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See detailBritain, the US and Greece after World War II: Anglo-American Relations and the Cold War
Paravantis, Spero UL

Book published by IB Tauris - 1st (2017)

This Book provides a new analysis of the role that the British played in the shift in American foreign policy from 1946 to 1950. To achieve this shift (which also included support of British strategic ... [more ▼]

This Book provides a new analysis of the role that the British played in the shift in American foreign policy from 1946 to 1950. To achieve this shift (which also included support of British strategic interests in the Eastern Mediterranean) this book argues that the British used Greece, first as a way to draw the United States further into European affairs, and then as a way to anchor the United States in Europe, achieving a guarantee of security of the Eastern Mediterranean and of Western Europe. While trying to understand and explain the origins and dynamics of Anglo-American foreign policy in the pre and early years of the Cold War, the role that perception played in the design and implementation of foreign policy became a central focus of the research. From this point came the realization of a general lack of emphasis and research into the ways in which the British government managed to convince the United States government to assume support for worldwide British strategic objectives. How this support was achieved is the central theme of this book. It also addresses the question of whether or not Anglo-American policy was simply a convergence of common Anglo-American objectives, or if it was a result of common objectives created by British influence? To support these hypotheses, this work uses mainly the British and American documents relating to Greece from 1946 to 1950 to explain how these nations made and implemented policy towards Greece during this crucial period in history. In so doing it also explains how American foreign policy in general changed from its pre-war focus on non-intervention, to the post-war policy which heavily favours intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailIDENTITY AND ITS CONSTRUAL: LEARNING FROM LUXEMBOURG
Murdock, Elke UL

in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science (2017)

This article examines national identity construal processes within the case study context of Luxembourg. Building on research highlighting the modalities of generalization from case studies, I present the ... [more ▼]

This article examines national identity construal processes within the case study context of Luxembourg. Building on research highlighting the modalities of generalization from case studies, I present the country case that is Luxembourg. This social universe has a foreign population percentage of 47% and what is considered majority and minority becomes increasingly fluid. The migration process itself is fluid, ranging from daily migration, to medium-term stays, return visits and permanent immigration including uptake of citizenship. Within such a fluid environment, where national borders are permeable at the physical level of crossing borders and (national) societies are nested within societies, culture contact is a permanent feature in daily life. Nationality becomes a salient feature as culture contact tends to prompt reflection, resulting in questioning and (re-)negotiation of national identity. This affects the native population as well as the diverse immigrant population – with diversity going beyond the level of country of origin. Many individuals are also of mixed nationality and some examples for the construal process of national identity will be provided, illustrating how national identity is negotiated at individual level. Like a periscope, this country let s us adjust mirrors, permitting us to observe modes of identity construal which would otherwise be obstructed from the field of view. The case study that is Luxembourg allows us to look at the micro-setting of the construction, potentially of something new. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk, sustainability and time: sociological perspectives
Wong, Catherine UL; Lockie, Stewart

in Schandl, Heinz; Walker, Iain (Eds.) Social Sciences and Sustainability (2017)

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See detailHigh Frequency Acoustic Scattering in Isogeometric Analysis
Khajah, Tahsin; Antoine, Xavier; Bordas, Stéphane UL

Scientific Conference (2017, May 15)

There is an emerging need to perform high frequency scattering analysis on high-fidelity models. Conventional Finite Element analysis suffers from irretrievable loss of the boundary accuracy as well as ... [more ▼]

There is an emerging need to perform high frequency scattering analysis on high-fidelity models. Conventional Finite Element analysis suffers from irretrievable loss of the boundary accuracy as well as pollution error. Man-made geometries can be represented exactly in Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) with no geometrical loss even with very coarse mesh. The aim of this paper is to analyze the accuracy of IGA for exterior acoustic scattering problems. The numerical results show extremely low pollution error even for very high frequencies. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovations and sales growth in new ventures: The mediating effect of growth intention
Gundolf, Katherine; Geraudel, Mickaël UL; Cesinger, Beate

Scientific Conference (2017, May 11)

While the direct impact of innovation on growth has been examined in entrepreneurship literature, the underlying channels of influence have remained largely unexplored. This article draws upon Behavioral ... [more ▼]

While the direct impact of innovation on growth has been examined in entrepreneurship literature, the underlying channels of influence have remained largely unexplored. This article draws upon Behavioral Reasoning Theory to examine whether growth intention is the pathway through which product, process and organizational innovations influence venture growth or not. Results from the analysis of a dataset of 20,472 French new ventures reveal that: (1) product, process and organizational innovations have a positive impact on sales revenue growth; (2) growth intention has a positive impact on sales revenue growth; and (3) growth intention mediates the effects of product and organizational innovations on sales revenue growth. These findings have implications for a more balanced and nuanced view on how innovations impact new venture growth. [less ▲]

