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See detailAVEC BNT - Analysis and Comparison of European and Chinese Design Codes - B. Script & Examples
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Bender, Michel et al

Book published by BNT (2018)

In recent years, half of the newly constructed building floor areas in the world are built in China, thus it is important and interesting to know the Chinese design codes for buildings and compare them ... [more ▼]

In recent years, half of the newly constructed building floor areas in the world are built in China, thus it is important and interesting to know the Chinese design codes for buildings and compare them with Eurocodes, which are one of the most advanced design codes in the world. Funded by “Erasmus+ Strategic Partnerships” the project “AVEC BNT” was started in 2016 to compare the design codes mainly related to concrete structures and composite structures. This script is the main intellectual outputs from this project. It comprises codes background analysis, direct codes terms comparison and design examples. The script covers most of the design topics related to design of concrete structures and composite structure for building design as well as the design basics such as safety concept. It is a common achievements of students, researchers and professors from different universities and instructions of different countries. The main work is done at University of Luxembourg especially for the design basics part and the design of composite structure of steel and concrete. For design of concrete structure part, University of Applied Science Trier (Germany) and Thei (Hong Kong, China) has offered great helps and contributed many parts. To conform with the goals of Erasmus+ to promote the cooperation and mobility with the EU’ partner countries and to promote the sustainable development of its partners in the field of higher education and contribute to achieving the objectives of the EU Youth Strategy, the script involves many student’s work. The students could participate in the project through either joining special courses offered by the project partners, as well as, doing a student project, bachelor or master thesis related to this project. Further more the students participated within the transnational teaching activity weeks. With the guidance, the students were able to learn and compare difference design methods by EuroCodes and Chinese design codes and to cooperate with their colleges from different countries. To achieve good quality of the final script, which can be used as additional information and learn material for other students and engineers to learn about Eurocodes and Chinese codes for structural design. Also the work was edited into a uniform formatting to make it constant in style and easy to read. Although, besides the contribution from students, many other topics were added to make the documents complete, it was not possible to cover every topic in the codes due to the limited time and resources. Thus, topics such as fire design, seismic design, bridge design, pre-stressed structures and others are not within the scope of the work. The scripts are divided into 7 sub chapters and many small topics. Each topic has two main documents for Eurocodes and Chinese codes. The main documents have same list of contents, which allows readers to compare the design aspects from the two codes systems easily side by side. Besides that, each topic is also provided with a general summary of comparison, which points out the most important difference and general overview of the design. In the documents not only the content of the codes but also the background information is discussed, which will help students and engineers to understand not only the difference of design but also the reasons behind it. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Design Codes for Composite Beams of Steel and Concrete in Europe and China
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Santos-Ferreira, Katia

in 12th Japanese-German Bridge Symposium (2018, September 04)

The comparison gives an overview of the codes for the design of composite structures for buildings. Thereby the history, developments and general structures are illustrated first. Eurocode 4 (EN1994) is a ... [more ▼]

The comparison gives an overview of the codes for the design of composite structures for buildings. Thereby the history, developments and general structures are illustrated first. Eurocode 4 (EN1994) is a part of the Eurocodes, which are European harmonized design codes for buildings and bridges. In this paper, the equivalent Chinese codes are compared to the structure and contents of Eurocodes. EN1994-1-1, which is the first part of Eurocode 4 for general buildings, and JGJ138-2016 have similar design scopes, both cover topics of composite beams, columns, slabs, and connections. JGJ138-2016 also covers the design of composite shear walls and seismic design, while EN1994-1-1 considers more about durability and time effects. For the more technical comparison, the general design bases such as safety concept and design action effects are alike. The material property values by the two codes are mostly similar except for concrete. For structural members, the focus here is mainly on the comparison of composite beams in steel and concrete. The comparisons are explained with the help of parameter studies and theoretical comparisons. [less ▲]

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See detailParticularities for plastic design of composite beams with deep plastic neutral axis
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL

in 12th Japanese-German Bridge Symposium (2018, September 04)

The demand for sustainable constructions increases the importance of composite structures as they lead to slim and economical solutions with a low self-weight of the structure. The determination of the ... [more ▼]

