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See detailMechanisms of estrogen receptor action in the myocardium. Rapid gene activation via the ERK1/2 pathway and serum response elements.
de Jager, T.; Pelzer, T.; Muller-Botz, S. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2001), 276(30), 27873-80

We have previously shown that the myocardium is a target tissue for estrogen. Here, we have identified rapid non-nuclear estrogen effects on the expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) in ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the myocardium is a target tissue for estrogen. Here, we have identified rapid non-nuclear estrogen effects on the expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) in cardiomyocytes. Egr-1 mRNA and protein were rapidly and strongly induced by estrogen in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2. A promoter analysis study of a 1.2-kilobase Egr-1 promoter fragment revealed that the serum response elements (SREs) but not the estrogen response elements or AP-1 sites are responsible for Egr-1 induction by estrogen, identifying a novel mechanism of estrogen receptor-dependent gene activation in the myocardium. Both estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta induced the Egr-1 promoter via the SREs as well as an artificial promoter consisting of only five SREs in cardiomyocytes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that a protein complex containing serum response factor or an antigenically related protein was recruited to the SREs by estrogen treatment of primary cardiomyocytes. The recruitment of the protein complex was inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 as well as the MEK inhibitor PD 98059. Taken together, these results identify SREs as important promoter control elements for an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism of gene activation in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen effects in the myocardium: inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA binding by estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta.
Pelzer, T.; Neumann, M.; de Jager, T. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2001), 286(5), 1153-7

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the inhibition of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. This effect was associated with a reduction of NF-kappaB activity. In the present study we have analyzed the functional mechanism of NF-kappaB inhibition in the myocardium by estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. Despite the previous finding that 17-beta-estradiol (10 nM) inhibited the staurosporine-induced binding of p65/p50 NF-kappaB complexes to their cognate DNA elements in cultured rat cardiac myocytes, myocyte extracts showed no change in expression or cellular localization of p65, p50, and IkappaB upon staurosporine or estradiol treatment. Addition of either estrogen receptor-alpha or estrogen receptor-beta as recombinant protein was sufficient to inhibit staurosporine-dependent p65/p50 DNA binding in cardiac myocytes. 17-beta-Estradiol inhibits staurosporine-induced p65/p50 DNA binding associated with apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes via estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. This is not associated with changes in p65, p50 and IkappaB expression or subcellular localization. Thus, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by estrogenic compounds might inhibit NF-kappaB dependent gene expression such as pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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