References of "Vlaeyen, Johan 50009026"
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See detailLearned Fear of Gastrointestinal Sensations in Healthy Adults
Ceunen, Erik UL; Zaman, Jonas; Weltens, Nathalie et al

in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2016), 14(11), 155215582

Background & Aims Gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety are important determinants of gastrointestinal symptom perception. We studied learning of fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal ... [more ▼]

Background & Aims Gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety are important determinants of gastrointestinal symptom perception. We studied learning of fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations as a putative mechanism in the development of gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety. Methods Fifty-two healthy subjects (26 women) received 2 types of esophageal balloon distention at a perceptible but nonpainful intensity (conditioned stimulus [CS], the innocuous sensation) and at a painful intensity (unconditioned stimulus [US]). Subjects were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. During the learning phase, the innocuous CS preceded the painful US in the experimental group (n = 26). In the control group (n = 26), on the contrary, the US never followed the CS directly. During a subsequent extinction phase, both groups received only CS distention—the painful US was no longer administered. Indexes of fear learning toward the innocuous CS distention included the skin conductance response, fear-potentiated startle (measured by the eye-blink electromyogram), and self-reported expectancy of the US. Results During the learning phase, only the experimental group learned to fear the innocuous gastrointestinal CS, based on the increase in US expectancy (compared with the control group, P = .04), increased skin conductance response (compared with the control group, P = .03), and potentiated startle reflex (compared with the control group, P = .001) in response to the CS. The differences between the experimental and control groups in US expectancy and skin conductance, but not fear-potentiated startle, disappeared during the extinction phase. Conclusions Fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations can be established through associative learning in healthy human beings. This may be an important mechanism in the development of fear of gastrointestinal symptoms, implicated in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the origin of interoception
Ceunen, Erik UL; Vlaeyen, Johan UL; Van Diest, Ilse

in Frontiers in psychology (2016), 7

Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion ... [more ▼]

Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion, decision making, time-perception, health, pain, and various other areas of life. While the label for the perception of the body state changes over time, the need for an overarching concept remains. Many aspects can make any particular interoceptive sensation unique and distinct from any other interoceptive sensation. This can range from the sense of agency, to the physical cause of a sensation, the ontogenetic origin, the efferent innervation, and afferent pathways of the tissue involved amongst others. In its overarching meaning, interoception primarily is a product of the central nervous system, a construct based on an integration of various sources, not per se including afferent information. This paper proposes a definition of interoception as based on subjective experience, and pleas for the use of specific vocabulary in addressing the many aspects that contribute to it. [less ▲]

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See detailStartle responding in the context of visceral pain
Ceunen, Erik UL; Zaman, Jonas; Herssens, Natacha et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2015), 98(1), 128-134

This study aimed to investigate affective modulation of eye blink startle by aversive visceral stimulation. Startle blink EMG responses were measured in 31 healthy participants receiving painful ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to investigate affective modulation of eye blink startle by aversive visceral stimulation. Startle blink EMG responses were measured in 31 healthy participants receiving painful, intermittent balloon distentions in the distal esophagus during 4 blocks (positive, negative, neutral or no pictures), and compared with startles during 3 ‘safe’ blocks without esophageal stimulations (positive, negative or neutral emotional pictures). Women showed enhanced startle during blocks with distentions (as compared with ‘safe’ blocks), both when the balloon was in inflated and deflated states, suggesting that fear and/or expectations may have played a role. Men's startle did not differ between distention and non-distention blocks. In this particular study context affective picture viewing did not further impose any effect on startle eye blink responses. The current results may contribute to a better understanding of emotional reactions to aversive interoceptive stimulation. [less ▲]

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