References of "2018"
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See detailGermany, Greece and Poland: The Complicated story of Reparations and their impact on European (dis?) Integration,
Paravantis, Spero UL

in Paravantis, Spero (Ed.) BENELUX, Europe and the Cold War: Asymmetrical cold war power relations in the Integration process of Europe (2018)

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See detailThe 90s as a turning decade for Internet and the Web
Schafer, Valerie UL; Thierry, Benjamin

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2018), 2(3/4),

This special issue dedicated to the 90s as a turning decade for Internet and the Web highlights the developments and choices – both technical and economic, but also cultural, societal and political – that ... [more ▼]

This special issue dedicated to the 90s as a turning decade for Internet and the Web highlights the developments and choices – both technical and economic, but also cultural, societal and political – that contributed to the massification of the Internet and the discovery of the Web by the general public. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying astrocyte identity
Pavlou, Maria Angeliki UL; Grandbarbe, Luc UL; Buckley, Noel et al

in Progress in Neurobiology (2018)

Astrocytes play a significant role in coordinating neural development and provide critical support for the function of the CNS. They possess important adaptation capacities that range from their ... [more ▼]

Astrocytes play a significant role in coordinating neural development and provide critical support for the function of the CNS. They possess important adaptation capacities that range from their transition towards reactive astrocytes to their ability to undergo reprogramming, thereby revealing their potential to retain latent features of neural progenitor cells. We propose that the mechanisms underlying reactive astrogliosis or astrocyte reprogramming provide an opportunity for initiating neuronal regeneration, a process that is notably reduced in the mammalian nervous system throughout evolution. Conversely, this plasticity may also affect normal astrocytic functions resulting in pathologies ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders to neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors. We postulate that epigenetic mechanisms linking extrinsic cues and intrinsic transcriptional programs are key factors to maintain astrocyte identity and function, and critically, to control the balance of regenerative and degenerative activity. Here, we will review the main evidences supporting this concept. We propose that unravelling the epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms underlying the acquisition of astrocyte identity and plasticity, as well as understanding how these processes are modulated by the local microenvironment under specific threatening or pathological conditions, may pave the way to new therapeutic avenues for several neurological disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors of astrocytic lineage. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of functionalized platform molecules on Au(111)
Jasper-Tönnies, Torben; Poltavskyi, Igor UL; Ulrich, Sandra et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2018), 149

Trioxatriangulenium (TOTA) platform molecules were functionalized with methyl, ethyl, ethynyl, propynyl, and hydrogen and sublimated onto Au(111) surfaces. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy ... [more ▼]

Trioxatriangulenium (TOTA) platform molecules were functionalized with methyl, ethyl, ethynyl, propynyl, and hydrogen and sublimated onto Au(111) surfaces. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy data reveal that >99% of ethyl-TOTA and methyl-TOTA remain intact, whereas 60% of H-TOTA and >99% of propynyl-TOTA and ethynyl-TOTA decompose. The observed tendency toward fragmentation on Au(111) is opposite to the sequence of gas-phase stabilities of the molecules. Although Au(111) is the noblest of all metal surfaces, the binding energies of the decomposition products to Au(111) destabilize the functionalized platforms by 2 to 3.9 eV (190–370 kJ/mol) and even render some of them unstable as revealed by density functional theory calculations. Van der Waals forces are important, as they drive the adsorption of the platform molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailL'euro en quête d'un nouveau souffle
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2018)

L’euro est l’une des grandes aventures du XXe siècle. Pour la première fois des pays égaux et souverains consentent d’abandonner leurs monnaies nationales - symbole intrinsèque aux États nations - pour ... [more ▼]

L’euro est l’une des grandes aventures du XXe siècle. Pour la première fois des pays égaux et souverains consentent d’abandonner leurs monnaies nationales - symbole intrinsèque aux États nations - pour créer une monnaie unique gérée par une nouvelle institution, une banque centrale à l’échelon de l’Europe. Si l’euro ressemble davantage à un instrument technique pour une meilleure intégration économique, il représente surtout une construction institutionnelle originale et une forte avancée politique, néanmoins incomplète. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Resources and Tools in Historical Research
Zaagsma, Gerben UL; Wieneke, Lars UL

in Kollmann, Stefanie; Müller, Lars; Reh, Sabine (Eds.) et al Picture archives and the emergence of visual history of education. ISCHE 40 pre-conference workshop. 3rd workshop "Pictura Paedagogica Online: educational knowledge in images (2018, December 21)