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See detailAccelerating Monte Carlo estimation with derivatives of high-level finite element models
Hauseux, Paul UL; Hale, Jack UL; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2017), 318

In this paper we demonstrate the ability of a derivative-driven Monte Carlo estimator to accelerate the propagation of uncertainty through two high-level non-linear finite element models. The use of ... [more ▼]

In this paper we demonstrate the ability of a derivative-driven Monte Carlo estimator to accelerate the propagation of uncertainty through two high-level non-linear finite element models. The use of derivative information amounts to a correction to the standard Monte Carlo estimation procedure that reduces the variance under certain conditions. We express the finite element models in variational form using the high-level Unified Form Language (UFL). We derive the tangent linear model automatically from this high-level description and use it to efficiently calculate the required derivative information. To study the effectiveness of the derivative-driven method we consider two stochastic PDEs; a one- dimensional Burgers equation with stochastic viscosity and a three-dimensional geometrically non-linear Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic equation with stochastic density and volumetric material parameter. Our results show that for these problems the first-order derivative-driven Monte Carlo method is around one order of magnitude faster than the standard Monte Carlo method and at the cost of only one extra tangent linear solution per estimation problem. We find similar trends when comparing with a modern non-intrusive multi-level polynomial chaos expansion method. We parallelise the task of the repeated forward model evaluations across a cluster using the ipyparallel and mpi4py software tools. A complete working example showing the solution of the stochastic viscous Burgers equation is included as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatically Locating Malicious Packages in Piggybacked Android Apps
Li, Li UL; Li, Daoyuan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 4th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Mobile Software Engineering and Systems (2017, May)

To devise efficient approaches and tools for detecting malicious packages in the Android ecosystem, researchers are increasingly required to have a deep understanding of malware. There is thus a need to ... [more ▼]

To devise efficient approaches and tools for detecting malicious packages in the Android ecosystem, researchers are increasingly required to have a deep understanding of malware. There is thus a need to provide a framework for dissecting malware and locating malicious program fragments within app code in order to build a comprehensive dataset of malicious samples. Towards addressing this need, we propose in this work a tool-based approach called HookRanker, which provides ranked lists of potentially malicious packages based on the way malware behaviour code is triggered. With experiments on a ground truth set of piggybacked apps, we are able to automatically locate the malicious packages from piggybacked Android apps with an accuracy of 83.6% in verifying the top five reported items. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Multi-Generation Repackaging Hypothesis
Li, Li UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Bartel, Alexandre UL et al

Poster (2017, May)

App repackaging is a common threat in the Android ecosystem. To face this threat, the literature now includes a large body of work proposing approaches for identifying repackaged apps. Unfortunately ... [more ▼]

App repackaging is a common threat in the Android ecosystem. To face this threat, the literature now includes a large body of work proposing approaches for identifying repackaged apps. Unfortunately, although most research involves pairwise similarity comparison to distinguish repackaged apps from their “original” counterparts, no work has considered the threat to validity of not being able to discover the true original apps. We provide in this paper preliminary insights of an investigation into the Multi-Generation Repackaging Hypothesis: is the original in a repackaging process the outcome of a previous repackaging process? Leveraging the Androzoo dataset of over 5 million Android apps, we validate this hypothesis in the wild, calling upon the community to take this threat into account in new solutions for repackaged app detection. [less ▲]

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See detailA Guided Genetic Algorithm for Automated Crash Reproduction
Soltani, Mozhan; Panichella, Annibale UL; van Deursen, Arie

in Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2017) (2017, May)

To reduce the effort developers have to make for crash debugging, researchers have proposed several solutions for automatic failure reproduction. Recent advances proposed the use of symbolic execution ... [more ▼]

To reduce the effort developers have to make for crash debugging, researchers have proposed several solutions for automatic failure reproduction. Recent advances proposed the use of symbolic execution, mutation analysis, and directed model checking as underling techniques for post-failure analysis of crash stack traces. However, existing approaches still cannot reproduce many real-world crashes due to such limitations as environment dependencies, path explosion, and time complexity. To address these challenges, we present EvoCrash, a post-failure approach which uses a novel Guided Genetic Algorithm (GGA) to cope with the large search space characterizing real-world software programs. Our empirical study on three open-source systems shows that EvoCrash can replicate 41 (82%) of real-world crashes, 34 (89%) of which are useful reproductions for debugging purposes, outperforming the state-of-the-art in crash replication. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentially Private Neighborhood-based Recommender Systems
Wang, Jun UL; Tang, Qiang

in IFIP Information Security & Privacy Conference (2017, May)

Privacy issues of recommender systems have become a hot topic for the society as such systems are appearing in every corner of our life. In contrast to the fact that many secure multi-party computation ... [more ▼]

