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See detailUpcycling polymers: a revolutionary approach to promoting the circular economy
Wolf, Claude UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

in Impact (2018), 2018(Number 9), 103-1053

The UPcycling using Additive Manufacturing (UpAM) project seeks to introduce an innovative educational and interactive framework to demonstrate the benefits of upcycling so that any individual can produce ... [more ▼]

The UPcycling using Additive Manufacturing (UpAM) project seeks to introduce an innovative educational and interactive framework to demonstrate the benefits of upcycling so that any individual can produce their own products using recycled raw materials. For years, societies have been aware that the unlimited consumption of products is unavoidably intertwined with the unlimited production of waste. This is exactly why scientists and researchers have been trying to find alternative and meaningful solutions to the Linear Economy model, a model that dictates a specific sequence of events: extracting raw materials, manufacturing products, consuming and discarding these products. Looking beyond that ‘take, make, dispose’ approach, it was in 1989 that the notion of Circular Economy (CE) was first proposed by Pearce and Turner; a concept that is restorative and regenerative and that involves reusing products, repairing, recycling and upcycling. Therefore, the core element of this innovative and environmentally-friendly model is to rely on system-wide innovative processes in order to redefine products, services and, most importantly, our way of thinking, to design waste out, thus allowing a profound transition to renewable energy sources [less ▲]

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See detailA finite element model of the lower limb during stance phase of gait cycle including the muscle forces
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean et al

in BioMedical Engineering OnLine (2017), 16(138),

Abstract Background Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities of daily life, are considered in the finite element modelling. So far, many simplifications of the boundary conditions are currently made. This study presents an approach for FE modelling of the lower limb for which muscle forces were included. Method The stance phase of normal gait was simulated. Muscle forces were calculated using a musculoskeletal rigid body (RB) model of the human body, and were subsequently applied to a FE model of the lower limb. It was shown that the inertial forces are negligible during the stance phase of normal gait. The contact surfaces between the parts within the knee were modelled as bonded. Weak springs were attached to the distal tibia for numerical reasons. Results Hip joint reaction forces from the RB model and those from the FE model were similar in magnitude with relative differences less than 16%. The forces of the weak spring were negligible compared to the applied muscle forces. The maximal strain was 0.23% in the proximal region of the femoral diaphysis and 1.7% in the contact zone between the tibia and the fibula. Conclusions The presented approach based on FE modelling by including muscle forces from inverse dynamic analysis of musculoskeletal RB model can be used to perform analyses of the lower limb with very realistic boundary conditions. In the present form, this model can be used to better understand the loading, stresses and strains of bones in the knee area and hence to analyse osteotomy fixation devices. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical comparative study of five currently used implants for high tibial osteotomy: realistic loading including muscle forces versus simplified experimental loading
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2017), 5(28),

Background Many different fixation devices are used to maintain the correction angle after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO). Each device must provide at least sufficient mechanical ... [more ▼]

Background Many different fixation devices are used to maintain the correction angle after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO). Each device must provide at least sufficient mechanical stability to avoid loss of correction and unwanted fracture of the contralateral cortex until the bone heals. In the present study, the mechanical stability of following different implants was compared: the TomoFix small stature (sm), the TomoFix standard (std), the Contour Lock, the iBalance and the second generation PEEKPower. Simplified loading, usually consisting of a vertical load applied to the tibia plateau, is used for experimental testing of fixation devices and also in numerical studies. Therefore, this study additionally compared this simplified experimental loading with a more realistic loading that includes the muscle forces. Method Two types of finite element models, according to the considered loading, were created. The first type numerically simulated the static tests of MOWHTO implants performed in a previous experimental biomechanical study, by applying a vertical compressive load perpendicularly to the plateau of the osteotomized tibia. The second type included muscle forces in finite element models of the lower limb with osteotomized tibiae and simulated the stance phase of normal gait. Section forces in the models were determined and compared. Stresses in the implants and contralateral cortex, and micromovements of the osteotomy wedge, were calculated. Results For both loading types, the stresses in the implants were lower than the threshold values defined by the material strength. The stresses in the lateral cortex were smaller than the ultimate tensile strength of the cortical bone. The implants iBalance and Contour Lock allowed the smallest micromovements of the wedge, while the PEEKPower allowed the highest. There was a correlation between the micromovements of the wedge, obtained for the simplified loading of the tibia, and the more realistic loading of the lower limb at 15% of the gait cycle (Pearson’s value r = 0.982). Conclusions An axial compressive load applied perpendicularly to the tibia plateau, with a magnitude equal to the first peak value of the knee joint contact forces, corresponds quite well to a realistic loading of the tibia during the stance phase of normal gait (at 15% of the gait cycle and a knee flexion of about 22 degrees). However, this magnitude of the knee joint contact forces overloads the tibia compared to more realistic calculations, where the muscle forces are considered. The iBalance and Contour Lock implants provide higher rigidity to the bone-implant constructs compared to the TomoFix and the PEEKPower plates. [less ▲]