One of the characteristic features of modern life is the omnipresence of images - in public life as well as in the private surroundings. At latest with coining the term "Visual history" at the beginning ... [more ▼]

One of the characteristic features of modern life is the omnipresence of images - in public life as well as in the private surroundings. At latest with coining the term "Visual history" at the beginning of the nineteen nineties historical disciplines are dealing with this ever growing pool of pictorial sources. This is also true for educational history - especially when keeping in mind that the use of images in an educational context is common practice since early modern ages. This concerns the presentation practices, the design of didactic visual media and their use in educational practice as well as the illustrated traces of historical educational practice and historical educational knowledge (e.g. photographs of school buildings or educational scenes). There are various digital picture archives to address the research questions of many historical disciplines. These databases, though, differ widely in purpose and design - and of course they cannot serve every scientific demand. According to Gerhard Paul there should be at least four layers of information evaluation when analysing historical images (reality of depiction, genesis, use and impact). Thus, building up a corpus of image sources with sufficient accompanying information can be quite challenging. As major topic the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on the impact of the discipline on developing and maintaining of a picture archive. (DIPF/Orig.) [less ▲]

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See detailThe EU Dimension in Education for Democratic Citizenship: a Legal Analysis
Grimonprez, Kris Johanna UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Education for democratic citizenship equips learners with knowledge, skills and understanding and develops their attitudes and behaviour, with the aim of empowering them to exercise and defend their ... [more ▼]

Education for democratic citizenship equips learners with knowledge, skills and understanding and develops their attitudes and behaviour, with the aim of empowering them to exercise and defend their democratic rights and responsibilities in society, to value diversity and to play an active part in democratic life (the consensual definition in the Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education of the Council of Europe, 2010). What does this mean for EU citizens? The dissertation reads this Charter in combination with EU law and argues that an EU dimension must be incorporated in national citizenship education. A method for objective, critical and pluralistic EU learning is proposed, a method based on the Treaties and on case teaching (stories for critical thinking). Starting from EU law, suitable content for the EU dimension in mainstream education is then explored on the basis of four criteria: (i) additional content for national education for democratic citizenship, (ii) significant content, i.e. relating to foundational (EU primary law) values, objectives and principles, (iii) inviting critical thinking, (iv) affecting the large majority of EU citizens, including static citizens (who live at home in their own country). A broader view of EU citizenship is developed, beyond that resulting from classic citizenship rights. Finally, it is argued that the EU has the legal competence to support the EU dimension in education. Member States are invited to take more action to ensure quality education, which must now include education for democratic citizenship and its EU dimension. Democracy in the EU needs an educational substratum. [less ▲]

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See detailLubrication mechanism design for aircraft landing gear bearings
Heirendt, Laurent UL; Hugh, Hugh H.T.; Wang, Phillip

Patent (2018)

A shock absorber with lubricated bearings for an aircraft landing gear includes a piston that is received in a cylinder, and an upper bearing fixed to the piston that slidably engages an inner surface of ... [more ▼]

A shock absorber with lubricated bearings for an aircraft landing gear includes a piston that is received in a cylinder, and an upper bearing fixed to the piston that slidably engages an inner surface of the cylinder. A lower bearing extends inwardly from a lower portion of the cylinder and engages an outer surface of the piston. The lower bearing has a center axis and defines an annular bearing surface configured to slidably engage the piston outer surface. The annular bearing surface has a first portion that extends circumferentially more than one hundred eighty degrees about the center axis at a constant radius, defining a circular annular segment. A second portion closes the circular annular segment and defines a shallow channel or pocket in the annular bearing surface. In some embodiments the lower bearing further comprises oppositely disposed frustoconical thrust portions. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire de la gouvernance d'Internet
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2018, December 20)