Privacy issues of recommender systems have become a hot topic for the society as such systems are appearing in every corner of our life. In contrast to the fact that many secure multi-party computation protocols have been proposed to prevent information leakage in the process of recommendation computation, very little has been done to restrict the information leakage from the recommendation results. In this paper, we apply the differential privacy concept to neighborhood-based recommendation methods (NBMs) under a probabilistic framework. We first present a solution, by directly calibrating Laplace noise into the training process, to differential-privately find the maximum a posteriori parameters similarity. Then we connect differential privacy to NBMs by exploiting a recent observation that sampling from the scaled posterior distribution of a Bayesian model results in provably differentially private systems. Our experiments show that both solutions allow promising accuracy with a modest privacy budget, and the second solution yields better accuracy if the sampling asymptotically converges. We also compare our solutions to the recent differentially private matrix factorization (MF) recommender systems, and show that our solutions achieve better accuracy when the privacy budget is reasonably small. This is an interesting result because MF systems often offer better accuracy when differential privacy is not applied. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Sexualized Violence in Video Games on Rape Myth Acceptance
Fernandez de Henestrosa, Martha UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2017, May)

Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined ... [more ▼]

Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined effects of sexual and violent material in video games on players’ RMA. Participants (N = 82) played either a sexualized female game character or a non-sexualized female game character in a violent video game. Participants’ pre-gaming RMA, gender role attitudes and gaming habits were found to predict RMA after the gaming episode, but sexualized game violence did not. Furthermore, no gender differences were found with regard to RMA. The present findings corroborate the important role of pre-existing gender attitudes for the concept of RMA. In addition, future research should also focus on long-term exposure to video games and players’ gaming habits when examining the effects of sexualized violence in video games on RMA. [less ▲]

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See detailSuperdiversity and Language
Budach, Gabriele UL; de Saint-Georges, Ingrid UL

in Canagarajah, Suresh (Ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Migration and Language (2017)

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See detailUnderstanding Android App Piggybacking
Li, Li UL; Li, Daoyuan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

Poster (2017, May)

The Android packaging model offers adequate opportunities for attackers to inject malicious code into popular benign apps, attempting to develop new malicious apps that can then be easily spread to a ... [more ▼]

The Android packaging model offers adequate opportunities for attackers to inject malicious code into popular benign apps, attempting to develop new malicious apps that can then be easily spread to a large user base. Despite the fact that the literature has already presented a number of tools to detect piggybacked apps, there is still lacking a comprehensive investigation on the piggybacking processes. To fill this gap, in this work, we collect a large set of benign/piggybacked app pairs that can be taken as benchmark apps for further investigation. We manually look into these benchmark pairs for understanding the characteristics of piggybacking apps and eventually we report 20 interesting findings. We expect these findings to initiate new research directions such as practical and scalable piggybacked app detection, explainable malware detection, and malicious code location. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficient Data Collection in Opportunistic Mobile Crowdsensing Architectures for Smart Cities
Capponi, Andrea UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL et al

in 3rd IEEE INFOCOM Workshop on Smart Cites and Urban Computing (2017, May)

Smart cities employ latest information and communication technologies to enhance services for citizens. Sensing is essential to monitor current status of infrastructures and the environment. In Mobile ... [more ▼]

Smart cities employ latest information and communication technologies to enhance services for citizens. Sensing is essential to monitor current status of infrastructures and the environment. In Mobile Crowdsensing (MCS), citizens participate in the sensing process contributing data with their mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets and wearables. To be effective, MCS systems require a large number of users to contribute data. While several studies focus on developing efficient incentive mechanisms to foster user participation, data collection policies still require investigation. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed and energy-efficient framework for data collection in opportunistic MCS architectures. Opportunistic sensing systems require minimal intervention from the user side as sensing decisions are application- or device-driven. The proposed framework minimizes the cost of both sensing and reporting, while maximizing the utility of data collection and, as a result, the quality of contributed information. We evaluate performance of the framework with simulations, performed in a real urban environment and with a large number of participants. The simulation results verify cost-effectiveness of the framework and assess efficiency of the data generation process. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch-driven String Constraint Solving for Vulnerability Detection
Thome, Julian UL; Shar, Lwin Khin UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2017) (2017, May)

Constraint solving is an essential technique for detecting vulnerabilities in programs, since it can reason about input sanitization and validation operations performed on user inputs. However, real-world ... [more ▼]