The demand for sustainable constructions increases the importance of composite structures as they lead to slim and economical solutions with a low self-weight of the structure. The determination of the moment resistance for composite beams follows the rules stated in EN 1994-1-1. Based on the slenderness c/t of the compressed parts of the steel-section, composite cross-sections are classified into four cross-section classes. This classification indirectly reflects the rotation capacity and susceptibility to local buckling. For class 1 and 2 cross-sections, the plastic moment resistance of the crosssection may be considered. Otherwise, an elastic design (for class 3) or an elastic design considering local buckling effects (for class 4) is necessary. If the plastic resistance of the cross-section is assumed, it is considered that each cross-section fibre may plastify without limitation of the strain values. For normal composite beams subjected to the sagging moments and with a high plastic neutral axis, the real moment resistance is quite greater than one obtained by the method of the plastic design. For sections with a large compression zone, xpl, a concrete failure in the compression zone can happen before the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section, Mpl,Rd, is reached. Strain limit design, therefore, becomes critical. EN 1994-1-1 provides a limitation of the plastic design resistance only for sections with steel grades S420 and S460. However, there is no guidance given for lower steel grades or the determination of the corresponding concrete compression force. This paper points out, that the rotation capacity of a composite section is dependent on the slenderness of steel crosssection parts and on the behaviour of the concrete part. A comparison of plastic and strain limited moment resistances as well as the analysis of partial shear diagram-based strain limited design results in new findings for the limits of plastic design methods. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Eurocodes and the Chinese standards - Design basics and Design of Composite structure 
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2018, August 30)

https://www1.hochschule-trier.de/fileadmin/groups/11/bauingenieurwesen/News_Downloads/2018_Bauseminar/Flyer_zum_Trierer_Bauseminar.pdf

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See detailComparison of design for composite columns in steel and concrete according to Eurocode 4 and Chinese design codes
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Romero, Manuel (Ed.) Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advances in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures (ASCCS 2018) (2018, June 27)

This paper compares the design of composite columns in steel and concrete based on EN1994-1-1 and Chinese JGJ138-2016. First, the application ranges of the codes are pointed out. Both codes contain the ... [more ▼]

This paper compares the design of composite columns in steel and concrete based on EN1994-1-1 and Chinese JGJ138-2016. First, the application ranges of the codes are pointed out. Both codes contain the design of fully encased composite sections and concrete filled rectangular and circular tubes. However, there are different limitations on cross-section sizes, material strength classes, and others. JGJ138 has three separate chapters for the designs related to the three different types of columns. Eurocode 4 gives three different design methods: one general method based on nonlinear calculation, and two simplified methods based on European buckling curves or N-M iteration curves. For the materials, mechanical properties, such as design strength values, are compared based on the same material grade. For axial compression resistance and eccentrically compressive resistance, the two simplified methods from Eurocode 4 are compared with the design method according to JGJ138-2016 through theoretical and parameter studies. The influences of related parameters such as long-term effects, the buckling curves, and N-M iteration curves are also compared. For shear design, JGJ138-2016 considers mainly transverse shear resistances, while Eurocode 4 further considers shear connection and load introduction. The design transverse shear resistance is compared through theory. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal Shaer in Composite Beams
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Young Engineers Colloquium Munich 2018 (2018, April 13)

Longitudinal shear has important influences on the performance of composite beams. According to Eurocode 4, with cross-section class 1 and 2 in combination with ductile shear connectors, a plastic method ... [more ▼]

Longitudinal shear has important influences on the performance of composite beams. According to Eurocode 4, with cross-section class 1 and 2 in combination with ductile shear connectors, a plastic method, considering redistribution of longitudinal shear force is allowed. The conditions therefore are full development of plastic moment resistance and sufficient slip at interface to reach the plateau of P-δ curve of the shear connectors. However, for slim-floor beams, it is to question if the above-mentioned method can be applied. To answer it, related topics still need further investigation, which is the focus of the author’s Ph.D work. This paper presents part of the first stage results on the theoretical analysis of longitudinal shear, considering the influence of plasticity of the beam. For composite beams with rigid shear connectors, non-linear shear stress distribution appears in the plastic region, which influences the shear connector arrangement. However, detailed theoretical research is still hard to be found. In this work, based on a simple beam partly in plastic zone, mathematical equations are developed to calculate the plastic zone height and longitudinal shear stress distribution. Benchmarks with ANSYS and existing tests are performed. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and Comparison of Eurocodes and Chinese codes of Design
Santos Ferreira, Katia UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Young Engineers Colloquium Munich 2018 (2018, April 13)