initialement laboratoire d’une démocratie technique inachevée, la gouvernance de l’Internet pose rapidement la question de l’articulation du rôle des États, des experts techniques, des acteurs économiques ... [more ▼]

initialement laboratoire d’une démocratie technique inachevée, la gouvernance de l’Internet pose rapidement la question de l’articulation du rôle des États, des experts techniques, des acteurs économiques, des groupes impliqués et des usagers en général. Elle implique de penser les continuités et ruptures dans le temps court de l’histoire d’Internet, mais aussi dans la poursuite de luttes plus anciennes pour la maîtrise de l’information et des communications, où les rapports de pouvoir n’ont jamais été absents. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing and Resolving Conflicts of Jurisdiction in EU Criminal Law
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Robinson, Gavin UL; European Law Institute

Book published by Oxford University Press (2018)

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See detailThe Role of Implicit Nationality Preference in Speaker Evaluations in the Multilingual Context of Montreal
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Journal of Language and Social Psychology (2018)

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be ... [more ▼]

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be used as indicator of national group membership, which highlights the need for a distinction. The present study aimed to transfer an adapted model positing language and nationality attitudes as distinct factors of speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level, to the context of Montreal. Explicit attitudes were assumed to primarily affect explicit speaker evaluations, whereas implicit attitudes were expected to be the primary predictor of implicit speaker evaluations. Results primarily confirmed the distinctness of language and nationality concepts on an implicit attitude level. Moreover, the crucial role of nationality preference on an implicit level was highlighted: Quebecers’ implicit nationality attitudes affected implicit preferences for the Quebec nation suggesting affirmation of model transferability. [less ▲]

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See detailDialog - traduction française du magazine DIALOG
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Mortini, Simone UL

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailChoice of Forum and Cybercrime
Robinson, Gavin UL

in Ligeti, Katalin; Robinson, Gavin; European Law Institute (Eds.) Preventing and Resolving Conflicts of Jurisdiction in EU Criminal Law (2018)

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See detailUpcycling polymers: a revolutionary approach to promoting the circular economy
Wolf, Claude UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

in Impact (2018), 2018(Number 9), 103-1053

The UPcycling using Additive Manufacturing (UpAM) project seeks to introduce an innovative educational and interactive framework to demonstrate the benefits of upcycling so that any individual can produce ... [more ▼]

The UPcycling using Additive Manufacturing (UpAM) project seeks to introduce an innovative educational and interactive framework to demonstrate the benefits of upcycling so that any individual can produce their own products using recycled raw materials. For years, societies have been aware that the unlimited consumption of products is unavoidably intertwined with the unlimited production of waste. This is exactly why scientists and researchers have been trying to find alternative and meaningful solutions to the Linear Economy model, a model that dictates a specific sequence of events: extracting raw materials, manufacturing products, consuming and discarding these products. Looking beyond that ‘take, make, dispose’ approach, it was in 1989 that the notion of Circular Economy (CE) was first proposed by Pearce and Turner; a concept that is restorative and regenerative and that involves reusing products, repairing, recycling and upcycling. Therefore, the core element of this innovative and environmentally-friendly model is to rely on system-wide innovative processes in order to redefine products, services and, most importantly, our way of thinking, to design waste out, thus allowing a profound transition to renewable energy sources [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation study of the electrical tunneling network conductivity of suspensions of hard spherocylinders
Atashpendar, Arshia; Arora, Sarthak; Rahm, Alexander UL et al

in Physical Review. E. (2018), 98

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the electrical conductivity of networks of hard rods with aspect ratios 10 and 20 as a function of the volume fraction for two tunneling conductance models ... [more ▼]

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the electrical conductivity of networks of hard rods with aspect ratios 10 and 20 as a function of the volume fraction for two tunneling conductance models. For a simple, orientationally independent tunneling model, we observe nonmonotonic behavior of the bulk conductivity as a function of volume fraction at the isotropic-nematic transition. However, this effect is lost if one allows for anisotropic tunneling. The relative conductivity enhancement increases exponentially with volume fraction in the nematic phase. Moreover, we observe that the orientational ordering of the rods in the nematic phase induces an anisotropy in the conductivity, i.e., enhanced values in the direction of the nematic director field. We also compute the mesh number of the Kirchhoff network, which turns out to be a simple alternative to the computationally expensive conductivity of large systems in order to get a qualitative estimate. [less ▲]

