References of "Virus Research"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInterplay of measles virus with early induced cytokines reveals different wild type phenotypes.
Kessler, Julia UL; Kremer, Jacques R.; Muller, Claude P.

in Virus Research (2011), 155(1), 195-202

Differential effects of measles virus (MV) on the innate immune response may influence virus spread and severity of disease. Using a representative panel of 22 MV strains including 14 different genotypes ... [more ▼]

Differential effects of measles virus (MV) on the innate immune response may influence virus spread and severity of disease. Using a representative panel of 22 MV strains including 14 different genotypes, we found that wild-type (wt) differ considerably in their sensitivity to type I interferon (IFN). The wt virus production was 2-47-fold lower in IFN-alpha treated Vero/hSLAM cells, whereas vaccine virus production was reduced only 2-3-fold. Sequence analysis of the MV-P/C/V gene, revealed no obvious amino acid mutations that correlated with the different phenotypes. Strains also widely differed in their ability to induce type I IFN, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and other cytokines in human A549/hSLAM cells. Some wt strains that were highly sensitive to type I IFN induced only low levels of these and other cytokines. In vitro wt strains that produced the 5' copy-back defective interfering RNAs (5'cb-diRNA) characterized by Shingai et al. (2007), induced high levels of cytokines that otherwise were only reached by vaccine strains. These 5'cb-diRNAs emerged only in virus cultures during multiple passaging and were not detectable in clinical samples of measles patients. These subgenomic RNAs are an important confounding parameter in passaged wt viruses which must be carefully assessed in all in vitro studies. The present data show that MV wt strains differ in their sensitivity and their ability to temper with the innate immune response, which may result in differences in virulence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGenetic variability and mRNA editing frequencies of the phosphoprotein genes of wild-type measles viruses.
Bankamp, B.; Lopareva, E. N.; Kremer, J. R. et al

in Virus Research (2008), 135(2), 298-306

The sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes are routinely used for molecular epidemiologic studies of measles virus (MV). However, the amount of genetic diversity contained in other ... [more ▼]

The sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes are routinely used for molecular epidemiologic studies of measles virus (MV). However, the amount of genetic diversity contained in other genes of MV has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this report, the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) genes from 34 wild-type strains representing 15 genotypes of MV were analyzed and found to be almost as variable as the H genes but less variable than the N genes. Deduced amino acid sequences of the three proteins encoded by the P gene, P, V and C, demonstrated considerably higher variability than the H proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed the same tree topography for the P gene sequences as previously seen for the N and H genes. RNA editing of P gene transcripts affects the relative ratios of P and V proteins, which may have consequences for pathogenicity. Wild-type isolates produced more transcripts with more than one G insertion; however, there was no significant difference in the use of P and V open reading frames, suggesting that the relative amounts of P and V proteins in infected cells would be similar for both vaccine and wild-type strains. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailGenotypic and antigenic characterization of hemagglutinin proteins of African measles virus isolates
Truong, A. T.; Kreis, Stephanie UL; Ammerlaan, W. et al

in Virus Research (1999), 62(1), 89-95

A comprehensive phylogenetic study based on the hemagglutinin (H) protein of all known African measles virus (MV) isolates is presented. The study includes 64 new H gene sequences from Ghana, Nigeria and ... [more ▼]

A comprehensive phylogenetic study based on the hemagglutinin (H) protein of all known African measles virus (MV) isolates is presented. The study includes 64 new H gene sequences from Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa as well as viruses from Zambia and The Gambia for which only incomplete sequencing data were available and that have previously not been genotyped. The results provide further support to the tentative assignment of the Nigerian and Ghanaian viruses to a new genotype B3 within clade B. A distinct geographic distribution pattern emerged with clade B viruses circulating exclusively in African countries north of the equator. All MV strains from southern Africa grouped in clades A and D with the majority of viruses belonging to genotype D4. The viruses considerably differed by their sensitivity to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAb), but three selected antibodies were sufficient to distinguish between African MVs representing four different genotypes. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (6 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailRapid identification of measles virus strains by the heteroduplex mobility assay
Kreis, Stephanie UL; Whistler, T.

in Virus Research (1997), 47(2), 472197-203

The continued endemic presence of measles virus (MV), and the large number of isolates which are made in South Africa each year, demanded the use of a rapid and reliable pre-screening technique to select ... [more ▼]

The continued endemic presence of measles virus (MV), and the large number of isolates which are made in South Africa each year, demanded the use of a rapid and reliable pre-screening technique to select isolates for molecular epidemiological studies by sequence analysis. The heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) was used to genetically characterize 47 MV isolates collected from three different provinces in South Africa, made between 1986 and 1995. The carboxyl-terminal 590 nt of the nucleocapsid (N) gene - the most variable region of the genome - was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently subjected to HMA analysis for initial genotyping. The results showed three different patterns of heteroduplex formation by gel electrophoresis, representing two distinct wild-type lineages and one group of vaccine-like viruses. Comparison of HMA results with phylogenetic analysis of sequence data for several of the South African MV strains showed a complete correlation of results. The HMA proved to be a useful tool for screening MV isolates for use in molecular epidemiological studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (18 UL)