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See detail3D Printing: The Next 5 years by Claude Wolf – Into the Future engineered by the Zs
Wolf, Claude UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

3D Printing: The Next 5 years by Claude Wolf – Into the Future engineered by the Zs The future of 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing [AM] will be driven by the next generation of engineers who are just ... [more ▼]

3D Printing: The Next 5 years by Claude Wolf – Into the Future engineered by the Zs The future of 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing [AM] will be driven by the next generation of engineers who are just about to qualify, the Z generation (1994-2010). Do we, educators, know this Z generation? Do we know what motivates them? The Z generation is a generation of digital natives interacting with PCs, iPads, smartphones and the internet since birth, a pragmatic and short term orientated generation. Our prejudice brands them as unprepared and unmotivated, with their 10 second attention spans, but in reality, they have already proven they are creative, determined and hardworking as well as team oriented, when they are given the opportunity. They have understood that 3D printing offers them this opportunity. [less ▲]

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See detailUpAM: UPCYCLING VIA ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING – HOW 3D PRINTING CAN ENHANCE CIRCULAR ECONOMY
Wolf, Claude UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

in REVUE TECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE (2017), 2017(2), 38

The University of Luxembourg developed the project upAM upcycling using Additive Manufacturing with the cooperation of FabLab Belval and Luxinnovation. This project was partially financed by Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

The University of Luxembourg developed the project upAM upcycling using Additive Manufacturing with the cooperation of FabLab Belval and Luxinnovation. This project was partially financed by Luxembourg National Research Fund Luxembourg (FNR). An alternative to a linear economy: extracting raw materials, producing, consuming, and discarding of a product, there is another option: Circular Economy (CE): reusing products, repairing, recycling, and upcycling. A concept of a system/process (upAM) is developed to reuse unwanted or un-functional polymers issued from existing products/ systems. Waste prints can be re-printed into new products or systems with the same / higher quality or value than products created from raw materials. The upAM project is, therefore, concentrating on upcycling according to the definition given by author” Upcycling is a process in which used materials are converted into something of a higher value and/or quality in their second life”. This definition is simple and reflects fully the meaning of the upcycling process. This idea is not new; the concept of reused materials/products giving them a new life has been present for hundreds of years as a countermeasure against the lack of raw materials. At the moment, the situation in developed countries is evolving. Society is more aware that unlimited consumption leads to unlimited production of waste. Therefore, collective consciousness of a circular economy occurs, which supports greater resources of productivity aiming to reduce waste and avoid pollution by design, and purposeful reused waste materials and unwanted products. Upcycling via additive manufacturing could be an important part of the circular economy (CE). Obviously, the CE and especially the upcycling process lead to reducing the usage of new raw materials, and it results in a reduction of energy usage, air and water pollution and even greenhouse gas emissions. The development of maker movement and democratisation of FDM technology is also strongly influencing the needs and benefits of the upcycling process. The project upAM is developed to increase this idea so that any individual can produce their products with a higher added value using recycled raw materials via the open technology of FDM 3D Printer. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bühne in der Vorlesung
Wolf, Claude UL; Bloch, Natalie UL

Article for general public (2015)

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