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See detailA study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of human colorectal adenomacarcinoma enterocytes to prebiotics and probiotics
Greenhalgh, Kacy UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome plays essential roles in maintaining human health. A variety of diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with microbial dysbiosis ... [more ▼]

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome plays essential roles in maintaining human health. A variety of diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with microbial dysbiosis. Administration of microbial isolates associated with health benefits (e.g. prebiotics) together with specific dietary components (e.g., probiotics) may find application as supportive therapeutic options in the treatment and management of CRC. Although microbiome-modulating therapeutics hold great promise, such approaches are presently not formally integrated into treatment plans. To obtain better understanding of combined pre- and probiotic regimens in relation to CRC, the present study was dedicated to investigate the effects of selected prebiotics on the proliferation of CRC primary cells and conventional CRC-cell lines, the effects of prebiotics on the growth and metabolism of selected probiotic strains, and the combinatorial/synbiotic effects of selected pre- and probiotics on CRC proliferation. In addition, this work established the in vitro gut-on-a chip HuMiX model with a simulated high-fibre medium for co-culturing human and microbial cells in HuMiX. Furthermore, the anti-carcinogenic combinatorial effects of dietary fiber (e.g., prebiotics), and GIT bacteria (e.g., probiotics) were evaluated using human GIT transcriptomes and metabolomes in HuMiX. An integrated in vitro and in silico modeling approach was finally established to decipher the complex cross-talk between gut bacteria, dietary components and human host cells. My results demonstrate that in stark contrast to the individual pre- or probiotic treatments, the synbiotic regimen of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and dietary fiber results in the down-regulation of genes involved in pro-carcinogenic pathways and drug resistance (e.g., ABC transporters) and reduced levels of the oncometabolite lactate. Distinct ratios of organic and short-chain fatty acids are produced during the simulated regimens. Treatment of primary CRC-derived cells with a molecular cocktail reflecting the synbiotic regimen attenuated self-renewal capacity. The developped integrated in vitro and in silico modelling approach provides mechanistic insights into the interplay between pre- and probiotics and elucidation of the microbiota-host relationship. In summary, my dissertation work illustrates the potential of HuMiX to be used for nutritional studies and more precisely for studying the underlying mechanisms of the effects that dietary components (e.g., dietary fiber) and probiotics have on CRC-derived cells. Thereby, this dissertation work highlights the potential for formulating efficacious dietary supplements including synbiotics in the context of therapeutic regimens for microbiome-linked diseases in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantization of spectral curves and DQ-modules
Petit, François UL

in Journal of Noncommutative Geometry (2018)

Given an holomorphic Higgs bundle on a compact Riemann surface of genus greater than one, we prove the existence of an holonomic DQ-module supported by the spectral curve associated to this bundle. Then ... [more ▼]

Given an holomorphic Higgs bundle on a compact Riemann surface of genus greater than one, we prove the existence of an holonomic DQ-module supported by the spectral curve associated to this bundle. Then, we relate quantum curves arising in various situations (quantization of spectral curves of Higgs Bundles, quantization of the A-polynomial...) to DQ-modules and show that a quantum curve and the DQ-module canonically associated to it have isomorphic sheaves of solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology and interaction effects in one-dimensional systems
Calzona, Alessio UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

With the discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect by von Klitzing and collaborators in 1980, the mathematical field of topology entered the world of condensed matter physics. Almost three decades ... [more ▼]