Constraint solving is an essential technique for detecting vulnerabilities in programs, since it can reason about input sanitization and validation operations performed on user inputs. However, real-world programs typically contain complex string operations that challenge vulnerability detection. State-of-the-art string constraint solvers support only a limited set of string operations and fail when they encounter an unsupported one; this leads to limited effectiveness in finding vulnerabilities. In this paper we propose a search-driven constraint solving technique that complements the support for complex string operations provided by any existing string constraint solver. Our technique uses a hybrid constraint solving procedure based on the Ant Colony Optimization meta-heuristic. The idea is to execute it as a fallback mechanism, only when a solver encounters a constraint containing an operation that it does not support. We have implemented the proposed search-driven constraint solving technique in the ACO-Solver tool, which we have evaluated in the context of injection and XSS vulnerability detection for Java Web applications. We have assessed the benefits and costs of combining the proposed technique with two state-of-the-art constraint solvers (Z3-str2 and CVC4). The experimental results, based on a benchmark with 104 constraints derived from nine realistic Web applications, show that our approach, when combined in a state-of-the-art solver, significantly improves the number of detected vulnerabilities (from 4.7% to 71.9% for Z3-str2, from 85.9% to 100.0% for CVC4), and solves several cases on which the solver fails when used stand-alone (46 more solved cases for Z3-str2, and 11 more for CVC4), while still keeping the execution time affordable in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailCost analysis of Smart Lighting Solutions for Smart Cities
Cacciatore, Giuseppe; Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, 2017 (2017, May)

Lighting is an essential community service, but current implementations are not energy efficient and impact on the energy budget of the municipalities for at least 40\%. In this paper, we propose ... [more ▼]

Lighting is an essential community service, but current implementations are not energy efficient and impact on the energy budget of the municipalities for at least 40\%. In this paper, we propose heuristics and devise a comparison methodology for new smart lighting solutions in next generation smart cities. The proposed smart lighting techniques make use of Internet of Things (IoT) augmented lamppost, which save energy by turning off or dimming the light according to the presence of citizens. Assessing costs and benefits in adopting the new smart lighting solutions is a pillar step for municipalities to foster real implementation. For evaluation purposes, we have developed a custom simulator which enables the deployment of lampposts in realistic urban environments. The citizens travel on foot along the streets and trigger activation of the lampposts according to the proposed heuristics. For the city of Luxembourg, the results highlight that replacing all existing lamps with LEDs and dimming light intensity according to the presence of users nearby the lampposts is convenient and provides an economical return already after the first year of deployment. [less ▲]

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See detailShape-aware surface reconstruction from sparse 3D point-clouds
Bernard, Florian UL; Salamanca Mino, Luis UL; Thunberg, Johan UL et al

in Medical Image Analysis (2017), 38

The reconstruction of an object’s shape or surface from a set of 3D points plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. in anatomy reconstruction from tomographic measurements or in the process ... [more ▼]

The reconstruction of an object’s shape or surface from a set of 3D points plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. in anatomy reconstruction from tomographic measurements or in the process of aligning intra-operative navigation and preoperative planning data. In such scenarios, one usually has to deal with sparse data, which significantly aggravates the problem of reconstruction. However, medical applications often provide contextual information about the 3D point data that allow to incorporate prior knowledge about the shape that is to be reconstructed. To this end, we propose the use of a statistical shape model (SSM) as a prior for surface reconstruction. The SSM is represented by a point distribution model (PDM), which is associated with a surface mesh. Using the shape distribution that is modelled by the PDM, we formulate the problem of surface reconstruction from a probabilistic perspective based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). In order to do so, the given points are interpreted as samples of the GMM. By using mixture components with anisotropic covariances that are “oriented” according to the surface normals at the PDM points, a surface-based fitting is accomplished. Estimating the parameters of the GMM in a maximum a posteriori manner yields the reconstruction of the surface from the given data points. We compare our method to the extensively used Iterative Closest Points method on several different anatomical datasets/SSMs (brain, femur, tibia, hip, liver) and demonstrate superior accuracy and robustness on sparse data. [less ▲]

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See detailStrain smoothed for compressible and nearly-incompressible finite elasticity
Lee, Chang-Kye; Mihai, L. Angela; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Computers & Structures (2017), 182

We present a robust and efficient form of the smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) to simulate hyperelastic bodies with compressible and nearly-incompressible neo-Hookean behaviour. The resulting method ... [more ▼]

We present a robust and efficient form of the smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) to simulate hyperelastic bodies with compressible and nearly-incompressible neo-Hookean behaviour. The resulting method is stable, free from volumetric locking and robust on highly distorted meshes. To ensure inf-sup stability of our method we add a cubic bubble function to each element. The weak form for the smoothed hyperelastic problem is derived analogously to that of smoothed linear elastic problem. Smoothed strains and smoothed deformation gradients are evaluated on sub-domains selected by either edge information (edge-based S-FEM, ES-FEM) or nodal information (node-based S-FEM, NS-FEM). Numerical examples are shown that demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of the proposed approach in the nearly-incompressible limit and on highly distorted meshes. We conclude that, strain smoothing is at least as accurate and stable, as the MINI element, for an equivalent problem size. [less ▲]

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