 cells. TNF activated strongly the NF-kappaB transcriptional pathway and is linked to other pathways via the NF-kappaB target genes JUNB and IRF-1. Part of the TNF-induced gene expression could be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB with pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (PDTC). NF-kappaB comprises a family of transcription factors which are involved in the inducible expression of genes regulating neuronal survival, inflammatory response, cancer and innate immunity. RESULTS: In this study we show that numerous genes responded to TNF (> 880 from 7500 tested) with a more than two-fold induction rate. Several novel TNF-responsive genes (about 60% of the genes regulated by a factor > or = 3) were detected. A comparison of our TNF-induced gene expression profiles of U373, with profiles from 3T3 and Hela cells revealed a striking cell-type specificity. SCYA2 (MCP-1, CCL2, MCAF) was induced in U373 cells in a sustained manner and at the highest level of all analyzed genes. MCP-1 protein expression, as monitored with immunofluorescence and ELISA, correlated exactly with microarray data. Based on these data and on evidence from literature we suggest a model for the potential neurodegenerative effect of NF-kappaB in astroglia: Activation of NF-kappaB via TNF results in a strongly increased production of MCP-1. This leads to a exacerbation of neurodegeneration in stoke or Multiple Sclerosis, presumably via infiltration of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of genes regulated more than 3-fold were previously not linked to tumor necrosis factor alpha as a search in published literature revealed. Striking co-regulation for several functional groups such as proteasome and ribosomal proteins were detected. [less ▲]

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