With the discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect by von Klitzing and collaborators in 1980, the mathematical field of topology entered the world of condensed matter physics. Almost three decades later, this eventually led to the theoretical prediction and the experimental realization of many intriguing topological materials and topology-based devices. In this Ph.D. thesis, we will study the interplay between topology and another key topic in condensed matter physics, namely the study of inter-particle interactions in many-body systems. This interplay is analyzed from two different perspectives. Firstly, we studied how the presence of electron-electron interactions affects single-electron injection into a couple of counter-propagating one-dimensional edge channels. The latter appear at the edges of topologically non-trivial systems in the quantum spin Hall regime and they can also be engineered by exploiting the integer quantum Hall effect. Because of inter-channel interactions, the injected electron splits up into a couple of counter-propagating fractional excitations. Here, we carefully study and discuss their properties by means of an analytical approach based on the Luttinger liquid theory and the bosonization method. Our results are quite relevant in the context of the so-called electron quantum optics, a fast developing field which deeply exploits the topological protection of one-dimensional edge states to study the coherent propagation of electrons in solid-state devices. As an aside, we also showed that similar analytical techniques can also be used to study the time-resolved dynamics of a Luttinger liquid subject to a sudden change of the interaction strength, a protocol known as quantum quench which is gaining more and more attention, especially within the cold-atoms community. Secondly, we study how inter-particle interactions can enhance the topological properties of strictly one-dimensional fermionic systems. More precisely, the starting point is the seminal Kitaev chain, a free-fermionic lattice model which hosts exotic Majorana zero-energy modes at its ends. The latter are extremely relevant in the context of topological quantum computation because of their non-Abelian anyonic exchange statistics. Here we show that, by properly adding electron-electron interactions to the Kitaev chain, it is possible to obtain lattice models which feature zero-energy parafermionic modes, an even more intriguing generalization of Majoranas. To this end, we develop at first an exact mapping between Z4 parafermions and ordinary fermions on a lattice. We subsequently exploit this mapping to analytically obtain an exactly solvable fermionic model hosting zero-energy parafermions. We study their properties and numerically investigate their signatures and robustness even when parameters are tuned away from the exactly solvable point. [less ▲]

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See detailModernismen in Luxembourg: Modernismes au Luxembourg
Millim, Anne-Marie UL; De Toffoli, Ian

Book published by Centre national de littérature (2018)

Der vorliegende Band versteht sich als Beitrag zu den internationalen Modernismus-Studien. Zum ersten Mal werden Spannungen, Interaktionen und Friktionen in der kulturellen Welt sowie die Koexistenz von ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Band versteht sich als Beitrag zu den internationalen Modernismus-Studien. Zum ersten Mal werden Spannungen, Interaktionen und Friktionen in der kulturellen Welt sowie die Koexistenz von Tradition und Innovation im Luxemburger Kontext in einem interdisziplinären Sammelband mit einander in Verbindung gebracht. Die Beiträge thematisieren Gleichzeitigkeiten und Interaktionen zwischen den verschiedenen Kunstfeldern Architektur, Kunst und Literatur auf. Mit Beiträgen in vier Sprachen, Luxemburgisch, Deutsch, Französisch und Englisch, spiegelt der Band die mehrsprachige Realität des Luxemburger Forschungskontextes wieder und richtet sich sowohl an ein Luxemburger als auch an ein internationales Publikum. Diskussionen zur Natur der Moderne in spezifischen Kontexten bewegen sich häufig innerhalb der Dualität ›modern vs. traditionell‹, wobei die Tradition oft mit Rückständigkeit assoziiert wird. Werke, die in einem Kontext als innovativ und schrankenbrechend gelten, werden in anderen Zusammenhängen als verstaubt und epigonal angesehen. Wenn wir die Relevanz und Qualität der Luxemburger Literatur und Kunst vorrangig anhand ihrer Korrespondenzen zu ausländischen Meisterwerken messen, so laufen wir notwendigerweise das Risiko sie zu unterschätzen und misszuverstehen. Anliegen dieses Bandes ist deshalb radikal innovative Werke des Luxemburger Kontextes sichtbar zu machen, sowie auch Traditionen als Formen der Innovation zu verstehen. Einige der Fragen, die die Beiträger dieses Bandes aufwerfen: wann geschieht die Moderne in Luxemburg? Wie, und in Beziehung wozu, wird sie definiert? Wer definiert sie, mit welchem Anliegen und in welchem Kontext? Die Beiträger bezeugen verschiedene Herangehensweisen an die Thematik: die Artikel reichen von longue durée Studien, zu close readings von Stil, Themen und Formen, zu Untersuchungen des formativen Einflusses kultureller Faktoren. [less ▲]

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