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See detailBridging centrality as an indicator to measure the 'bridging role' of actors in networks: An application to the European Nanotechnology co-publication network
Berge, Laurent UL; Scherngell, Thomas; Wanzenböck, Iris

in Journal of Informetrics (2017), 11(4), 1031--1042

In the recent past, we can observe growing interest in STI studies in the notion of positioning indicators, shifting emphasis to actors in the innovation process and their R&D inter-linkages with other ... [more ▼]

In the recent past, we can observe growing interest in STI studies in the notion of positioning indicators, shifting emphasis to actors in the innovation process and their R&D inter-linkages with other actors. In relation to this, we suggest a new approach for assessing the positioning of actors relying on the notion of bridging centrality (BC). Based on the concept of bridging paths, i.e. a set of two links connecting three actors across three different aggregate nodes (e.g. organisations, or regions), we argue that triangulation in networks is a key issue for knowledge recombinations and the extension of an actor’s knowledge base. As bridges are most often not empirically observable at the individual level of research teams, we propose an approximated BC measure that provides a flexible framework for dealing with the aggregation problem in positioning actors. Hereby, BC is viewed as a function of an aggregate node's (i) participation intensity in the network, (ii) its openness to other nodes (i.e. the relative outward orientation of network links), and iii) the diversification of links to other nodes. In addition, we propose a generalised version of the BC measure that accounts for different node categories. An illustrative example on the European Nanotechnology co-publication network observed at the level of organisations demonstrates the usefulness and complementary interpretation power in comparison to conventional centrality measures. [less ▲]

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See detailCentrality of regions in R&D networks: A new measurement approach using the concept of bridging paths
Berge, Laurent UL; Wanzenbock, Iris; Scherngell, Thomas

in Regional Studies (2017), 51(8), 1165--1178

This paper aims at introducing a novel measure of regional centrality in the context of R&D networks. We first demonstrate some substantial problems of SNA-based centrality measures to cope with regional ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at introducing a novel measure of regional centrality in the context of R&D networks. We first demonstrate some substantial problems of SNA-based centrality measures to cope with regional R&D networks in a meaningful way. Then, we introduce a new measurement approach of regional network centrality based on the concept of inter-regional bridging paths (indirect connections at the regional level). We show that the formal definition of our regional bridging centrality measure can be expressed in terms of three simple components: the participation intensity of a region in inter-regional R&D collaborations, the relative outward orientation in terms of all established links and the diversification of R&D collaborations among partner regions. We illustrate the measure and its behaviour with respect to other conventional centrality measures by using the example of the European co-patent network at the NUTS2 level. [less ▲]

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See detailBridging centrality: A new indicator to measure the positioning of actors in R&D networks
Scherngell, Thomas; Wanzenböck, Iris; Berge, Laurent UL

in STI conference 2016 Valencia (2016)

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See detailCentrality of regions in R&D networks: Conceptual clarifications and a new measure
Berge, Laurent UL; Wanzenböck, Iris; Scherngell, Thomas

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper aims at introducing a novel measure of regional centrality in the context of R&D networks. We first demonstrate some substantial problems of SNA-based centrality measures to cope with regional ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at introducing a novel measure of regional centrality in the context of R&D networks. We first demonstrate some substantial problems of SNA-based centrality measures to cope with regional R&D networks in a meaningful way. Then, we introduce a new measurement approach of regional network centrality based on the concept of inter-regional bridging paths (indirect connections at the regional level). We show that the formal definition of our regional bridging centrality measure can be expressed in terms of three simple components: the participation intensity of a region in inter-regional R&D collaborations, the relative outward orientation in terms of all established links and the diversification of R&D collaborations among partner regions. We illustrate the measure and its behaviour with respect to other conventional centrality measures by using the European co-patent network at the NUTS 2 level. [less ▲]

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