Eurocodes (EC) which were published in 2007 are one of the most advanced standards for structure design in the world. Today, Eurocodes are not only used in EU or EFTA countries, but also many other ... [more ▼]

Eurocodes (EC) which were published in 2007 are one of the most advanced standards for structure design in the world. Today, Eurocodes are not only used in EU or EFTA countries, but also many other countries use Eurocodes or align their National standards with them, which gives Eurocodes global influence. Chinese codes of practise, on the other hand, benefit from the recent fast developed construction industry and have a vast application base. In the recent years, half of the new building floor area worldwide is built in China. Thus, it is interesting to compare Eurocodes (one of the most used codes worldwide) with the Chinese codes of design (with which most buildings were recently built). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of design for steel and concrete beams according to EN 1994-1-1 and Chinese JGJ138-2016
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

Scientific Conference (2018, March 06)

In this article, the design of composite beams in steel and concrete based on EN1994-1-1 and Chinese JGJ138-2016 is compared. In general, design according to Eurocode 4 is more detailed. Differences of ... [more ▼]

In this article, the design of composite beams in steel and concrete based on EN1994-1-1 and Chinese JGJ138-2016 is compared. In general, design according to Eurocode 4 is more detailed. Differences of effective width between both codes are explained in theory and through parameter studies. For bending moment resistance, the comparison is carried out with a parameter study on single span beams. For longitudinal shear design, the resistance of shear studs, minimum shear connection degree, and the arrangement of shear studs, longitudinal shear resistance in concrete slabs based on both codes are compared. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of design for composite beams in steel and concrete according to Eurocode 4 and Chinese Design Codes
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in XI Conference on Steel and Composite Construction (2017, November 23)

Parallel to the investigation in the second generation of Eurocodes, the Chinese design standards are also updated. At 01/12/2016, a new Chinese Code for the design of composite structures JGJ138-2016 was ... [more ▼]

Parallel to the investigation in the second generation of Eurocodes, the Chinese design standards are also updated. At 01/12/2016, a new Chinese Code for the design of composite structures JGJ138-2016 was put in practice to replace the old JGJ138-2001. Benefit from the vast experience of composite structure applications blooming recently in Chinese, the new code covers much wider topics and is more comparable to Eurocodes 4. Generally, both codes cover topics of composite beams and columns, composite slabs and composite connections. However, JGJ138-2016 covers also the design of composite shear walls, while Eurocode 4 considers more about durability and time effects. It is necessary to compare the materials used for both of codes. In this article, it covers comparison of the mechanic properties such as elastic modulus, characteristic strength and design strength. The analysis includes concrete, reinforcement, and structural steel. The main comparison is the design procedure of composite columns. The application range of the codes will be pointed out first. Both codes allow the design of concrete encased sections and concrete filled rectangular and circular tubes. However different limitations on cross-section sizes and materials can be found. Eurocode 4 represents three different design methods: the simplified method for centric loading, based on the buckling curves; the general method based on 2nd order calculation for action effects and N-M interaction for the determination of resistances; as well as the non-linear method based on stress-strain limitation of material and FE-Analysis. Chinese code gives a simplified method of the calculation of column resistance for centric and eccentric loading. Also the impact of second-order effect are to proof if needed. According to the EN1994-1-1 the impact of creep is to consider for the denervation of the bending stiffness and for ideal buckling resistance and non-dimensional slenderness. JGJ138-2016 do not consider impact of creep for the design. Besides, JGJ138-2016 includes also design for seismic situation. The axial cross-section resistance and normal force-moment interaction curves (N-M curves) will be compared through theoretical analysis and parameter studies. JGJ138-2016 considers mainly transversal shear resistances, while Eurocode 4 further considers shear connection, load introduction and longitudinal shear outside the areas of load introduction. The design shear resistance will be compared in general and within parameter study. [less ▲]

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